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Results 301 - 350 of 1568
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Vaanholt Lobke M - - 2012
The effectiveness of caloric restriction (CR) as a treatment for obesity varies considerably between individuals. Reasons for this interindividual variation in weight loss in response to CR may lie in pre-existing individual differences and/or individual differences in compensatory responses. Here we studied the responses of 127 MF1 mice to 30% ...
Nord Mark - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the US Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on the food security (consistent access to adequate food) of recipients, net of the effect of the self-selection of more food-needy households into the programme. DESIGN: The food security of current SNAP recipients and recent leavers is ...
Chand Ashmita - - 2011
The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available ...
Lipchock Sarah V - - 2011
This article reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form children's dietary preferences and habits. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during ...
D'Alessandro Angelo - - 2011
In this review article we try to lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne ...
Benshitrit Revital Cohen - - 2011
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of new and efficient oral food delivery systems as tools to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Such vehicles are sought to protect bioactive ingredients added to food while controlling and targeting their release as they ...
Caldas Eloisa Dutra - - 2011
In Brazil, in the last 20 years, dietary risk assessments have been conducted on pesticides, mycotoxins, food additives, heavy metals (mainly mercury), environmental contaminants (mainly DDT) and acrylamide, a compound formed during food processing. The objectives of this paper were to review these studies, discuss their limitations and uncertainties and ...
Kabai E - - 2011
In emergency situation or in case of defence against nuclear hazards, the rapid analysis of radioisotopes in food products is essential. Radiostrontium is one of the most interesting isotopes in case of emergency. The determination of radiostrontium in milk and dairy products plays an important role especially for infants. The ...
Yoo Dongwoo - - 2011
Factors related to geography such as climate, natural resources or waterways often affect human activities. However, traditional approaches such as ordinary least squares (OLS) have limitations in investigating such patterns. Unlike OLS regression, geographically weighted regression (GWR) allows the coefficients of explanatory variables to differ by locality by giving relatively ...
Blue Bird Jernigan Valarie - - 2011
The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided ...
Loeber S S Department of Addictive Behaviour and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. - - 2012
Starting from a model of impaired response inhibition and salience attribution for addictive behaviour we investigated whether obese participants show a greater impairment of inhibitory control in response to food-associated cues compared with neutral stimuli and whether this is seen in normal-weight control subjects. In addition, we questioned whether an ...
Emerson Sara E - - 2011
A resource's susceptibility to predation may be influenced by its own palatability and the palatability of its neighbors. We tested for effects of plant chemical defenses on seed survival by manipulating the frequency of palatable and less palatable sunflower seeds in food patches subject to harvest by fox squirrels (Sciurus ...
Osberg Timothy M - - 2012
To test the possible mediating role of irrational food beliefs (IFBs) in the connection between stress and bulimic symptoms and BMI in a subclinical population. Participants were college students (N=356) administered measures of daily hassles, IFBs, and bulimic symptoms. Simple mediation analyses using bootstrapping methods were performed to examine the ...
van Kleef Ellen - - 2012
To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L capacity) or a ...
Lo Yuan-Ting - - 2011
Food quality is a measure of food security in vulnerable groups. The elderly are often nutritionally vulnerable, but how much of this is reflected in food quality and determined by financial status is unclear. We determined whether expenditure on dietary quality challenges food security in the aged. We used the ...
Huvaere Kevin - - 2011
This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive ...
Mendez Michelle A - - 2011
There is growing evidence that despite the absence of marked deficiencies, diet during pregnancy has important implications for maternal and child health in industrialized countries. At present, relatively little is known about prevailing patterns of intake across groups with diverse sociodemographic and lifestyle patterns in these settings. The aims of ...
Benzie Iris F F - - 2011
A commonly held belief is that higher intake of antioxidants will promote better health through enhanced antioxidant status and lowered oxidative stress. However, the benefits of antioxidant-rich foods have not been reproduced in supplementation trials with pure antioxidants. This has driven research and commercial interest in foods, including traditional foods ...
Dunford Elizabeth - - 2011
Background: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with overnutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess energy intake, saturated fat, sugar, and salt derived from processed foods are a major cause of disease burden. Our objective is to compare the nutritional ...
Chapman Janine - - 2011
Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake typically apply manipulations that do not distinguish fruits and vegetables as separate food groups. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of separate implementation intention instructions with a combined implementation intention instruction on separate indices of fruit and vegetable intake, and investigate the ...
Labadarios Demetre - - 2011
To assess the status of food security--i.e., access to food, food availability and food utilization--in South Africa. A systematic search of national surveys that used the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) index to measure food security in South Africa over a period of 10 years (1999-2008) was conducted. Anthropometric ...
Louchart Antoine A Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5242, ENS de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. - - 2011
All living birds are toothless, constituting by far the most diverse toothless vertebrate clade, and are striking examples of evolutionary success following tooth loss. In recent years, an unprecedented number of Mesozoic birds have been described, illustrating the evolution of dentition reductions. Simultaneously, major advances in experimental embryology have yielded ...
Toft Ulla - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To validate the identification and location of fast-food restaurants according to a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants. METHODS: Fast-food restaurants in the Capital Region of Denmark were identified using a government list of inspected food stores and restaurants (the Smiley register, spring 2010). Ground-truthing was used ...
Gomes Daniela Fichtner - - 2011
Foraging in large-scale (navigation between patches), small-scale (choice of within-patch feeding sites), and micro-scale (close inspection of food items) space presents variable cognitive challenges. The reliability and usefulness of spatial memory and perceptual cues during food search in a forest environment vary among these spatial scales. This research applied an ...
Hanner Robert - - 2011
Background and aims. The Fish Barcode of Life campaign involves a broad international collaboration among scientists working to advance the identification of fishes using DNA barcodes. With over 25% of the world's known ichthyofauna currently profiled, forensic identification of seafood products is now feasible and is becoming routine. Materials and ...
Izquierdo-Kulich Elena - - 2011
The regular nutritional intake of an expectant mother clearly affects the weight development of the fetus. Assuming the growth of the fetus follows a deterministic growth law, like a logistic equation, albeit dependent on the nutritional intake, the ideal solution is usually determined by the birth-weight being pre-assigned, for example, ...
Yang Baowei - - 2011
Data regarding Salmonella on raw poultry are very limited in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on raw poultry at the retail level in six provinces and two national cities in China. Whole chicken carcasses (n = 1,152) were collected from three types ...
van Staveren Wija A - - 2011
Food consumption surveys in the elderly come to the general conclusions that most elderly people outside institutions eat reasonably well. There is, however, tremendous variation in health status between older adults. The aging process is complex and influenced not only by factors intrinsic to the individual but also by extrinsic ...
Pelto Gretel H - - 2011
This paper presents a picture of the general patterns of complementary feeding behaviours in urban Ghana. A focused ethnographic study protocol for assessing complementary feeding developed for the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition was used to collect data from caregivers of children 6-24 months of age. We examined the multiple factors ...
Soekarjo Damayanti - - 2011
It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy ...
Cattaneo Adriano - - 2011
Since 2002, the World Health Organization and many governments and professional associations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by complementary feeding (giving solid foods alongside breast milk) as optimal infant feeding practice. Several articles have been published challenging this recommendation. Arguably, the most influential has been the 2008 ...
Taber Daniel R - - 2011
States and school districts nationwide have enacted policies targeting youth obesity, but many policies lack specific requirements or enforcement language. Geographic disparities in youth obesity could worsen if policies are weaker in areas with higher obesity prevalence. To determine if state or district policy strength varies with youth obesity prevalence ...
Abusabha Rayane - - 2011
High cost and limited access to food have been associated with lower intake of fruits and vegetables in limited-income individuals. The Veggie Mobile is a van that carries fresh produce and travels in low-income neighborhoods, selling fruits and vegetables at a fraction of regular supermarket prices. The purpose of this ...
Buchanan Robert L - - 2011
The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large-scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade, this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result ...
Baillie Jonathan - - 2011
A recent Soil Association survey saw nearly a third of the 1,000 patients questioned about the food they had received during a recent hospital stay report that it was so bad that, at times, they could not recognise what was on their plate (HEJ - September 2011). The resulting report, ...
Dulloo A G - - 2011
The concept of managing obesity through the stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. This paper first reviews the landmark discoveries that have fuelled the search for thermogenic anti-obesity products that range from single-target drugs to multi-target functional foods. ...
Franklin Scott - - 2011
In two experiments, rats received preexposure to one type of food followed by autoshaping in which presentation of one lever was associated with the preexposed food, and presentation of another lever with a novel type of food pellet. In both it was found that acquisition of the leverpress response occurred ...
Ludy Mary-Jon - - 2011
Some individuals savor spicy foods, while others avoid them. Reasons underlying this range of hedonic responses are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the basis for individual differences in preference for spicy foods. Regular spicy food users (n=13) and non-users (n=12) were characterized for selected sensory, physiological, ...
Sun Jing - - 2011
In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except ...
Blanco Guillermo - - 2011
Understanding the conditions that force the implementation of management actions and their efficiency is crucial for conservation of endangered species. Wildlife managers are widely and increasingly using food supplementation for such species because the potentially immediate benefits may translate into rapid conservation improvements. Supplementary feeding can also pose risks eventually ...
Cho Kiwoong - - 2011
Street vended food (SVF) includes food and beverages prepared and sold outdoors or in public areas by street merchants for consumption on the scene or later without further preparation. Due to its low price and convenience, SVF has been popular in Korea for a long time, particularly with high school ...
Bryant Maria - - 2011
The availability of foods in the home is likely to be related to consumption. We know of no studies that have reported this association in African-American participants, and few studies have examined home food availability using objective methods. This study aimed to assess the association between objective measures of fruits ...
Lucan Sean C - - 2011
Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and ...
Singh Ranjay K - - 2011
This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, 'tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively ...
Block Jason P - - 2011
Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in ...
Dowler Elizabeth A - - 2011
Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue ...
Schickenberg B - - 2011
Background:  The present study aimed to assess whether taste information about unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products leads to more positive taste expectations and stimulates choice for these products. The impact of level of food neophobia on such effects was studied. Methods:  The present study had a two (taste ...
Meule Adrian - - 2011
Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have suggested the Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) to measure food cravings as a multidimensional construct at trait- and state-level. In the current study, we validated a ...
Holsten Joanna E - - 2011
This qualitative descriptive study explored children's food choices in the home with particular attention to environmental influences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11- to 14-year-old children (n=47) from one middle school. A data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Children's food choices in the home emerged ...
Rangel Cristian - - 2011
The modern food system has radically modified the social-anthropological framework that informs food choices. To explore factors that influence food choices within this modified framework, eight focus groups consisting of women 15-45years old were conducted in Nova Scotia (Canada). Using a grounded theory approach, two main themes emerged centered around ...
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