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Results 201 - 250 of 1760
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Canadell Josep G JG Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Oceans and Atmospheric Flagship, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, - - 2014
Elevated concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), have affected the global climate. Land-based biological carbon mitigation strategies are considered an important and viable pathway towards climate stabilization. However, to satisfy the growing demands for food, wood products, energy, climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation-all of which compete ...
Deng Li L Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, - - 2014
The trophic interactions between viruses, bacteria and protists play a crucial role in structuring microbial communities and regulating nutrient and organic matter flux. Here, we show that the impact on viral density by heterotrophic flagellates is related to their feeding behaviour (feeding on sedimented particles - Thaumatomonas coloniensis, filter feeding ...
Rollins Brandi Y BY Center for Childhood Obesity Research, The Pennsylvania State University, 129 Noll Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, United States; Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, 211 Henderson South, University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address: - - 2013
Parents' use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children's intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch's (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children's (3-5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, ...
Hovland Jana A JA Assistant Professor of Dietetics, Marshall University, One John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV 25755, - - 2013
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at ...
Maunula Leena - - 2013
In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses. A total of 785 samples were collected ...
Stals Ambroos - - 2013
Noroviruses (NoV) have been recognized worldwide as a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis over the last decade. A broad range of foods- shellfish, fresh produce, and ready-to-eat/catered foods-has been implicated in NoV foodborne outbreaks. The recognition of NoV as an important food pathogen has been aided by the development of ...
Demos Kathryn E KE Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, The Miriam Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, - - 2013
Individuals who have successfully lost and maintained weight have slower reaction times on food-related Stroop tasks, indicating greater cognitive interference to food stimuli compared to obese and normal weight individuals. It remains unclear whether this interference is a preexisting characteristic of weight loss maintainers or if food-interference changes in obese ...
Verhaelen Katharina - - 2013
Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which ...
Andrade Sara - - 2013
Ghrelin is a gut hormone that stimulates food intake. In physiological conditions, ghrelin plasma levels rise with fasting and decrease after meals. Obese individuals have low fasting ghrelin levels that rise after food restriction, which is pointed out as a reason for the difficulty in maintaining weight loss. Some bariatric ...
Kilanowski Jill F JF Department of Nursing, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio (JFK) and Prevention Research Center for Healthy Neighborhoods, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (EST, - - 2013
This study sought to improve data collection in children's food frequency surveys for non-English speaking immigrant/migrant farmworker mothers using audio-enhanced tablet computers (ATCs). We hypothesized that by using technological adaptations, we would be able to improve data capture and therefore reduce lost surveys. This Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a paper-based ...
Silk Joan B JB School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, U.S.A. ; Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2013
There is currently great interest in the phylogenetic origins of altruistic behaviour within the primate order. Considerable attention has been focused on chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, because they are our closest living relatives and participate in a wide range of collective activities, including hunting and food sharing. Food sharing is of ...
Wang Emily A - - 2013
Annually 700,000 individuals are released from U.S. prison, many at risk for food insecurity and HIV. The association between food insecurity and HIV risk behaviors has been established but not in this population. To investigate this association, we recruited 110 recently released prisoners to participate in a survey. Ninety-one percent ...
Li Dan - - 2013
Food-borne viruses such as human Noroviruses (NoVs), hepatitis A virus (HAV), Rotaviruses (RoVs) are a public health concern worldwide. Biochemical substances, which occur naturally in plants, animals or microorganisms, might possess considerable antimicrobial properties. In this study, the reported effects of biochemical substances on food-borne viruses are reviewed. The biochemical ...
Murphy Christine M CM Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA. - - 2013
Abuse of psychogenic substances sold as "bath salts" and "plant food" has escalated in recent years in the United States (USA). Previous reports suggest regional differences in the primary active β-keto phenylalkylamines found in these products and the corresponding signs and symptoms reported after exposure. Currently, there are only limited ...
Stals Ambroos - - 2013
Food borne viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus are increasingly recognized worldwide as the most important cause of food borne gastro-intestinal illness. Food borne outbreaks, often involving multiples cases, have been reported and associated with food products of both animal and non-animal origin. Most foods are contaminated with ...
Olsen Mette Frahm - - 2013
Ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSF) are used increasingly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs, but little is known about how it is used and viewed by patients. We used qualitative methods to explore the use, perceptions, and acceptability of RUSF among adult HIV patients in Jimma, Ethiopia. The study obtained data ...
Capper Judith L JL Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164; email: - - 2013
The global livestock industry is charged with providing sufficient animal source foods to supply the global population while improving the environmental sustainability of animal production. Improved productivity within dairy and beef systems has demonstrably reduced resource use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of food over the past century through ...
Sekizawa Haruhito - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Berries are known to have many kinds of biological activities. We focused on their antiviral effect, which has not yet been well evaluated. RESULTS: We compared the anti-influenza viral effects of berries belonging to the genus Vaccinium - 35 species of blueberry (Vaccinium cyanococcus), the Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii), bilberry ...
Skala Katherine K School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2012
The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of ...
Shinohara Michiyo - - 2012
In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral ...
Weiser Sheri D SD Department of Medicine, Division of HIV/AIDS, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. - - 2012
To investigate whether time on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with improvements in food security and nutritional status, and the extent to which associations are mediated by improved physical health status. The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults newly initiating ART in Mbarara, Uganda. ...
Gibson E Leigh - - 2012
Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, ...
McWilliams Laurie M LM Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC - - 2012
Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and ...
Aotani Daisuke - - 2012
Lipodystrophy is a disease characterized by a paucity of adipose tissue and low circulating concentrations of adipocyte-derived leptin. Leptin-replacement therapy improves eating and metabolic disorders in patients with lipodystrophy. The aim of the study was to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of eating disorders in lipodystrophic patients and the action mechanism ...
Gustafson Alison - - 2012
Description of the consumer food environment has proliferated in publication. However, there has been a lack of systematic reviews focusing on how the consumer food environment is associated with the following: (1) neighborhood characteristics; (2) food prices; (3) dietary patterns; and (4) weight status. We conducted a systematic review of ...
Carney Patricia A - - 2012
This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled ...
Koegel Robert L - - 2012
Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted repertoire ...
Nakano Taiji - - 2012
Background: In developed countries, increasing food allergy prevalence and concern regarding food allergies have been reported. Although the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of allergic diseases has increased in some Western countries, the actual proportion and patterns of CAM use for pediatric food allergies in ...
Henson Michele - - 2012
Food allergy is increasing in prevalence in westernized countries, leading to significant morbidity including nutritional deficiencies and growth delay as well as psychosocial burdens and the potential for fatal anaphylaxis. There is currently no effective form of therapy, and the mainstay of treatment remains strict avoidance. However, there are a ...
Gärden Bodil - - 2012
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Food incentives improve adherence to tuberculosis drug treatment among homeless patients in Russia The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of food incentives on adherence to tuberculosis (TB) drug treatment among homeless patients with TB. Food packages were thus given as a ...
Lieberman Jay A - - 2012
This review summarizes recent reports on nonallergen-specific therapies for food allergy. These therapies are especially appealing for food allergy because unlike allergen-specific immunotherapy, they would allow the treatment of multiple food allergies in a single patient with one therapy. Chinese herbal therapy, anti-IgE, probiotics, engineered lactic acid bacteria, and helminth ...
Meguro Shu - - 2012
There has been concern as to whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors can be used safely in patients with relatively good glycemic control. This study, approved by the institutional review board of Hanzoumon Diabetes City Atlas Clinic, examined whether DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin could safely achieve good glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia ...
Wang Julie - - 2012
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. ...
Beyer Kirsten - - 2012
Food allergies are common, and frequently, the only treatment option is strict avoidance. Unfortunately, many patients accidentally ingest allergenic foods, which can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Several immunotherapies are being developed for food allergies; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified ...
Varghese K Shiby KS Freeze drying and Animal Products Technology Section, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddharthanagar, Mysore, 570011 - - 2014
Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of ...
Weant Kyle A - - 2012
Purpose The safety and efficacy of i.v. glucagon for the relief of acute esophageal food impaction were evaluated. Summary The medical literature was reviewed to identify published trials and case series on the use of i.v. glucagon for the relief of acute esophageal food impaction. Individual case reports and limited ...
Vayalil Praveen K - - 2012
Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around ...
Li W - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for food allergy remain limited. Development of novel approaches for the prevention and/or treatment of severe peanut allergy and other food allergies is urgently needed. The objective of this study was to test whether skin application of food allergen can be used as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic ...
Ray Paresh Chandra - - 2012
Despite the modern treatment processes, contamination of food, water and medical equipment by pathogenic bacteria is very common in this world. Since the last two decades, one of the most important and complex problems our society has been facing is that several human pathogens became resistant to most of the ...
Whitten Kylie E - - 2012
  Differing protocols have been utilized in published studies evaluating exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in the management of active pediatric Crohn's disease. This study aimed to ascertain the protocols currently utilized in different pediatric centers around the world and to highlight their similarities and differences.   A questionnaire was circulated ...
Alvarenga Marle Dos Santos Mdos - - 2012
Eating attitudes can be defined as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behavior and relationship with food. They can influence people's food choices and health status. The scope of this paper is to compare eating attitudes of university students from different regions of Brazil and investigate possible associations and correlations with nutritional status, ...
Snelling Anastasia M - - 2012
The study investigated how nutrient standards affected the number of kilocalories and grams of fat and saturated fat in competitive foods offered and sold in 3 high schools. The study is a quasi-experimental design with 3 schools serving as the units of assignment and analysis. The effect of the nutrient ...
Franklin Brandi - - 2012
One in seven American households experience food insecurity at times during the year, lack of money and other resources hinder their ability to maintain consistent access to nutritious foods. Low-income, ethnic minority, and female-headed households exhibit the greatest risk for food insecurity, which often results in higher prevalence of diet-related ...
Kearns David N - - 2012
Previous studies have suggested that the effects of extinction are response-specific. The present study investigated whether an extinction treatment that eliminated goal tracking elicited by an appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) would also eliminate the conditioned reinforcing effects of that CS. Rats were first trained on a goal-tracking procedure in which ...
An Ruopeng R RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA. - - 2012
Various hypotheses link neighborhood food environments and diet. Greater exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores is thought to encourage overconsumption; supermarkets and large grocery stores are claimed to encourage healthier diets. For youth, empirical evidence for any particular hypothesis remains limited. This study examines the relationship between school and ...
Maillot Matthieu M Nutritional Sciences Program, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2012
Compliance with dietary guidelines means incorporating multiple foods and nutrients into everyday diets, to be consumed in smaller or larger amounts. Feasibility studies can help determine whether one nutrient guideline comes into conflict with another. For one half of the U.S. population, the 2010 dietary guidelines for sodium were set ...
- - 2012
The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and ...
Swanson Mark M Department of Health Behavior, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. - - 2013
Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68) and ...
Dazeley Paul - - 2012
Commercial interventions seeking to promote fruit and vegetable consumption by encouraging preschool- and school-aged children to engage with foods with 'all their senses' are increasing in number. We review the efficacy of such sensory interaction programmes and consider the components of these that are likely to encourage food acceptance. Repeated ...
Smith Tanya M - - 2012
Dental enamel thickness has received considerable attention in ecological models of the adaptive significance of primate morphology. Several authors have theorized that the degree of enamel thickness may reflect selective pressures related to the consumption of fallback foods (dietary items that may require complex processing and/or have low nutritional value) ...
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