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Grace Randolph C RC Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. - - 2012
A magnitude effect in human intertemporal choice is well established-larger rewards or outcomes are discounted over time at a lower rate than are smaller rewards. However, many recent studies have failed to find a corresponding effect in nonhuman animals. Here we report a magnitude effect in temporal discounting for pigeons' ...
Mantis N J NJ Division of Infectious Diseases, Wadsworth Center, NYDOH, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA. - - 2012
Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of biological toxins, pathogenic viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other infectious agents into the public sphere with the objective of causing panic, illness, and/or death on a local, regional, or possibly national scale. The list of potential biological agents compiled by the Centers for Disease Control ...
Bourdichon François - - 2012
Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore ...
Panchaud Alexandre - - 2011
We describe nutritional peptidomics for discovery and validation of bioactive food peptide and their health effects. Understanding nature and bioactivity of nutritional peptides means comprehending an important level of environmental regulation of the human genome, because diet is the environmental factor with the most profound life-long influence on health. We ...
Cockburn Andrew - - 2011
A systematic, tiered approach to assess the safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in foods is presented. The ENM is first compared to its non-nano form counterpart to determine if ENM-specific assessment is required. Of highest concern from a toxicological perspective are ENMs which have potential for systemic translocation, are insoluble ...
Rutz Christian - - 2011
New Caledonian (NC) crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. In the wild, they use at least three distinct tool types to extract invertebrate prey from deadwood and vegetation, with some of their tools requiring complex manufacture, modification and/or deployment. Experiments with captive-bred, hand-raised NC crows have ...
Greif Meredith J - - 2011
Identifying the factors that lead to sexual risk behavior is crucial in addressing the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Scholars have primarily relied on traditional measures of SES (income, wealth, and education) to predict risk, overlooking measures of deprivation in important social arenas such as housing, medical care, and food ...
Tangney Christy C - - 2011
A growing body of evidence is supportive of the influence of nutritional factors on cognitive health. There is evidence relating nutrition to cognitive measures to assess cognitive change over time, but such functional changes may not reflect the neuroanatomic or pathologic alterations that have occurred. Brain imaging may complement clinical ...
Pays Olivier - - 2011
Vigilance allows individuals to escape from predators, but it also reduces time for other activities which determine fitness, in particular resource acquisition. The principles determining how prey trade time between the detection of predators and food acquisition are not fully understood, particularly in herbivores because of many potential confounding factors ...
Chen Chen - - 2011
Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide in agricultural pest control. To understand the residue behavior of chlorpyrifos and to evaluate the dietary risk of chlorpyrifos residue in food in China, a number of residue studies were conducted on rice and cabbage. The supervised trials median residues (STMRs) for rice ...
Negri Rossella - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: The extent to which variation in taste perception influences food preferences is to date controversial. Bitterness in food triggers an innate aversion responsible for dietary restriction in children. We investigated the association between genetic variations in bitter receptor TAS2R38 and food choices in healthy children in the Mediterranean area, ...
- - 2011
In 2002, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted its first national food safety epidemiology capacity assessment, which provided the basis for development of minimum performance standards to guide state and local foodborne disease control programs. During April 2010, CSTE sent states a follow-up, web-based questionnaire to gather ...
Naja F - - 2011
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic abnormalities among Lebanese adults, using data from a national nutrition survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis involving adults aged ≥18 years (n = 323) with no prior history of chronic diseases ...
Cury Philippe M - - 2011
Determining the form of key predator-prey relationships is critical for understanding marine ecosystem dynamics. Using a comprehensive global database, we quantified the effect of fluctuations in food abundance on seabird breeding success. We identified a threshold in prey (fish and krill, termed "forage fish") abundance below which seabirds experience consistently ...
Ramón José Manuel - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: The different bariatric surgical techniques have an influence on food tolerance and the presence of vomiting. There have been few studies on the impact of these techniques on the quality of food intake. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A prospective and comparative study was performed on a consecutive patient cohort operated ...
Gölz G - - 2011
Aims:  This study investigates the distribution of LuxS within Campylobacter (C.) species and AI-2 activity of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 in food matrices. Methods and results:  LuxS (S-ribosylhomocysteinase) sequences of different Campylobacter spp. were compared and Autoinducer (AI) -2 activity measured with an AI-2 reporter assay. Highest LuxS homologies were ...
Orr P L - - 2011
Previous studies conducted in the Elk River watershed showed that selenium concentrations are higher in aquatic biota in lentic compared to lotic habitats of the system having similar water selenium concentrations. Studies have also shown that water selenium concentrations have increased over time (∼10% per year) and recent annual average ...
Bonaccio Marialaura - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between mass media information, dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in an Italian adult population. METHODS: Subsample of 1,132 subjects (mean age 53 ± 10, 50% men) enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, a population-based cohort study. A specific questionnaire on exposure to information from various ...
Sharf Miri - - 2012
Nutritional labelling of packaged foods, mandated by law, includes details of the food content and composition - information that can affect individual and public lifestyle decisions and health status. We studied the comprehension of food labels among 120 young adults (mean age 24.1 years) attending an international travel immunization clinic. ...
Foerster Steffen - - 2011
  Hunted wild animals (i.e., bushmeat) are a main source of protein for many rural populations in the tropics, and the unsustainable harvest of these animals puts both human food security and ecosystem functioning at risk. To understand the correlates of bushmeat consumption, we surveyed 1219 households in 121 rural ...
Vander Wekken Suzanne - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To explore industry perspectives on the transition to healthier food and beverage sales in publicly funded recreation facilities and specifically (a) the awareness of the BC provincial Guidelines and implementation supports; (b) challenges encountered in the transition to healthier products; and (c) thoughts on future trends and opportunities in ...
Doucette Lisa I - - 2011
Food availability, ambient temperatures (T (a)), and prevailing weather conditions have long been presumed to influence torpor use. To a large extent, this is based on measurements in the laboratory of animals placed on restricted diets and kept at low T (a). Information on the determinants of torpor employment in ...
Garzon Dawn Lee - - 2011
ABSTRACT: The incidence of food allergies is steadily increasing. Due to potentially life-threatening complications, it is important that primary care providers recognize and appropriately manage these disorders. This article includes a discussion of the current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, screening, and management of food allergies.
Quinn J L - - 2012
Theory suggests that individual personality is tightly linked to individual life histories and to environmental variation. The reactive-proactive axis, for example, is thought to reflect whether individuals prioritize productivity or survival, mutually exclusive options that can be caused by conflicts between foraging and anti-predation behaviour. Evidence for this trade-off hypothesis, ...
Wojcicki Janet M JM Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of California, San Francisco, California 94116, USA. - - 2013
Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of ...
Overs Shannon Elise - - 2011
BACKGROUND: To investigate and compare food tolerance and gastrointestinal quality of life following three bariatric procedures approximately 2 to 4 years post-surgery: adjustable gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). A secondary aim was to test for a relationship between food tolerance and gastrointestinal quality of life. ...
Karkos Petros D - - 2012
Objectives. This paper focuses on current diagnostic and treatment options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE). Study Design. literature review. Results. EE can be suspected on history and endoscopy although definitive diagnosis is strictly based on histopathology. It is a relatively new entity and is often misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). Eosinophilic ...
Cizza G - - 2012
Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of "junk" food, dubbed "The Big Two", are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. ...
Ohri-Vachaspati Punam - - 2012
Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) is an initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to prevent obesity among high-risk children by changing local policies, systems, and environments. In 2009, 105 community partnerships applied for funding from HKHC. Later that year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released recommended ...
Nanama Siméon - - 2011
Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that ...
Zarnowiecki Dorota - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Young children's knowledge about healthy food may influence the formation of their eating behaviours, and parents have a major influence on the development of children's knowledge in the early years. DESIGN: We investigated the extent to which parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes around food predicted young children's knowledge of ...
Bastian Amber - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To examine realist policy options for the South Australian government to improve food security. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with twenty-four key South Australian food security stakeholders. SETTING: Food security is a global issue that affects both developing and developed countries. Governments are well placed to improve food security but the ...
Pérez-Rodríguez Fernando - - 2011
The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is proposed as a means of understanding microbial risk in foods from a Public Health perspective. One variant of the CLT states that as the number of random variables, each with a finite mean and variance, increases (→∞), the distribution of the sum (or mean) ...
Uggioni Paula Lazzarin - - 2011
Validated and reliable instruments for measuring consumer attitudes regarding food quality certifications are lacking, but the measurement of consumer attitude could be an important tool for understanding consumer behavior. Thus the objective of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring consumer attitudes regarding private food safety certifications for ...
Molares Soledad - - 2012
Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately ...
Ravid N L - - 2012
As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL ...
Brunner Thomas A - - 2011
Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two ...
Burden Sandy - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the complex survey design used in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (ANCNPAS07) on prevalence estimates for intakes of groups of foods in the population of children. DESIGN: The impacts on prevalence estimates were determined by calculating design effects for ...
Regassa Nigatu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the ...
Pochettino María Lelia - - 2012
This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive ...
Ferguson Lynnette R - - 2011
Nutritional genomics reflects gene/nutrient interactions, utilising high-throughput genomic tools in nutrition research. The field also considers the contribution of individual genotypes to wellness and the risk of chronic disease (nutrigenetics), and how such genetic predisposition may be modified by appropriate diets. For example, high consumption of brassicaceous vegetables, including broccoli, ...
Timko C Alix - - 2011
The current study was designed to test potential caloric and macronutrient counter-regulation or compensation amongst 76 participants who participated in a milkshake preload experiment. Participants completed food diaries for 2days before and 2days after participating in the pre-load experiment. It was hypothesized that dieters and restrained eaters might respond to ...
Ziauddeen H H Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Human eating behaviour is motivated and shaped by a complex interaction of internal drives such as hunger, external influences such as environmental cues and the sensory properties of food itself. Thus, as is demonstrated by the example of sensory-specific satiety (SSS), hunger may be reduced but particular foods (for example, ...
Pickens Charles L - - 2012
Relapse to old unhealthy eating habits while dieting is often provoked by stress or acute exposure to palatable foods. We adapted a rat reinstatement model, which is used to study drug relapse, to study mechanisms of relapse to palatable food seeking induced by food-pellet priming (non-contingent exposure to a small ...
Aspen Vandana A - - 2012
We examined whether children's changes in salivary habituation to food vary based on weight status and/or allocating attention to a task. Children (31 non-overweight and 26 obese, ages 9-12 year) were presented with nine trials of a food stimulus and either listened to an audiobook (attention-demanding) or white noise (no-attention ...
Filmer Deon - - 2011
The use of asset indices in welfare analysis and poverty targeting is increasing, especially in cases in which data on expenditures are unavailable or hard to collect. We compare alternative approaches to welfare measurement. Our analysis shows that inferences about inequalities in education, health care use, fertility, and child mortality, ...
McVeigh Paul - - 2011
Fasciola hepatica is a food-borne parasite of animals and humans. It secretes a large family of cysteine peptidases that are important virulence factors. Here, we discuss how advances in molecular technologies have helped to probe the function of liver fluke cathepsins, and consider how evolving systems/molecular biology approaches can continue ...
Tijhuis M J - - 2011
An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This ...
Draper Alizon K - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels are a potentially valuable tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. Front-of-pack labels are a relatively new format and are now widely used across many European countries, but it is unclear which of the many formats in use are best understood by consumers. It is ...
Carrillo E - - 2012
The present study analyzed the nutritional knowledge of Spanish consumers and its relationship with the correct use of food labels. Consumers were asked about their nutritional knowledge and some functional foods and about their understanding of food labeling and their use of it to select healthy food. A 2-part questionnaire ...
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