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Results 401 - 450 of 842
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Bhargava Vijay - - 2002
Telithromycin is an innovative antibacterial designed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This study assessed the effect of food on the bioavailability of a single oral dose of telithromycin 800 mg in healthy male subjects. Male volunteers aged 18-45 y were recruited for an open-label, single-dose, 2-period, cross-over ...
Martay Kenneth - - 2002
Sufficient preoperative fasting time is essential for safe induction of anesthesia to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. However, the time recommended for sufficient preoperative fasting varies greatly, depending on the nature of the oral intake, from 2 h for clear liquids to 6 h for solid foods. We report the ...
Nestel P - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy on plasma cholesterol-lowering of plant sterol esters or non-esterified stanols eaten within low-fat foods as well as margarine. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, single-blind study with sterol esters and non-esterified plant stanols provided in breakfast cereal, bread and spreads. Study 1 comprised 12 weeks during which sterol ...
Elshaug C - - 2001
The authors' primary aim was to determine whether Australian volunteers and paid workers who were engaged in similar activities differed on aspects of a 5-factor model of personality. Their secondary aim was to determine whether personality attributes were similar between volunteers involved in different activities. The participants were 36 volunteer ...
Sugawara T - - 2001
Despite the interest in the beneficial roles of dietary carotenoids in human health, little is known about their solubilization from foods to mixed bile micelles during digestion and the intestinal uptake from the micelles. We investigated the absorption of carotenoids solubilized in mixed micelles by differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells, ...
Totsuka K - - 2001
The effects of food intake and age on intestinal absorption of AS-924, a novel prodrug-type cephem antibiotic, were examined in 16 healthy adult volunteers (eight young volunteers and eight elderly volunteers) by the cross-over method, using cefpodoxime proxetil (CPOD-PR) as the control drug. The gastrointestinal absorption of AS-924 and CPOD-PR ...
Cook J - - 2001
The authors examined the effect of food on the bioavailability of Dilantin Kapseals in a nonblinded, single 100-mg dose, randomized, crossover trial. Drug was administered after an 8-hour fast and after a high-fat meal. Differences in mean dietary state values were +6% for maximum concentrations (C(max)) and -2% for area ...
Wilder B J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Because of phenytoin's narrow therapeutic index and nonlinear pharmacokinetics, food-induced alterations in absorption may markedly influence drug concentrations and, in turn, safety and effectiveness. Potential food-associated differences between 100-mg Mylan (Mylan Pharmaceuticals) extended-release phenytoin sodium capsules and Parke-Davis 100-mg Dilantin Kapseals were examined. METHODS: A single-dose, two-way crossover study ...
Midha K K - - 2001
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the pharmacokinetics of d-methylphenidate (d-MPH) would be altered by food ingested before administration of an immediate release formulation (dl-MPH- IR) but not when food is ingested before a slow release formulation (dl-MPH-SR). METHODS: A randomized, four-phase, open label, crossover design was conducted in 24 ...
Polli J E - - 2001
PURPOSE: The object of this work was to devise four new direct curve comparison (DCC) metrics and examine each metric's distribution properties and performance characteristics. METHODS: DCC metrics, Cmax, and AUCi were calculated from two bioequivalence studies of three sustained release carbamazepine formulations, where a range of profile similarity was ...
Arima H - - 2001
The enhancing effects of cyclodextrins (CyDs) on the solubility, the dissolution rate, and the bioavailability of tacrolimus after oral administration to rats were examined and compared with those after administration of a PROGRAF capsule containing the solid dispersion formulation of tacrolimus. Here we used natural CyDs and the hydrophilic beta-CyD ...
Paulson S K - - 2001
Celecoxib pharmacokinetics was evaluated after single and multiple oral dosing; after dosing in a solution and as a solid; with and without food; and after administration into different sites of the GI tract using dog. After oral dosing in a solution, celecoxib was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentrations by ...
Cass L M - - 2001
The effect of food on the bioavailability of GW420867X, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, was investigated in 15 young, healthy, male volunteers. A single oral dose of GW420867X 100 mg was administered in the fasted state, after a high-fat meal, and after a meal of normal fat composition. Tolerability ...
Yokel R A - - 2001
This MiniReview updates and expands the MiniReview of aluminium toxicokinetics by Wilhelm et al. published by this journal in 1990. The use of 26Al, analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, now enables determination of Al toxicokinetics under physiological conditions. There is concern about aluminium in drinking water. The common sources of ...
Auclair B - - 2001
This study was conducted in order to (i) determine the effect of food, orange juice, or antacids on the absorption of a single oral 500-mg dose of ethionamide (ETA) in healthy volunteers, including an assessment of bioequivalence, and (ii) determine ETA population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The pharmacokinetics of ETA in ...
Olsson B - - 2001
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine, its active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (5-HM), and exposure to the active moiety (sum of unbound tolterodine + 5-HM) in healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HM were measured for up to 12 hours ...
Damle B - - 2001
UFT is composed of tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and uracil in a fixed combination (1:4). In conjunction with leucovorin, UFT is being developed for the first-line oral treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The effect of food on the oral bioavailability of UFT (2 x 100 mg capsules; ...
Yuen G J - - 2001
A single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study was conducted in 24 healthy subjects to assess (1) the bioequivalence of a combined abacavir 300 mg/lamivudine 150 mg/zidovudine 300 mg (A/L/Z) combination tablet relative to the separate brand-name components administered simultaneously and (2) the effect of food on the bioavailability of the drugs ...
Meng X - - 2001
The tablet form of amiodarone is indicated for the treatment of recurrent ventricular fibrillation or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia. It is recommended that the tablet be taken with meals in cases of gastrointestinal intolerance. However, the effect of food on its bioavailability is unknown. The primary objective of this study ...
McLean A - - 2001
Carbatrol, a new dosage form of carbamazepine (CBZ), was developed consisting of three different types of pellets (immediate release, controlled release, and enteric release). The objective of this study was to explore the influence of food on absorption of CBZ. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose crossover study conducted in ...
Sathyan G - - 2001
The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of 15 mg oxybutynin XL was evaluated in a single-dose, randomized, crossover, open-label study in healthy volunteers. A validated, stereospecific, high-performance liquid chromatography assay was used to simultaneously determine the plasma concentrations of R- and S-oxybutynin and active metabolite R- and S-desethyloxybutynin. The ...
Lundin P - - 2001
AIM: To study the influence of food on the systemic availability of budesonide in patients with active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Eight patients with an established diagnosis of Crohn's disease each received 9 mg budesonide controlled ileal release (CIR) capsules (Entocort capsules) orally on two separate occasions: once in a fasting ...
Lettieri J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of concomitant food intake on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of moxifloxacin 400mg. DESIGN: This was a randomised 2-way nonblinded crossover study in healthy volunteers. PARTICIPANTS: 18 young, healthy, male volunteers were enrolled in the study, of whom 16 were considered evaluable for ...
Mauro L S - - 2001
Control of hyperphosphatemia in renal failure is often difficult to achieve. Although calcium-containing phosphate binders have become the preferred phosphate binders, many patients require the addition of an aluminum-containing phosphate binder (APB). Enhanced aluminum absorption has been noted when APBs are administered with citrate-containing products such as citrate/citric acid solution ...
Marathe P H - - 2000
Two randomized crossover studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (including food effect) of fixed-combination metformin/glyburide tablets. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of two strengths (500 mg/2.5 mg and 500 mg/5 mg) of metformin/glyburide tablets were assessed relative to coadministered metformin and glyburide tablets in study 1. The effect of a high-fat ...
Yanze F M - - 2000
The purpose of the present study was to apply melt granulation in a fluidized bed dryer (fluidized bed dryer melt granulation) to manufacture one-step effervescent granules composed of anhydrous citric acid and sodium bicarbonate to make tablets. This study permitted us to establish that such process parameters as concentrations of ...
Walle T - - 2000
Flavonoids, dietary components in vegetables, fruits and beverages, may protect against coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer. However, the bioavailability of these compounds is questionable. A previous study in ileostomy patients of the most abundant flavonoid, quercetin, suggested a 52% absorption of its major dietary forms, monoglucoside (QMG) and diglucoside ...
Desroches S - - 2000
Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed the existence of a correlation between aluminum level in low-silica drinking water and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease. Also, oral aluminum-based phosphate binders and antacids may induce acute aluminum toxicity. Whatever the source of the metal ingested, its bioavailability is a function of the chemical forms ...
Ibarrola I - - 2000
Cockles Cerastoderma edule were fed two different concentrations ( approximately 0.8 and 2 mm(3) l(-1)) of two diets with different qualities ( approximately 10 and 60% of organic content) which were achieved by mixing different proportions of ashed silt particles with cells of the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica. Clearance, ingestion and ...
Wagner K G - - 2000
Enteric coated bisacodyl pellets were compressed into divisible disintegrating tablets on a high speed rotary tablet press and investigated for pellet damages. The degree of pellet damages was examined via the bisacodyl dissolution during the acid treatment of' the drug release test for enteric coated articles according to USP 23. ...
Ribone M E - - 2000
The mucolitic bromhexine [N-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-N-methylcyclohexylamine] has been determined in cotrimoxazole-containing tablets by partial least-squares (PLS-1) multivariate of spectrophotometric calibration data in the spectral range 310-350 nm. In the studied commercial tablets, cotrimoxazole is present in large excess (ca. 100:1 in weight) with respect to bromhexine, and a high degree of spectral ...
Gisclon L G - - 2000
The effect of a high-fat meal on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of 17 beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estrone sulfate (E1S), and 17-deacetylnorgestimate (17d-NGM) were determined in this two-way complete crossover study of a single dose of E2/NGM (2 mg/180 micrograms) in 24 postmenopausal women. Equal numbers of subjects were randomly ...
Wang S J - - 2000
Colon transit study is currently performed by delivering technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled activated charcoal to the colon in a methacrylate-coated capsule (coated capsule). However, the coating procedure is complicated and methacrylate has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, a simpler method is needed for the clinical ...
Ekmekcioglu C - - 2000
The Caco-2 cell model is gaining more and more importance as an in vitro method to study intestinal nutrient bioavailability from foods. In a previous article we presented evidence that fractional Mg2+ transport from different aqueous solutions containing differing amounts of magnesium varies considerably in some cases. In the present ...
Olthof M R - - 2000
The flavonoid quercetin is an antioxidant which occurs in foods mainly as glycosides. The sugar moiety in quercetin glycosides affects their bioavailability in humans. Quercetin-3-rutinoside is an important form of quercetin in foods, but its bioavailability in humans is only 20% of that of quercetin-4'-glucoside. Quercetin-3-rutinoside can be transformed into ...
Ohmori S - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to develop a new sustained-release phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) bilayer caplets that consists of an immediate-release portion and a prolonged-release portion containing a hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2208 (HPMC2208) matrix. Since PPA is a highly water-soluble drug, incorporation of 60% HPMC2208 level in the matrix was required for ...
Jumars PA - - 2000
I solved equations that describe coupled hydrolysis in and absorption from a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), a plug flow reactor (PFR), and a batch reactor (BR) for the rate of ingestion and/or the throughput time that maximizes the rate of absorption (=gross rate of gain from digestion). Predictions are ...
De Marinis L - - 2000
Hexarelin (HEX) is a new synthetic analog of the Growth Hormone releasing peptides and is stronger than GHRH in releasing GH in vivo. No information is available on the effect of food ingestion on HEX-induced GH secretion. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that food intake at lunchtime ...
Huang C - - 2000
To evaluate the bioavailability of beta-carotene from plant foods, the serum beta-carotene response to a single ingestion of various beta-carotene sources was determined in 10 healthy men. Tested beta-carotene sources included stir-fried shredded carrot, stir-fried water convolvulus leaves, deep-fried sweet potato ball, purified beta-carotene in a capsule (beadlets) and beadlets ...
Schulte-Frohlinde E - - 2000
Food-derived opioid peptides such as beta-casomorphins are of interest for treatment of chronic diarrhea. The beta-casomorphin analog casokefamide was administered orally at doses of 5.5, 8.0, and 16.0 mg to 10 healthy male volunteers, respectively. Dose-dependent increases of plasma levels with a maximum of 350 fmol/l were determined. No side-effects ...
Chun A H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the bioavailability of lansoprazole when administered as an intact capsule and when the contents are admixed with various soft foods. BACKGROUND: Patients sometimes cannot swallow or have difficulty swallowing intact capsules such as lansoprazole. To enable them to ingest the drug, the contents ...
Eskens F A - - 2000
MMI270B is a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI) with in vitro and in vivo activity. To exert optimal target inhibition, MMPI must be given chronically, and therefore, oral bioavailability is important. We analyzed the effect of food intake on AUC0-8 h, Cmax, and Tmax. Seventeen patients were entered into the study. ...
Kelly M L - - 2000
The purpose of the study was to investigate the release-controlling action of a swellable hydrophilic material based on heterodisperse polysaccharides (HP) in relation to the initial pore structure of the formulations. HP-based granules were produced under carefully controlled conditions and compacted into matrix tablets having equivalent tablet thickness. Quantification of ...
Modi N B - - 2000
The effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of OROS(R) (methylphenidate HCl), an osmotic controlled-release formulation of methylphenidate HCl, was investigated in healthy subjects. Mean peak methylphenidate plasma concentrations occurred slightly later and peak methylphenidate plasma concentrations and AUC values were slightly higher (approximately 10-30%) in the presence of ...
Stillings M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption of popular preparations of two common analgesics--soluble aspirin and solid paracetamol tablets. An open, randomised, crossover study design was used to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of soluble aspirin and solid paracetamol tablets in 16 healthy, male volunteers from the University ...
Hollman P C - - 1999
Flavonoids are antioxidants present in plant foods. They occur mainly as glycosides, i.e. linked with various sugars. It is uncertain to what extent dietary flavonoid glycosides are absorbed from the gut. We investigated how the nature of the sugar group affected absorption of one major flavonoid, quercetin. Quercetin linked with ...
Skinner G W - - 1999
In solid dosage manufacturing, roller compaction technology plays an important role in providing cost control and a quality product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fine-particle hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a dry binder in roller compaction processing. The formula included acetaminophen (APAP), microcrystalline cellulose, fine-particle HPC, ...
Dugué B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Adhesion proteins such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may be important markers for early atherosclerosis and some other diseases. To devise optimum specimen collection procedures, we investigated the effects on serum sICAM-1 of several preanalytical factors (factors that occur before a specimen is analyzed) such as the time ...
Thomson A B - - 1999
Eight healthy volunteers were used to determine the influence of a normal diet (food) versus an isocaloric chemically defined diet (CDD) on the dose of ranitidine infused continuously over 12 hr, required to maintain the intragastric pH > or = 5 or above. The dose of ranitidine used was adjusted ...
Gelal A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Menthol is widely used in a variety of commercial products and foods, but its clinical pharmacology is not well studied. To determine the disposition kinetics and to examine subjective and cardiovascular effects of menthol, we conducted a crossover placebo-controlled study that compared pure menthol versus placebo, along with an ...
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