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Results 451 - 500 of 1700
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Gomes Daniela Fichtner - - 2011
Foraging in large-scale (navigation between patches), small-scale (choice of within-patch feeding sites), and micro-scale (close inspection of food items) space presents variable cognitive challenges. The reliability and usefulness of spatial memory and perceptual cues during food search in a forest environment vary among these spatial scales. This research applied an ...
Hanner Robert - - 2011
Background and aims. The Fish Barcode of Life campaign involves a broad international collaboration among scientists working to advance the identification of fishes using DNA barcodes. With over 25% of the world's known ichthyofauna currently profiled, forensic identification of seafood products is now feasible and is becoming routine. Materials and ...
Izquierdo-Kulich Elena - - 2011
The regular nutritional intake of an expectant mother clearly affects the weight development of the fetus. Assuming the growth of the fetus follows a deterministic growth law, like a logistic equation, albeit dependent on the nutritional intake, the ideal solution is usually determined by the birth-weight being pre-assigned, for example, ...
Yang Baowei - - 2011
Data regarding Salmonella on raw poultry are very limited in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on raw poultry at the retail level in six provinces and two national cities in China. Whole chicken carcasses (n = 1,152) were collected from three types ...
van Staveren Wija A - - 2011
Food consumption surveys in the elderly come to the general conclusions that most elderly people outside institutions eat reasonably well. There is, however, tremendous variation in health status between older adults. The aging process is complex and influenced not only by factors intrinsic to the individual but also by extrinsic ...
Pelto Gretel H - - 2011
This paper presents a picture of the general patterns of complementary feeding behaviours in urban Ghana. A focused ethnographic study protocol for assessing complementary feeding developed for the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition was used to collect data from caregivers of children 6-24 months of age. We examined the multiple factors ...
Soekarjo Damayanti - - 2011
It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy ...
Cattaneo Adriano - - 2011
Since 2002, the World Health Organization and many governments and professional associations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by complementary feeding (giving solid foods alongside breast milk) as optimal infant feeding practice. Several articles have been published challenging this recommendation. Arguably, the most influential has been the 2008 ...
Taber Daniel R - - 2011
States and school districts nationwide have enacted policies targeting youth obesity, but many policies lack specific requirements or enforcement language. Geographic disparities in youth obesity could worsen if policies are weaker in areas with higher obesity prevalence. To determine if state or district policy strength varies with youth obesity prevalence ...
Abusabha Rayane - - 2011
High cost and limited access to food have been associated with lower intake of fruits and vegetables in limited-income individuals. The Veggie Mobile is a van that carries fresh produce and travels in low-income neighborhoods, selling fruits and vegetables at a fraction of regular supermarket prices. The purpose of this ...
Buchanan Robert L - - 2011
The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large-scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade, this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result ...
Baillie Jonathan - - 2011
A recent Soil Association survey saw nearly a third of the 1,000 patients questioned about the food they had received during a recent hospital stay report that it was so bad that, at times, they could not recognise what was on their plate (HEJ - September 2011). The resulting report, ...
Dulloo A G - - 2011
The concept of managing obesity through the stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. This paper first reviews the landmark discoveries that have fuelled the search for thermogenic anti-obesity products that range from single-target drugs to multi-target functional foods. ...
Franklin Scott - - 2011
In two experiments, rats received preexposure to one type of food followed by autoshaping in which presentation of one lever was associated with the preexposed food, and presentation of another lever with a novel type of food pellet. In both it was found that acquisition of the leverpress response occurred ...
Ludy Mary-Jon - - 2011
Some individuals savor spicy foods, while others avoid them. Reasons underlying this range of hedonic responses are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the basis for individual differences in preference for spicy foods. Regular spicy food users (n=13) and non-users (n=12) were characterized for selected sensory, physiological, ...
Sun Jing - - 2011
In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except ...
Blanco Guillermo - - 2011
Understanding the conditions that force the implementation of management actions and their efficiency is crucial for conservation of endangered species. Wildlife managers are widely and increasingly using food supplementation for such species because the potentially immediate benefits may translate into rapid conservation improvements. Supplementary feeding can also pose risks eventually ...
Cho Kiwoong - - 2011
Street vended food (SVF) includes food and beverages prepared and sold outdoors or in public areas by street merchants for consumption on the scene or later without further preparation. Due to its low price and convenience, SVF has been popular in Korea for a long time, particularly with high school ...
Lucan Sean C - - 2011
Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and ...
Bryant Maria M Clinical Trials ResearchUnit, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. - - 2011
The availability of foods in the home is likely to be related to consumption. We know of no studies that have reported this association in African-American participants, and few studies have examined home food availability using objective methods. This study aimed to assess the association between objective measures of fruits ...
Singh Ranjay K - - 2011
This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, 'tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively ...
Block Jason P - - 2011
Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in ...
Dowler Elizabeth A - - 2011
Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue ...
Schickenberg B - - 2011
Background:  The present study aimed to assess whether taste information about unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products leads to more positive taste expectations and stimulates choice for these products. The impact of level of food neophobia on such effects was studied. Methods:  The present study had a two (taste ...
Meule Adrian - - 2011
Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have suggested the Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) to measure food cravings as a multidimensional construct at trait- and state-level. In the current study, we validated a ...
Holsten Joanna E - - 2011
This qualitative descriptive study explored children's food choices in the home with particular attention to environmental influences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11- to 14-year-old children (n=47) from one middle school. A data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Children's food choices in the home emerged ...
Rangel Cristian - - 2011
The modern food system has radically modified the social-anthropological framework that informs food choices. To explore factors that influence food choices within this modified framework, eight focus groups consisting of women 15-45years old were conducted in Nova Scotia (Canada). Using a grounded theory approach, two main themes emerged centered around ...
Shill J - - 2011
Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory ...
Mesas A E - - 2011
The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the ...
Toyomasu Yoshitaka - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The radioscintigraphic technique has been accepted as the standard by which to measure gastric emptying but it is invasive and expensive. A 13C-acetate breath test was reported to be a noninvasive and reliable method. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a 13C-acetate breath test ...
Agakidis Charalampos - - 2011
Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing ...
Liang Sai - - 2011
Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: ...
Baldi Ileana - - 2011
Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and ...
Richardson David P - - 2012
In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on ...
Odadi Wilfred O - - 2011
Savannas worldwide are vital for both socioeconomic and biodiversity values. In these ecosystems, management decisions are based on the perception that wildlife and livestock compete for food, yet there are virtually no experimental data to support this assumption. We examined the effects of wild African ungulates on cattle performance, food ...
Diniz Lincoln O - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Esophageal food bolus impaction is an uncommon entity in the pediatric population that presents with the acute onset of dysphagia, pain, and vomiting. The causes of esophageal food bolus impaction are thought to be different in the pediatric population as compared to adults. AIM: The purpose of this study ...
Chu Yen Li - - 2012
To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and the constant comparative method were used ...
Harrison Flo F School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7JT, UK. - - 2013
To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food ...
Neale Joanne - - 2011
Aim: To provide new insights into heroin users' eating patterns in order to inform nutritional interventions. Design: 77 audio-recorded in-depth interviews which elicited detailed data on eating patterns. Setting: Community and residential drug services, pharmacies and peer support groups in Southern England, UK. Participants: 40 current or ex-heroin users (21 ...
Cardi Valentina - - 2011
Objective: People with anorexia nervosa (AN) experience high levels of fear and anxiety related to eating. The aim of this case report was to describe the use of a virtual reality (VR) programme developed to facilitate exposure to food as a supplement to treatment for a person with AN. Method: ...
Williamson Gary - - 2011
We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is ...
Hirvonen Tero - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the purchase and use of fortified foods, and to explore and compare background characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intakes among users and non-users of voluntarily fortified foods in Finland. DESIGN: A study based on the National FINDIET Survey 2007 (48 h recall), which included also a barcode-based ...
Beckmann Joshua S JS University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, 741 S. Limestone, 448C BBSRB, Lexington, KY 40536-0509, United States. - - 2012
Animals reared in an enriched environment are less vulnerable to abuse-like behavior and exhibit less persistent drug seeking, perhaps due to a decrease in the incentive value of stimuli associated with reward. The present study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) performance, a measure of ...
Reeves Sue - - 2011
To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Children's menus were assessed in 22 chain restaurants for ...
Durkalski Valerie - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The literature on the design, conduct, and analysis of non-inferiority trials is continuously evolving. Several design issues continue to be researched including the choice of active control, choice of non-inferiority margin, and optimal analytic approaches. To date, there has been relatively little in the literature documenting actual experiences with ...
Judge Peter G - - 2011
Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods ...
Marsh Heidi L - - 2011
Recent empirical work has suggested that some species of non-human primates may be aware of their knowledge states. One finding to support this claim is that they seek information about the location of a hidden food item when they are unsure of its location, but not when they already know ...
Houston Alasdair I AI School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, - - 2011
Foraging theory has typically been concerned with the acquisition of a single resource even though organisms from mammals to protozoa are capable of balancing their requirements for multiple resources. Existing theory concerning multiple nutrients from multiple foods does not predict the sequence of food selection. We constructed an optimisation model ...
Karunamoorthi Kaliyaperumal - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the developing world are at risk of pesticide exposure, particularly in low-income countries with a sizable agricultural sector like Ethiopia. The present investigation provides baseline data to develop strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and the prevention of pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of a ...
Mueller Laurence D - - 2012
Recent studies with Drosophila have suggested that there is extensive genetic variability for phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level. If true, we expect that the outcome of evolution at very different food levels should yield genotypes whose adult size show different patterns of phenotypic plasticity. We have tested this prediction ...
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