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Results 301 - 350 of 860
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Stoeckel Luke E - - 2007
We investigated visual alimentary alliesthesia in non-fasted (N = 369) and fasted participants (N = 257) viewing photographs of food. Fasted participants were asked to not eat for 12 h before the session. Each participant was shown food and non-food images and rated each image on valence (i.e., pleasantness). The ...
Hauns Bernhard - - 2006
This open, randomized, single-dose crossover study investigated effects of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and its major active N-oxide metabolite. Twelve healthy subjects received oral roflumilast 500 microg (2 x 250 microg) after overnight fasting and after breakfast. Blood was sampled up to 54 hours for pharmacokinetic ...
Donovan Jennifer L - - 2006
Catechin is a flavonoid present in fruits, wine and cocoa products. Most foods contain the (+)-enantiomer of catechin but chocolate mainly contains ( - )-catechin, in addition to its major flavanol, ( - )-epicatechin. Previous studies have shown poor bioavailability of catechin when consumed in chocolate. We compared the absorption ...
Niemeier Heather M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate whether fast food consumption and breakfast skipping are associated with weight gain during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: A prospective study of 9919 adolescents participating in Waves II (age range 11-21 years) and III (age range 18-27 years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ...
Shah Jaymin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A multiparticulate capsule formulation of the alpha2-adrenergic agonist tizanidine has been developed to decrease C(max), AUC, and associated somnolence, while maintaining efficacy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and impact of somnolence on cognitive function after single doses of the tablet and capsule formulations ...
Dresser Mark J - - 2006
Dapoxetine is being developed as a treatment for premature ejaculation and has demonstrated rapid absorption and elimination in previous pharmacokinetic studies. Two open-label studies were conducted in healthy men: a parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study in young and elderly men and a randomized crossover food-effect study. Maximal plasma dapoxetine concentrations ...
Samuelsson S - - 2006
Tesaglitazar is a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma agonist in development to treat lipid and glucose abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated the effects of food on tesaglitazar pharmacokinetics. In an open, randomized, 2-way crossover study, 20 healthy men received tesaglitazar 1 mg during fasting and ...
Dávalos Alberto - - 2006
The in vivo bioactivity of polyphenols will depend on their bioavailability. Grape juice is an important source of dietary phenolics. This paper reports results that prove that quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is bioavailable after a single ingestion of red grape juice by healthy volunteers. Blood plasma samples were collected before and after ...
Kakuda Thomas N - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative bioavailability of saquinavir after administration with ranitidine alone, ranitidine and food, and food alone; and to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of pH and food on saquinavir absorption. DESIGN: Single-center, open-label, randomized, three-part crossover, pharmacokinetic pilot study. SETTING: General clinical research center in ...
Yokel Robert A - - 2006
There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive ...
Cassidy Aedin - - 2006
To fully evaluate the potential risks and benefits of isoflavones to human health, an understanding of the physiological behavior of these compounds following ingestion is required. Numerous researchers have investigated the kinetics and extent of polyphenol absorption by measuring plasma concentrations and/or urinary excretion among adults after the ingestion of ...
Schulze Julia D R - - 2006
The accelerating effect of polyethylene glycol 400 on small intestinal transit has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of other solubility-enhancing excipient, propylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl-polyethylene glycol-1,000 succinate (VitE-TPGS) and Capmul MCM, on human intestinal transit. A 5-g dose of each excipient was administered ...
Cuong Bui Tri - - 2006
To evaluate the effects of gender, food and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of primaquine in healthy subjects. In a randomized, two-phase cross-over study, 10 male and 10 female healthy Vietnamese subjects were administered 30 mg primaquine in the fasting state or with food, followed by administration of primaquine with ...
McLean Stuart - - 2006
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are a major constraint to the ingestion of food by folivorous and browsing herbivores. Understanding the way in which mammalian detoxification pathways are adapted to deal with PSMs is crucial to understanding how PSMs influence ingestive behavior of herbivores and hence their fitness and the impact ...
Paine Mary F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Grapefruit juice (GFJ) enhances the systemic exposure of numerous CYP3A4 drug substrates, including felodipine, by inhibiting intestinal (but not hepatic) first-pass metabolism. Furanocoumarins have been identified as major CYP3A4 inhibitors contained in the juice, but their contribution to the GFJ effect in vivo remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether ...
Kubitza Dagmar - - 2006
To investigate the influence of food and administration of an antacid (aluminum-magnesium hydroxide) or ranitidine on the absorption of BAY 59-7939 (rivaroxaban), 4 randomized studies were performed in healthy male subjects. In 2 food interaction studies, subjects received BAY 59-7939, either as two 5-mg tablets (fasted and fed), four 5-mg ...
Jansat J M - - 2006
This open, randomized, crossover, single-dose clinical trial evaluated the possible pharmacokinetic interaction between a single oral dose of almotriptan 25 mg, a 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for the acute treatment of migraine, and food intake in healthy volunteers. The influence of food intake in the rate and extent of almotriptan absorption ...
Bello Carlo L - - 2006
The effect of food on the oral bioavailability of sunitinib malate (SU11248, an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities) was assessed in a randomized open-label, two-way crossover study. A 50-mg dose of SU11248 was administered to 16 healthy subjects after a 10-h fast in one period ...
Zhou Xiao-Jian - - 2006
The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of telbivudine, a candidate antiviral agent against hepatitis B virus (HBV), was investigated in healthy adult subjects following a 600-mg oral dose administered with and without a high-fat/high-calorie meal. Telbivudine was well tolerated under fasting and fed conditions. Oral absorption of telbivudine as ...
Sauron R - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to assess the effect of food on the bioavailability of fenofibric acid from a new tablet formulation containing fenofibrate nanoparticles. METHODS: In this 3-way crossover study, 45 subjects received in a random order one 145 mg fenofibrate tablet under high-fat fed (HFF), low-fat fed ...
Uher Rudolf - - 2006
To maintain nutritional homeostasis, external food-related stimuli have to be evaluated in relation to the internal states of hunger or satiety. To examine the neural circuitry responsible for integration of internal and external determinants of human eating behaviour, brain responses to visual and complex gustatory food-related stimuli were measured using ...
Jinno Jun-ichi - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of particle size on the dissolution and oral absorption of cilostazol. Three types of suspensions having different particle size distributions were prepared of the hammer-milled, the jet-milled cilostazol crystals and the NanoCrystal spray-dried powder of cilostazol. In vitro dissolution ...
Islinger Florian - - 2006
In the present pilot study we investigated the effect of food ingestion on target site pharmacokinetics of linezolid, the first clinically approved oxazolidinone. For this purpose we determined free concentrations of linezolid at steady state in the interstitial space fluid of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue under fasting and ...
Nirogi Ramakrishna V S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of concomitant food intake on the bioavailability of a single oral dose of clopidogrel (CAS 113665-84-2). METHODS: Clopidogrel was given under two conditions separated by a 14-day washout period: fasted and fed (after a standardized high fat breakfast). Concentrations of clopidogrel ...
Jones Hannah M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Food-induced changes in gastric emptying time, gastric pH and/or intestinal fluid composition may have an impact on the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The aim of this work was to use mathematical models describing physiology in fed and fasted states together with biorelevant solubility and degradation data to simulate food effects ...
Jeffery Robert W - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Eating at "fast food" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fast food" restaurants is associated with body weight. METHODS: A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and ...
Ogo Yuki - - 2005
This study aimed to examine the effects of banana juice on levodopa bioavailability in rats. When a levodopa preparation (EC-Doparl tablets) was orally administered with banana juice made by mixing with a fresh banana and water, there were significant decreases in C(max) (17.4+/-2.5 vs. 8.6+/-3.1 microg/ml; alpha=0.05) and AUC (1882.8+/-49.2 ...
Jahn T - - 2005
Lubrication of the tooling (punches and dies) is necessary to produce tablets. The most commonly used lubricant is magnesium stearate. Adding and blending magnesium stearate to the tablet mass often has negative effects on the properties of the compressed tablets (e.g., decreasing the tensile strength of the tablet). To avoid ...
Venkatesan Natarajan - - 2005
In the present study, an attempt was made to study the feasibility of nanoparticulate adsorbents in the presence of an absorption enhancer, as a drug delivery tool for the administration of erythropoietin (EPO) to the small intestine. Liquid filled nano- and micro-particles (LFNPS/LFMPS) were prepared using solid adsorbents such as ...
Fu Yourong - - 2005
Highly plastic granules that can be compressed into tablets at low pressure were developed to make fast-melting tablets (FMTs) by compression method. The highly plastic granules are composed of three components: a plastic material, a material enhancing water penetration, and a wet binder. One of the unique properties of the ...
Zamboni William C - - 2006
9-Nitrocamptothecin (9NC) is an orally administered camptothecin analogue that has completed phase III trials for pancreatic cancer. In biological matrices, camptothecin analogues exist in equilibrium between the active-lactone (LAC) and inactive-hydroxy acid (HA) forms. 9NC has been administered on an empty stomach; however, it is unclear if food alters the ...
Spénard Jean - - 2005
To evaluate the effects of food and formulation on the pharmacokinetics of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole and tetracycline when combined in a new 3-in-1 single capsule (BMT) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. In a randomized, 3 x 3 cross-over design, 23 healthy males received one dose of BMT in the fed ...
Souliman Sabah - - 2006
The first purpose of this study was to simulate the impact of food intake on drug release and absorption in vivo using a novel in vitro system which mimics the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in man. The drug studied was acetaminophen in the form of immediate release (IR) tablets. The second ...
Shibata Yusuke - - 2005
A powder solid dispersion system (SD) of indomethacin (IM) with crospovidone (CrosPVP) possesses good fluidity and can be used for tablet formulation. Tablets of SD can be prepared by direct compression and have adequate hardness and a small variation in weight. Forces during the tableting process were measured with a ...
Park Young Joon - - 2005
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide found in the muscle foods that has been postulated to be a bioactive food component. The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of carnosine in human plasma after ingestion of beef. Nine males and nine females were recruited for the study. Food ...
Mendoza Luis - - 2005
A randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 26 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare two brands of citalopram 40 mg tablets, Citol (Abdi Ibrahim Ilaç San. ve Tic A.S., Istanbul, Turkey) as a test and Cipramil (H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) as a reference product. One tablet of ...
Thomas Katrin - - 2005
When the microemulsion formulation of the critical dose drug cyclosporine A (CsA) (Sandimmun Optoral) was introduced in the mid-1990s, it became clear that this new formulation improves the oral bioavailability of CsA and has a positive influence on its pharmacokinetic variability. Previous studies with the original CsA formulation (Sandimmun) showed ...
Weitschies Werner - - 2005
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the double-peak phenomenon during absorption of the beta(1)-selective blocker talinolol relative to paracetamol, which is well absorbed from all parts of the gut, and relative to vitamin A, which is absorbed via the lymphatic pathway. METHODS: Talinolol was given with paracetamol and retinyl palmitate in fast-disintegrating, enteric-coated, ...
Tang Guangwen - - 2005
Current knowledge of the bioavailability of lycopene in humans is limited due to the inability to distinguish newly administered lycopene from the body reserves of lycopene. A quantitative method to assess the absorption and relative bioavailability of newly absorbed synthetic or natural lycopene was developed using two deuterated lycopene sources, ...
Rodríguez Pablo - - 2005
Every year, about three million farm-reared red-legged partridges are released in Spain for hunting purposes, most of them for restocking where the success is very low. Some factors such as the sudden shift from abundant commercial energy-rich diet to natural food and absence of experience at looking for natural food ...
Ullmann U - - 2005
Commercial Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone) formulations are often of poor intestinal absorption. We investigated the bioavailability of DSM Nutritional Products Ltd. (Kaiseraugst, Switzerland) CoQ10 10% TG/P (all-Q), a new tablet-grade formulation, with CoQ10 Q-Gel Softsules based on the Bio-Solv technology (Tishcon Corp., Salisbury, MD; marketed by Epic4Health, Smithtown, NY) and ...
Taguchi Yuuki - - 2005
We examined the effect of a clove (Syzygium aromaticum) administered by two different routes on Candida albicans growth, using a murine oral candidiasis model. When the clove preparation was administered into the oral cavity of Candida-infected mice, their oral symptoms were improved and the number of viable Candida cells in ...
Ersdal Eva - - 2005
To assess the potential effects of food on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability/safety of ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor developed for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease that is rapidly bioconverted to its active form, melagatran. DESIGN AND STUDY PARTICIPANTS: In two open-label, randomised, crossover studies, healthy male and ...
Maia Joana - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093), a new voltage-gated sodium channel antagonist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-centre, open-label, randomised, two-way crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of two consecutive treatment periods separated by a washout of 14 days or ...
Faulks Richard Martin - - 2005
Carotenoids are an excellent example of where poor understanding of food structure, complexity of behaviour during digestion, and inter-individual differences in response, lead to misinterpretation of study results. Four challenges associated with understanding and measuring carotenoid bioavailability are discussed: release of carotenoids from food structure and processing into an absorbable ...
Abolfathi Zohreh - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the food effect on the pharmacokinetics of sibutramine and its pharmacologically active metabolites. METHODS: This was an open label, single dose, crossover study completed by six healthy males. A single dose of sibutramine 15 mg was administered orally under fasting and ...
Wu Yunhui - - 2004
MK-0869 (aprepitant), a potent substance P antagonist, is the active ingredient of EMEND which has recently been approved by the FDA for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Early clinical tablet formulations of MK-0869 showed significant food effects on absorption, suggesting that formulation could have a significant role in ...
Drabant Sándor - - 2004
The effect of a high-fat meal on the oral bioavailability of deramciclane 30 mg tablet was evaluated in 18 healthy male volunteers in a randomised, single dose, two-way crossover study. The drug was administered following an overnight fast or a standardised high-fat breakfast. The plasma concentrations of deramciclane and N-desmethylderamciclane ...
Ami Diletta - - 2004
We report the results of a microspectroscopy study on the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra of Caenorhabditis elegans, collected from the different parts of a single intact specimen--pharynx, intestine and tail regions. The principal absorption bands were assigned to the molecular species present in C. elegans, with an excellent ...
Skoog Suzanne M - - 2004
It has been proposed that fructose may cause or aggravate symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Fructose is commonly used to sweeten processed foods, and the prevalence of incomplete fructose absorption (25 g, 10%) in healthy subjects is as high as 50%. The only controlled study that has been ...
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