Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 861
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Skoog Suzanne M - - 2004
It has been proposed that fructose may cause or aggravate symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Fructose is commonly used to sweeten processed foods, and the prevalence of incomplete fructose absorption (25 g, 10%) in healthy subjects is as high as 50%. The only controlled study that has been ...
Andlauer Wilfried - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer-protective effects of isoflavones like genistin or genistein are well known. High intakes and an adequate absorption rate of isoflavones are necessary for efficient chemoprevention, though other dietary agents might increase absorption efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phloridzin, an inhibitor ...
Block Jason P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors may contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity, especially in black and low-income populations. In this paper, the geographic distribution of fast food restaurants is examined relative to neighborhood sociodemographics. METHODS: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, ...
Guivarc'h Pol-Henri - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The main drawback of the lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate is low bioavailability when taken orally on an empty stomach. Even the newest marketed formulations, micronized fenofibrate (MF) 200-mg capsules and microcoated fenofibrate (MCF) 160-mg tablets, require administration with meals to increase bioavailability. Insoluble Drug Delivery-Microparticle (IDD-P) fenofibrate 160-mg tablets are ...
Scarso Alessandro - - 2004
A self-assembled cylindrical capsule provides a nanoscale environment that affects keto-enol equilibria. The equilibrium constants for encapsulated beta-ketoesters show values that differ by an order of magnitude from that of the free tautomers in solution. For complexes with a single, large encapsulated guest, the inner surfaces of the capsule and ...
Uchida Taisuke - - 2004
AIM: To determine the effect of food ingestion on the pharmacokinetic profile of solifenacin succinate (YM905; Vesicare, a new bladder selective muscarinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder, a chronic disease usually caused by involuntary detrusor muscle contractions during bladder filling. METHODS: A randomized, two-period, crossover study in ...
Pistos C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the bioequivalence of 2 oral cefuroxime axetil (250 mg) tablets formulation. The reference preparation was Zinadol/Glaxo Wellcome, England, while the test preparation was cefuroxime axetil/Pharmathen, Athens, Greece. SUBJECTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was an open, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence, 2-treatment crossover, involving 24 healthy male and female ...
Uner Melike - - 2004
In this study, honey locust gum (HLG) obtained from Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust) beans was investigated as a hydrophilic matrix material in the tablets prepared at different concentrations (5% and 10%) by wet granulation method. Theophylline was chosen as a model drug. The matrix tablets containing hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...
Peters Godefridus J - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose is to determine the effect of food on the bioavailability of S-1, an oral formulation of the 5-fluorouracil (5FU) prodrug Ftorafur (FT), 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitor, and oxonic acid (an inhibitor of 5FU phosphoribosylation in normal gut mucosa) in a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. EXPERIMENTAL ...
Ma Joseph D - - 2004
S-warfarin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0- infinity )) and clearance are used as measures of cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2C9 activity. In addition, warfarin S/R ratios are used to assess CYP2C9 activity. The determination of S-warfarin AUC(0- infinity ) requires multiple blood samples. Limited sampling strategy (LSS) is a validated ...
Chan Phylinda L S - - 2004
Clinicians recognize levodopa has a short-duration response (measured in hr) and a long-duration response (measured in days) in Parkinson's disease. In addition there is a diurnal pattern of motor function with better function in the morning. Previous pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling has quantified only the short-duration response. We have developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic ...
Abrahamsson Bertil - - 2004
The aims of the present study was to investigate if food components, as represented by a multi-component nutritional drink for tube feeding, could affect tablet disintegration of standard tablets in vitro as well as in vivo and propose a mechanism for potential food effects on tablet disintegration. The tablet disintegration ...
Delaney Bryan - - 2004
Clinical studies have demonstrated that consumption of phytosterol esters in lipid-based foods decreases serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. These substances represent minimal potential for adverse effects when consumed orally because of their low bioavailability. However, some studies have reported estrogenic and other effects in laboratory animals treated parenterally ...
Manach Claudine - - 2004
Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various ...
Bard Robert L - - 2004
Food significantly affects the pharmacokinetics of oral loop diuretics in healthy individuals, but studies have not been performed in patients with edema. Because of this omission, food's effect on pharmacokinetics has been overlooked and may decrease the pharmacodynamic response in patients who rely on diuretics. Despite this potential interaction, reference ...
Fukazawa Ichiro - - 2004
To investigate the effects of repeated grapefruit juice (GFJ) intake on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and pravastatin in Japanese subjects. Two randomized, two-way crossover studies were performed. GFJ or water was given to two groups of 10 subjects each three times daily for 2 days. On the third day, single ...
Agrawa Anurradha - - 2004
To establish an improved protocol for the cryopreservation of banana (Musa spp.), a fast-freeze/fast-thaw method was applied and compared to three existing cryogenic procedures, namely, simple freezing, vitrification of proliferating meristems and vitrification of individual meristems. The average post-thaw shoot regeneration of the fast freeze/fast thaw protocol was 51.8 percent ...
Courtney Rachel R Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA. - - 2004
Posaconazole is a potent broad-spectrum azole antifungal agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. This study evaluated the potential for a pH-dependent pharmacokinetic interaction between posaconazole and an antacid (Mylanta), under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Twelve men completed this randomized, four-period crossover, single-dose study. Subjects received ...
Teo Steve K - - 2004
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is effectively treated by racemic oral methylphenidate (dl-MPH). The d-isomer (d-MPH) has been developed as an improved treatment for ADHD since only half the racemic dose is used. This study, performed in healthy subjects, assessed the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of ...
Oki Tsuyoshi - - 2004
The pharmacokinetic parameters of lopinavir (LPV) were examined by administering Kaletra (LPV+ritonavir) to 8 healthy Japanese volunteers both in the fasting and postprandial conditions. LPV showed a biphasic decline, which was slower in the initial phase and became more rapid in the later phase. The behavior of LPV in the ...
Tatami Shinji S Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Kawanishi Pharma Research Institute, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Kawanishi, Japan. - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for telmisartan based on the pooled data obtained from the different racial populations and then to identify the factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of telmisartan for the comparison between the regions. A PPK model was established based ...
Ogura Yasuhiko - - 2004
Because of its chemical structure, risedronate was thought to form a complex with divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+), and to be likely to show changes in the efficiency of absorbance from the gastrointestinal tract according to the presence of food. Therefore, we conducted a crossover study using healthy Japanese adults to ...
Al-Balool Fawzia Yaqoub - - 2004
Fluid transport was measured gravimetrically in vivo in the jejunum, ileum and colon of fed, fasting (four days) and undernourished (50 % of control food intake for 21 days) gerbils (Gerbillus cheesmani). The effects of luminal enterotoxin Escherichia coli STa (50 ng/ml) and luminal 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (cGMP 1 mM) on ...
Nix D E David E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Clofazimine is potentially useful for the treatment of disease due to multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as leprosy and certain chronic skin diseases. Its pharmacokinetics have been incompletely characterized. This study was conducted to explore issues relating to bioavailability in the presence of food, orange juice, and antacid. ...
Brinegar Chris - - 2004
A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples ...
Karakaya Sibel - - 2004
Phenolic compounds in foods originate from one of the main classes of secondary metabolites in plants. They are essential for the growth and reproduction of plants, and are produced as a response for defending injured plants against pathogens. In recent years, there is a growing interest in phenolic compounds and ...
Leiper J B - - 2003
During the 9th month (Ramadan) of the Islamic calendar (Hijra) many millions of adult Muslims all over the world fast during the daylight hours. Since Hijra is a lunar calendar, Ramadan occurs at different times in the seasonal year over a 33-year cycle. Fasting during Ramadan is partial because the ...
Shah Bharti - - 2003
HMR1031 is a potent and specific antagonist of the integrin VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin. HMR1031 is an inhaled drug being developed for the treatment of asthma using an Ultrahaler dry-powder inhalation device. A pharmacoscintigraphic study of HMR1031 suggests a lung deposition of approximately ...
Purkins Lynn - - 2003
Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with activity against a range of clinically important and emerging pathogens. This study determined the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in healthy volunteers. This was an open, randomized, two-way crossover, multiple-dose study in male volunteers. Twelve subjects received voriconazole 200 ...
Panchagnula Ramesh - - 2003
Rifampicin is one of the major first line anti-tuberculosis drugs used in the therapy of tuberculosis. In literature, there are conflicting reports regarding effect of food on the bioavailability of rifampicin. In vitro, effect of food on the bioavailability can be studied by simulating in vivo conditions in dissolution fluid ...
Amsden Guy W - - 2003
Previous studies have demonstrated that the chelation interactions demonstrated between fluoroquinolones and antacids also occur when they are coadministered with mineral-fortified foods. This study was conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of levofloxacin when administered in a fasting state as compared to when it was administered with a common breakfast of ...
Borel Patrick - - 2003
Highly lipophilic food microconstituents (HLFMs) with octanol-water partition coefficients log10 P(c) > 8 include the fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D and K) and phytochemicals with potential health benefits, the carotenoids and phytosterols. It has been assumed that these compounds have the same metabolism in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and ...
Aarnoutse Rob E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare indinavir peak plasma (Cmax) values after administration of indinavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg on an empty stomach or with food. High indinavir Cmax values have been associated with indinavir-related nephrotoxicity. METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, cross-over pharmacokinetic study performed at ...
Phan Dana D - - 2003
Variability in valacyclovir bioavailability and the potential for cephalexin-valacyclovir interaction were evaluated. The intraindividual acyclovir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) varied minimally, whereas interindividual differences were substantial. Coadministration of the human peptide transporter 1 (hPEPT1) substrates valacyclovir and cephalexin minimally reduced the acyclovir AUC. These results suggest a stable ...
Mercke Odeberg Johanna - - 2003
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with antioxidant properties, synthesised by plants and algae, and distributed in marine seafood. Astaxanthin is also available as a food supplement, but, like other carotenoids, is a very lipophilic compound and has low oral bioavailability. However, bioavailability can be enhanced in the presence of fat. There ...
Najib Naji M - - 2003
The pharmacokinetics of two brands of simvastatin 40 mg tablets were compared in 24 healthy human volunteers after a single oral dose in a randomized cross-over study, conducted at IPRC, Amman, Jordan. Reference (Zocor, MSD, Netherlands) and test (Simvast, Julphar, UAE) products were administered to fasted volunteers; blood samples were ...
Ostlund Richard E RE - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Low-fat vegetable foods contain phytosterols, but it is not known whether they are in biologically active forms or whether their concentrations are high enough to reduce cholesterol absorption and favorably affect lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish whether the selective removal of phytosterols from wheat germ would ...
Tillotson James E. - - 2003
Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news?
Bravo David - - 2003
Phosphorus absorption in ruminants was analysed from a database described in a previous article. For common values of ingested phosphorus (2.5-5.0 g x kg(-1) of DM), 0.73 of dietary phosphorus is absorbed. The remaining variability is probably due to phosphorus quality. Phosphorus absorbed from silage, cereal, cereal by-products and hay ...
Edwards Alison J - - 2003
Watermelon is a rich natural source of lycopene, a carotenoid of great interest because of its antioxidant capacity and potential health benefits. Assessment of bioavailability of lycopene from foods has been limited to tomato products, in which heat processing promotes lycopene bioavailability. We examined the bioavailability of lycopene from fresh-frozen ...
Hiraki Jun - - 2003
Epsilon-polylysine is a homopolymer of L-lysine, containing approximately 30 L-lysine subunits, as synthesized in aerobic bacterial fermentation by Streptomyces albulus. epsilon -Polylysine is approved for food use in Japan as an antimicrobial preservative. A series of pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile studies on epsilon -polylysine have been conducted in rats in ...
Yasui-Furukori Norio - - 2003
There is little information on interaction between food and the hypnotic agent quazepam. We therefore studied the effects of food and its time interval on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of quazepam. A randomized three-phase crossover study with 2-week intervals was conducted. Nine healthy male volunteers took a single oral 20 ...
Kovarik John M - - 2003
The immunosuppressant everolimus used in organ transplantation is formulated as a conventional tablet for adults and a dispersible tablet that can be administered in water for pediatric use. As part of the pediatric clinical development program, the relative bioavailability and food effect for the dispersible tablet were evaluated in healthy ...
Epstein S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Poor quality has been reported for some generics and other copies of original products. We performed a pilot study to compare the disintegration/dissolution profiles of FOSAMAX (alendronate) 70 mg tablets with those of copies of FOSAMAX that were manufactured outside the United States. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used ...
Borgen Lowell A - - 2003
Sodium oxybate (Xyrem; gamma-hydroxybutyrate) oral solution was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Two single-center, randomized, open-label studies in healthy volunteers receiving single oral 4.5-g doses of sodium oxybate evaluated effects of (1) gender on oxybate pharmacokinetics and (2) food on ...
Wallace Allison W - - 2003
Previous work has demonstrated that the chelation interaction seen with ciprofloxacin when it is coadministered with antacids also happens when it is coadministered with calcium-fortified foods. This study was conducted to study whether this was a drug-specific finding or whether the interaction occurs with other members of the fluoroquinolone class ...
Nespolo Roberto F - - 2003
One of the most important prerequisites for obtaining a reliable measure of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms is that the animal must be in a post-absorptive condition. However, because of the diversity of nutrition and digestion modes in vertebrates, it is not simple to generalize a standard procedure for ...
Byrd Brian D - - 2003
The feasibility of using alternative chromophores in laser tissue soldering applications was explored. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB) were investigated, as well as three different food colorings: red #40 (RFC), blue #1 (BFC), and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1 (GFC). Three ...
Lynn Sharon E - - 2003
Unpredictable events such as severe storms lead to an increase in circulating corticosterone (CORT) in breeding birds. This increase is often accompanied by elevations in foraging and irruptive behavior. We were interested in determining if acute food restriction (such as might occur during inclement weather) is a sufficient cue to ...
Morse Gene D - - 2003
In a prior single-dose study that examined the effect of food on delavirdine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, the absorption of delavirdine mesylate was delayed and the area under the curve was reduced by 26% in the presence of food. Since the complex, nonlinear pharmacokinetics of delavirdine do not permit a ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >