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Results 351 - 400 of 844
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Courtney Rachel R Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA. - - 2004
Posaconazole is a potent broad-spectrum azole antifungal agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. This study evaluated the potential for a pH-dependent pharmacokinetic interaction between posaconazole and an antacid (Mylanta), under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Twelve men completed this randomized, four-period crossover, single-dose study. Subjects received ...
Teo Steve K - - 2004
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is effectively treated by racemic oral methylphenidate (dl-MPH). The d-isomer (d-MPH) has been developed as an improved treatment for ADHD since only half the racemic dose is used. This study, performed in healthy subjects, assessed the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of ...
Oki Tsuyoshi - - 2004
The pharmacokinetic parameters of lopinavir (LPV) were examined by administering Kaletra (LPV+ritonavir) to 8 healthy Japanese volunteers both in the fasting and postprandial conditions. LPV showed a biphasic decline, which was slower in the initial phase and became more rapid in the later phase. The behavior of LPV in the ...
Tatami Shinji S Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Kawanishi Pharma Research Institute, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Kawanishi, Japan. - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for telmisartan based on the pooled data obtained from the different racial populations and then to identify the factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of telmisartan for the comparison between the regions. A PPK model was established based ...
Ogura Yasuhiko - - 2004
Because of its chemical structure, risedronate was thought to form a complex with divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+), and to be likely to show changes in the efficiency of absorbance from the gastrointestinal tract according to the presence of food. Therefore, we conducted a crossover study using healthy Japanese adults to ...
Al-Balool Fawzia Yaqoub - - 2004
Fluid transport was measured gravimetrically in vivo in the jejunum, ileum and colon of fed, fasting (four days) and undernourished (50 % of control food intake for 21 days) gerbils (Gerbillus cheesmani). The effects of luminal enterotoxin Escherichia coli STa (50 ng/ml) and luminal 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (cGMP 1 mM) on ...
Nix D E David E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Clofazimine is potentially useful for the treatment of disease due to multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as leprosy and certain chronic skin diseases. Its pharmacokinetics have been incompletely characterized. This study was conducted to explore issues relating to bioavailability in the presence of food, orange juice, and antacid. ...
Brinegar Chris - - 2004
A commercially available leaf DNA extraction and amplification kit has been adapted for the detection of genetically modified material in common food products containing maize. Amplification using published primer pairs specific for the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin and maize invertase genes results in a 226-bp invertase PCR product in all samples ...
Karakaya Sibel - - 2004
Phenolic compounds in foods originate from one of the main classes of secondary metabolites in plants. They are essential for the growth and reproduction of plants, and are produced as a response for defending injured plants against pathogens. In recent years, there is a growing interest in phenolic compounds and ...
Leiper J B - - 2003
During the 9th month (Ramadan) of the Islamic calendar (Hijra) many millions of adult Muslims all over the world fast during the daylight hours. Since Hijra is a lunar calendar, Ramadan occurs at different times in the seasonal year over a 33-year cycle. Fasting during Ramadan is partial because the ...
Shah Bharti - - 2003
HMR1031 is a potent and specific antagonist of the integrin VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin. HMR1031 is an inhaled drug being developed for the treatment of asthma using an Ultrahaler dry-powder inhalation device. A pharmacoscintigraphic study of HMR1031 suggests a lung deposition of approximately ...
Purkins Lynn - - 2003
Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with activity against a range of clinically important and emerging pathogens. This study determined the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in healthy volunteers. This was an open, randomized, two-way crossover, multiple-dose study in male volunteers. Twelve subjects received voriconazole 200 ...
Panchagnula Ramesh - - 2003
Rifampicin is one of the major first line anti-tuberculosis drugs used in the therapy of tuberculosis. In literature, there are conflicting reports regarding effect of food on the bioavailability of rifampicin. In vitro, effect of food on the bioavailability can be studied by simulating in vivo conditions in dissolution fluid ...
Amsden Guy W - - 2003
Previous studies have demonstrated that the chelation interactions demonstrated between fluoroquinolones and antacids also occur when they are coadministered with mineral-fortified foods. This study was conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of levofloxacin when administered in a fasting state as compared to when it was administered with a common breakfast of ...
Borel Patrick - - 2003
Highly lipophilic food microconstituents (HLFMs) with octanol-water partition coefficients log10 P(c) > 8 include the fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D and K) and phytochemicals with potential health benefits, the carotenoids and phytosterols. It has been assumed that these compounds have the same metabolism in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and ...
Aarnoutse Rob E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare indinavir peak plasma (Cmax) values after administration of indinavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg on an empty stomach or with food. High indinavir Cmax values have been associated with indinavir-related nephrotoxicity. METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, cross-over pharmacokinetic study performed at ...
Phan Dana D - - 2003
Variability in valacyclovir bioavailability and the potential for cephalexin-valacyclovir interaction were evaluated. The intraindividual acyclovir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) varied minimally, whereas interindividual differences were substantial. Coadministration of the human peptide transporter 1 (hPEPT1) substrates valacyclovir and cephalexin minimally reduced the acyclovir AUC. These results suggest a stable ...
Mercke Odeberg Johanna - - 2003
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with antioxidant properties, synthesised by plants and algae, and distributed in marine seafood. Astaxanthin is also available as a food supplement, but, like other carotenoids, is a very lipophilic compound and has low oral bioavailability. However, bioavailability can be enhanced in the presence of fat. There ...
Najib Naji M - - 2003
The pharmacokinetics of two brands of simvastatin 40 mg tablets were compared in 24 healthy human volunteers after a single oral dose in a randomized cross-over study, conducted at IPRC, Amman, Jordan. Reference (Zocor, MSD, Netherlands) and test (Simvast, Julphar, UAE) products were administered to fasted volunteers; blood samples were ...
Ostlund Richard E RE - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Low-fat vegetable foods contain phytosterols, but it is not known whether they are in biologically active forms or whether their concentrations are high enough to reduce cholesterol absorption and favorably affect lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish whether the selective removal of phytosterols from wheat germ would ...
Tillotson James E. - - 2003
Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news?
Bravo David - - 2003
Phosphorus absorption in ruminants was analysed from a database described in a previous article. For common values of ingested phosphorus (2.5-5.0 g x kg(-1) of DM), 0.73 of dietary phosphorus is absorbed. The remaining variability is probably due to phosphorus quality. Phosphorus absorbed from silage, cereal, cereal by-products and hay ...
Edwards Alison J - - 2003
Watermelon is a rich natural source of lycopene, a carotenoid of great interest because of its antioxidant capacity and potential health benefits. Assessment of bioavailability of lycopene from foods has been limited to tomato products, in which heat processing promotes lycopene bioavailability. We examined the bioavailability of lycopene from fresh-frozen ...
Hiraki Jun - - 2003
Epsilon-polylysine is a homopolymer of L-lysine, containing approximately 30 L-lysine subunits, as synthesized in aerobic bacterial fermentation by Streptomyces albulus. epsilon -Polylysine is approved for food use in Japan as an antimicrobial preservative. A series of pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile studies on epsilon -polylysine have been conducted in rats in ...
Yasui-Furukori Norio - - 2003
There is little information on interaction between food and the hypnotic agent quazepam. We therefore studied the effects of food and its time interval on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of quazepam. A randomized three-phase crossover study with 2-week intervals was conducted. Nine healthy male volunteers took a single oral 20 ...
Kovarik John M - - 2003
The immunosuppressant everolimus used in organ transplantation is formulated as a conventional tablet for adults and a dispersible tablet that can be administered in water for pediatric use. As part of the pediatric clinical development program, the relative bioavailability and food effect for the dispersible tablet were evaluated in healthy ...
Epstein S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Poor quality has been reported for some generics and other copies of original products. We performed a pilot study to compare the disintegration/dissolution profiles of FOSAMAX (alendronate) 70 mg tablets with those of copies of FOSAMAX that were manufactured outside the United States. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used ...
Borgen Lowell A - - 2003
Sodium oxybate (Xyrem; gamma-hydroxybutyrate) oral solution was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Two single-center, randomized, open-label studies in healthy volunteers receiving single oral 4.5-g doses of sodium oxybate evaluated effects of (1) gender on oxybate pharmacokinetics and (2) food on ...
Wallace Allison W - - 2003
Previous work has demonstrated that the chelation interaction seen with ciprofloxacin when it is coadministered with antacids also happens when it is coadministered with calcium-fortified foods. This study was conducted to study whether this was a drug-specific finding or whether the interaction occurs with other members of the fluoroquinolone class ...
Nespolo Roberto F - - 2003
One of the most important prerequisites for obtaining a reliable measure of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms is that the animal must be in a post-absorptive condition. However, because of the diversity of nutrition and digestion modes in vertebrates, it is not simple to generalize a standard procedure for ...
Byrd Brian D - - 2003
The feasibility of using alternative chromophores in laser tissue soldering applications was explored. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB) were investigated, as well as three different food colorings: red #40 (RFC), blue #1 (BFC), and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1 (GFC). Three ...
Lynn Sharon E - - 2003
Unpredictable events such as severe storms lead to an increase in circulating corticosterone (CORT) in breeding birds. This increase is often accompanied by elevations in foraging and irruptive behavior. We were interested in determining if acute food restriction (such as might occur during inclement weather) is a sufficient cue to ...
Morse Gene D - - 2003
In a prior single-dose study that examined the effect of food on delavirdine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, the absorption of delavirdine mesylate was delayed and the area under the curve was reduced by 26% in the presence of food. Since the complex, nonlinear pharmacokinetics of delavirdine do not permit a ...
Chung Woo-Young - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate a possible mechanism of postprandial angina. BACKGROUND: Postprandial angina has been recognized for more than two centuries; however, its mechanism is still controversial. The most widely accepted mechanism involves increased myocardial oxygen demand after food intake. Recently, the redistribution in coronary blood flow ...
Charbit Beny - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Halofantrine, an antimalarial drug that prolongs the QT interval, is metabolized into N-debutyl-halofantrine by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of several orally administered CYP3A4 substrates by inhibiting CYP3A4 at the enterocyte level and could therefore increase the risk of halofantrine-induced QT interval prolongation. We studied ...
Mülleder Ursula - - 2002
Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blue berries, red grape and elderberry) are rich sources of these efficient antioxidant compounds. The present study was designed to determine the potential bioavailability in humans of the anthocyanins of ...
Falcoz Christine - - 2002
These two Phase I, open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossoverstudies in 40 healthymale subjects investigated the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of various formulations of the amprenavir prodrug GW433908 in the presence and absence of food compared with amprenavir capsules. GW433908 is a phosphate ester prodrug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir, with ...
Rostami-Hodjegan A - - 2002
The primary objective of this four-way crossover study was to compare the concentration-time profile of paracetamol from a new rapidly absorbed paracetamol tablet containing sodium bicarbonate (PS) with a conventional paracetamol tablet (P), in a panel of 28 fed and fasted healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that paracetamol was absorbed ...
Karasulu H Y - - 2002
Microcapsules of ketoconazole with 1:1 and 1:2 core-wall ratios were prepared by means of the phase separation technique using sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a coating material. The microcapsules were mixed with effervescent granules and were tabletted. Dissolution studies of microcapsules, tabletted microcapsules and commercial ovules were carried out with a new ...
Schug B S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Objective of the study was the comparison of two nifedipine sustained-release products marketed in Europe. Maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma-concentration curve (AUC) values were derived after administration of single doses (60 mg) of test product and reference product, both approved for once-a-day administration, to 24 ...
Neuhofel Ashley L - - 2002
Fluoroquinolones are known to interact with drugs containing multivalent ions. Current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling states that ciprofloxacin and most other fluoroquinolones are safe to be given with food and dietary calcium but not calcium supplements. Although many of the currently marketed calcium fortified foods have calcium contents ...
Ndindayino F - - 2002
Isomalt, a disaccharide alcohol was co-extruded with paracetamol or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in order to improve its tabletting properties. After extrusion, isomalt was transformed into an amorphous form, while paracetamol remained crystalline. Hot stage microscopy showed that HCT was amorphous in the isomalt carrier up to a concentration of 1% (w/w). ...
Kumar Vijay - - 2002
A new cellulose-based tabletting excipient, hereinafter referred to as UICEL, has been developed by treating cellulose powder with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (conc. > or = 5N) and subsequently precipitating it with ethyl alcohol. UICEL is similar in structure to Avicel PH-102, a commercial direct compression excipient commonly ...
Al-Behaisi Samar - - 2002
The in vitro dissolution profiles of deramciclane 30 mg film-coated tablets, an acid-labile new 5-HT receptor antagonist, were studied under simulated fasting and fed conditions. Artificial gastric juice with pH adjusted to that of fasting conditions was applied either alone or after adding different dietary components. The use of the ...
Timmer Cees J - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food on absorption and pharmacokinetic disposition of tibolone. DESIGN: Open-label, randomized, crossover study with a 1-week washout period. SETTING: Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Hohenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn, Germany SUBJECTS: Twenty-four healthy, early postmenopausal women. INTERVENTION: Single doses of tibolone 2.5 mg were administered after subjects consumed ...
Dingemanse Jasper - - 2002
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of food intake on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism as well as the relative bioavailability of bosentan. Sixteen healthy male subjects were treated in a randomized, four-way, crossover design with single oral doses of 125 mg bosentan, given as one tablet ...
Shepard Dale R - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) taken orally with eniluracil and to compare the performance of different pharmacokinetic analysis methods in the detection a potential food-drug interaction. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study, 12 patients received eniluracil (50 mg, orally) on ...
Alam Khan
A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an ...
Ostlund Richard E RE - - 2002
Phytosterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. They are absorbed only in trace amounts but inhibit the absorption of intestinal cholesterol including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol, a key step in cholesterol elimination. Natural dietary intake varies from about 167-437 mg/day. ...
Dutta Sandeep - - 2002
The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of fiduxosin, a novel selective alpha1a-receptor antagonist, was determined in healthy male subjects. This was a Phase I, open-label, single-center, randomized, two-period, crossover, single oral dose study of fiduxosin. Healthy male subjects (N= 14) were administered single oral doses of 30 mg of ...
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