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Neal David T - - 2011
To identify the factors that disrupt and maintain habit performance, two field experiments tested the conditions under which people eat out of habit, leading them to resist motivational influences. Habitual popcorn eaters at a cinema were minimally influenced by their hunger or how much they liked the food, and they ...
Zarn Jürg A - - 2011
The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic ...
Brashares Justin S - - 2011
The harvest of wildlife for human consumption is valued at several billion dollars annually and provides an essential source of meat for hundreds of millions of rural people living in poverty. This harvest is also considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Economic development ...
Organ Chris - - 2011
Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. ...
Lewis Dale - - 2011
In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has ...
Nasser Roseann - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine consumers' perceptions of industrially produced trans fats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Regina at 3 different grocery store chains located in 3 different regions. A 21-item survey was administered in English by 3 research assistants at the grocery stores over a ...
Agarwal Ekta - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: One aim of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey was to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of acute care hospital patients. METHODS: Dietitians from 56 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand completed a 24-h survey of nutritional status and dietary intake of adult hospitalised patients. ...
Parr Catherine L - - 2011
1. Interspecific trade-offs are thought to facilitate coexistence between species at small spatial scales. The discovery-dominance trade-off, analogous to a competition-colonisation trade-off, is considered an important structuring mechanism in ant ecology. A trade-off between species' ability to discover food resources and to dominate them may explain how so many species apparently ...
Kagkli Dafni-Maria - - 2011
European Commission regulation 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for food requires that Escherichia coli is monitored as an indicator of hygienic conditions. Since verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) strains often cause food-borne infections by the consumption of raw food, the Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ...
Baker Joseph M - - 2011
Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large ...
Rühl Ilka - - 2011
This study investigates whether eating behavior in women with diagnosed bulimia nervosa is influenced by prior exposure to images of ideally thin models. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 30 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related and neutral TV commercials; then food that typically triggers binge eating ...
Kalogeras N - - 2011
All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and ...
Lynch Meghan - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. METHODS: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized ...
Schmidt Judith J Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle, Fischerau 11, 4645 Gruenau im Almtal, Austria. - - 2011
Other individual's head- and eye-directions can be used as social cues indicating the presence of important events. Among birds, ravens and rooks have been shown to co-orient with conspecifics and with humans by following their gaze direction into distant space and behind visual screens. Both species use screens to cache ...
Kim Ki-Hyun - - 2011
Pollutant emission from domestic and commercial cooking activities is a previously neglected area of concern with respect to human health worldwide. Its health effects are relevant to people across the globe, not only those using low quality food materials in lesser-developed countries but also to more affluent people enjoying higher ...
Shimizu Mitsuru - - 2011
While watching 30-min television (TV) programs that contained either food-related content or non-food-related content, participants were asked to eat two types of candy by explicitly being told that we were interested in how the TV program influenced their taste and therefore they needed to consume some of those candies. The ...
Lanfer A - - 2011
Background:Increased preference for fat and sugar may have a role in overweight and obesity development. However, this effect is likely to vary across different food cultures. To date, few studies on this topic have been conducted in children and none have employed an international, multi-centre design.Objective:To document taste preferences for ...
Ba┼čkale Hatice - - 2011
Purpose.  To develop nutrition education for preschool children based on Piaget's theory and to examine the effects of this education on children's nutritional knowledge, nutritional behaviors, and anthropometric measurements. Design and Methods.  Pre- and postexperimental design. In experimental schools nutrition education was given. Children's nutritional knowledge, food consumption frequencies, and ...
Lloyd Simon J - - 2011
Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a ...
Golley Rebecca K - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of a parent-led, family-focused child weight management program on the food intake and activity patterns of pre-pubertal children. Methods: An assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial involving 111 (64% female) overweight, pre-pubertal children 6-9 years of age randomly assigned to parenting-skills training plus intensive diet and ...
Williams Lauren K - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether objective measures of the food environment are associated with perceptions of the food environment and whether this relationship varies by socio-economic disadvantage. DESIGN: The study is a cross-sectional analysis of self-report surveys and objective environment data. Women reported their perceptions on the nutrition environment. ...
Boyle Christina N - - 2012
The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal ...
Maddah F - - 2011
Over the last 15years, an expanding number of databases with information on noxious effects of substances on mammalian organisms and the environment have been made available on the Internet. This set of databases is a key source of information for risk assessment within several areas of toxicology. Here we present ...
Bashaw Meredith J - - 2011
Socioecological models suggest competition for food, foraging efficiency, predation, infanticide risk, and the costs of dispersal regulate primate social structure and organization. Wild populations of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) appear to conform to the predictions of the predation/competition socioecological model (Sterck et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:291-309, 1997) and ...
Dodd Hayley - - 2011
Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI ...
Kim Daehwan - - 2011
Abstract Whereas some studies show statistically significant linear associations between consumption at full-service restaurants and consumer incomes, studies of fast-food restaurants fail to find statistically significant linear associations. In this study, nationally representative data were drawn from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the accompanying Diet ...
Negri Rossella - - 2011
ABSTRACT: The physiology of human taste enjoyed an unprecedented expansion of knowledge brought forward by modern genetics and molecular biology. In the last 10 years the cellular organization of taste receptors from taste buds distributed in the various papillae of the tongue and the soft palate was enlightened. This molecular ...
Grieger J A - - 2011
Background:  Food preferences develop early in life and track into later life. There is limited information on food consumption and dietary patterns in Australian girls. The present study aimed to: (i) determine the frequency of food groups consumed over 1 day; (ii) identify dietary clusters based on food group consumption; and ...
Sayon-Orea C - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The consumption of fried foods is believed to be linked with obesity and higher weight gain, however, the evidence from long-term randomized trials or prospective epidemiological studies is scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the association between the consumption of fried foods ...
Torrecilla José S - - 2011
We developed a novel computerized approach based on lag-k autocorrelation coefficients (LCCs) and linear models (LMs) to estimate the concentration of lycopene in foods by the spectroscopy. The LCCs were calculated using the data obtained using whole visible scans from 400 to 600nm (vide supra) of lycopene standards and food ...
Grigorakis K - - 2011
Aquatic farming has been considered, during the last decades, as the fastest growing food production industry powered by governmental and technological impulsion. Compensation for fisheries decline, creation of new jobs and source of financial windfall are the most important benefits. However, similar to most of the human food-production activities, aquaculture ...
- - 2011
In July 2011, the internationally supported Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit-Somalia conducted nutrition and mortality surveys across 17 livelihood zones in southern Somalia to assess the impact of 18 months of insecurity and drought, which have resulted in crop failure, livestock mortality, increased cereal prices, and widespread malnutrition. On ...
Abdel-Rahman A - - 2011
The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the ...
Tam Fiona M - - 2011
Recurrent constipation is a common problem in cats. Laxatives often are the cornerstone for management of recurrent constipation; however, there is a paucity of published research on laxative use in cats. This study investigated the safety and palatability of polyethylene glycol (PEG3350) in normal cats. All cats consumed the PEG3350 ...
Campbell H E - - 2011
Background  Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. Aims  To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments ...
Moreno-Franco Belén - - 2011
The intake of alkylresorcinols and lignans in Spain is unknown due to the lack of information on the content of these compounds in particular foods. This report describes the development of the first alkylresorcinol and lignan database adapted to the Spanish diet, including foods items especially relevant for this population. ...
Gordon-Larsen Penny - - 2011
While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and ...
Tripathi Meenakshi - - 2011
Supervisor's supporting comments I am pleased to recommend Meenakshi Tripathi for the Bioanalysis Young Investigator award. Meenakshi is a bright, creative, dynamic and highly motivated young bioanalytical chemist. She joined my laboratory for her PhD program in 1998 after her MSc and completed her thesis work in 2004. During this ...
Mohammadi Fatemeh - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in the measurement of household food insecurity (FI) in the city of Tehran. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Urban households were selected through a systematic cluster sampling method from six different districts of Tehran. The ...
Anderson Laura C - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between food insecurity, maternal emotional distress and childhood morbidity in resource-poor settings is not well clarified. The present study aimed to assess independent associations between household food insecurity and childhood morbidity and potential modifications by maternal emotional distress. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. A food security scale was ...
Knudsen Vibeke K - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. DESIGN: A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 ...
Taylor Anne W - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To profile adults who eat less than the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables per day. DESIGN: Australia-wide population telephone survey on a random sample of the Australian population, with results analysed by univariate and multivariate models. SETTING: Australia. SUBJECTS: One thousand one hundred and eight interviews, respondents' (49·3 ...
Adams Jean J Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Baddiley-Clarke Building, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK. - - 2012
To document socio-economic differences in exposure to food advertising, including advertisements for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) as defined by the UK Food Standards Agency's Nutrient Profiling Model. A cross-sectional survey. Information (including product advertised and viewing figures) on all advertisements broadcast in one UK region over ...
Hawkes Corinna - - 2011
To identify pledges made by the food industry to change food marketing to children worldwide, examine their content and discuss their potential to reduce the harmful effects of food marketing to children. A search for pledges and specific commitments made by participating companies and a content analysis of their scope ...
Picó Yolanda - - 2011
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are resistant to breakdown and are turning up in unexpected places around the world, becoming emerging food contaminants. Although these chemicals have been used in countless products since the 1950s, they have been subject to little control until now. There is still an insufficient knowledge of their ...
Cossignani Lina - - 2011
Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food matrices, and also of milk samples. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic analytical method were elaborated by chemometric procedures such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural network (ANN). According to the total composition and intrapositional ...
Krukowski Rebecca A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. METHODS: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria Nutrition ...
Azevedo Elaine de - - 2011
Controversies and risks in the social construction of the concept of healthy food are discussed, using soybean as the object of study. Studies concerning the impacts of soy on human health and the effects of its cultivation on the social-environmental domain were reviewed to analyze the political context of the ...
Elinder L S - - 2011
Background  Dietary assessment is a challenge in general, and specifically in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to evaluate personal digital photography as a method of assessing different aspects of dietary quality in this target group. Method  Eighteen adults with ID were recruited from community residences and activity ...
Fathy Fouad M - - 2011
Proper diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis in not performed routinely in medical laboratories of developing countries; consequently clinical significance of this common intestinal protozoon is liable to remain unsettled. Food-handlers are more prone to get and transmit this feco-oral infection. This work compared the sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods to detect ...
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