Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 859
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Wiczkowski Wieslaw - - 2008
The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low ...
Bryant Rachel - - 2008
Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American ...
Scully Maree - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between television advertising exposure and adults' consumption of fast foods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions included measures of frequency of fast-food consumption at different meal times and average daily hours spent watching commercial television. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Subjects comprised 1495 adults (41 % response rate) aged >or=18 ...
Rosenheck R - - 2008
Consumption of fast food, which have high energy densities and glycemic loads, and expose customers to excessive portion sizes, may be greatly contributing to and escalating the rates of overweight and obesity in the USA. Whether an association exists between fast food consumption and weight gain is unclear. Sixteen studies ...
Dunn Kirsten I - - 2008
The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast ...
Yokel Robert A - - 2008
Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined ...
Krishnan Suma - - 2008
The relative bioavailability of oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine, and active d-amphetamine was assessed in an open-label, single-dose, 3-treatment, 3-period, randomized, crossover study in 18 healthy adult volunteers. Following a fast of at least 10 hours, subjects were administered an intact capsule of 70 mg lisdexamfetamine, a solution ...
Galanello Renzo - - 2008
Deferasirox (ICL670) is representative of a new class of tridentate iron chelators, formulated as tablets for dispersion. Deferasirox has exhibited high potency and a clinically manageable safety profile in preclinical models and in an extensive clinical program. The effect of food and time of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of ...
Lee R D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dexlansoprazole MR is a proton pump inhibitor with a Dual Delayed Release (DDR) formulation designed to prolong the dexlansoprazole plasma concentration-time profile. The presence of food or time of dosing relative to food may affect dexlansoprazole absorption. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and ...
Ohno Tomoya - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of imidafenacin and to explore the factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of imidafenecin. A total of 2406 plasma samples were collected from 90 healthy volunteers and 457 patients with overactive bladder. We determined the plasma concentrations of imidafenacin ...
Koono Eunice Emiko Mori - - 2008
The bioequivalence of two different tablet formulations of tinidazole (CAS 19387-91-8) was determined in healthy volunteers after a single dose in a randomized crossover study, with a 1-week washout period between the doses. Reference and test products were administered to 24 volunteers with 240 mL water after overnight fasting. Plasma ...
Zmitek Janko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a naturally occurring compound that plays a fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics and is an effective antioxidant. Numerous health benefits of CoQ10 supplementation have been reported, resulting in growing demands for its use in fortifying food. Due to its insolubility in water, the enrichment of ...
Mendes Fabiana D - - 2008
To assess the comparative bioavailability of two formulations (40 mg delayed-released [DR] tablet; test and reference) of pantoprazole (CAS 102625-70-7) in healthy volunteers of both sexes, with and without food. The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 1-week washout interval, in two groups, with ...
Creel Jennifer S - - 2008
Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for ...
Woo Jong Soo - - 2008
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) represent a possible alternative to traditional oral formulations of lipophilic compounds. This study was designed to compare the oral bioavailability and food-effect of SMEDDS of itraconazole (ITRA-GSMP capsule containing 50mg itraconazole) to that of the currently marketed formulation (Sporanox capsule containing 100mg itraconazole). Eight healthy ...
Caviedes-Vidal Enrique - - 2007
Anecdotal evidence suggests that birds have smaller intestines than mammals. In the present analysis, we show that small birds and bats have significantly shorter small intestines and less small intestine nominal (smooth bore tube) surface area than similarly sized nonflying mammals. The corresponding >50% reduction in intestinal volume and hence ...
Buchanan Charles M - - 2007
The current research evaluated and compared the efficacy of hydroxybutenyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBenBCD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) as enhancers of itraconazole solubility and oral bioavailability. At 10 wt% cyclodextrin, 17-fold and 3.8-fold increases in itraconazole aqueous solubility were observed in the presence of HBenBCD and HPBCD, respectively. Significant differences in the dissolution of ...
Khosravan Reza - - 2008
What is already known about this subject. Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. What this study adds. This is the first manuscript to address the effect of food and antacid on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of febuxostat. The study will determine whether the drug can be ...
Deldicque Louise - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to test if the consumption of creatine incorporated in food bars modifies creatine plasma kinetics, erythrocyte retention and loss in urine and in feces when compared with its consumption in the form of an aqueous solution (AS). Seventeen healthy young men ingested 2 ...
van Giersbergen Paul L M - - 2007
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of miglustat, an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase. Twenty-four healthy male (n = 9) and female (n = 15) subjects were treated in a randomized, 2-way crossover design with a single oral dose of 100 mg ...
Ochiai Akiko - - 2007
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is widely consumed as a food supplement because of its recognition as an important nutrient in supporting human health. Absorption of compounds from the gastrointestinal tract is one of the important determinants of oral bioavailability. However, the absorption of dietary CoQ10 is slow and limited due to ...
Young Lisa R - - 2007
Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current ...
Butt Saud S Division of Nephrology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, - - 2007
Fast food consumption has increased dramatically in the general population over the last 25 years. However, little is known about the prevalence and nutritional implications of fast food consumption among patients receiving hemodialysis. By using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained data on fast food consumption and nutrient intake (from ...
Taipale T - - 2007
AIM: The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. METHODS: The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). ...
Woodcock A - - 2007
This study measured patient views about following tablet-taking and food-timing recommendations in Type 2 diabetes. Two new questionnaires were validated. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes treated with sulphonylurea agents (n=131) completed the seven-item Diabetes Tablet Treatment Questionnaire (DTTQ) and nine-item Diabetes Food Timing Questionnaire (DFTQ). Mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was ...
Gonnissen Y - - 2008
The effect of maltodextrins and superdisintegrants on the tablet properties was evaluated in directly compressible powders coprocessed via spray drying. Powder mixtures containing acetaminophen, mannitol, erythritol and different maltodextrin types were prepared via co-spray drying and physically mixed with crospovidone (6% w/w, Kollidon CL) in order to evaluate the influence ...
Jarvandi Soghra - - 2007
Anticipatory hunger is a learnt increase in intake of food having a flavour or texture that predicts a long fast. This learning was studied in rats trained on a single food or a choice between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods, presented for 1.5 h after 3 h without maintenance food at ...
Chen Y-X - - 2007
Rifalazil is a new antibiotic structurally related to rifampin but devoid of the metabolic liabilities typically associated with the rifamycin class of antibiotics. A randomized, 3-way crossover study in healthy male volunteers (n = 12) investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single 25-mg oral rifalazil dose administered under a ...
Kwate Naa Oyo A - - 2008
As rates of overweight and obesity have surged in the US, researchers have turned attention to the environmental context of diet and disparities in access to healthful foods. Despite evidence that Black neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to fast food, few explanations have been advanced to illuminate explanatory mechanisms. This paper ...
Brouwers Joachim - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of linking the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug with its gastrointestinal behavior by simultaneously monitoring plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations. Fosamprenavir, a phosphate ester prodrug of the poorly water-soluble HIV-inhibitor amprenavir, was selected as model compound. METHODS: A single ...
Klein Cheri Enders - - 2007
Lopinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, is coformulated with ritonavir to enhance the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of lopinavir. The original solid oral formulation of lopinavir/ritonavir, a soft-gelatin capsule (SGC), requires refrigerated storage, is taken as 6 capsules daily at the recommended adult dose, and is administered with food to maximize the ...
Walsh Kelly R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although soy isoflavonoids have a number of health-promoting benefits, information concerning the sites of their absorption and metabolism in humans remains limited. Isoflavonoid absorption from the gut requires deconjugation of glucosides to aglycones. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the role of the small intestine in isoflavonoid absorption and ...
Foltz Martin - - 2007
Food products containing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides reportedly play a role in treatment of mild hypertension. The aim of this placebo-controlled crossover study was to assess the bioavailability of Ile-Pro-Pro and 7 other ACE-inhibiting peptides present in a lactotripeptide (LTP)-enriched yogurt beverage and whether meal intake affects Ile-Pro-Pro ...
Nukui Kazuki - - 2007
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and essential component of the mitochondrial electron transfer system in the body, and is in wide use as a functional food material and cosmetic raw material. However, as CoQ10 is extremely lipid-soluble, absorption by the body is not easy. In general, people use ...
Gu Chong-Hui - - 2007
PURPOSE: To develop a statistical model for predicting effect of food on the extent of absorption (area under the curve of time-plasma concentration profile, AUC) of drugs based on physicochemical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Logistic regression was applied to establish the relationship between the effect of food (positive, negative or ...
Elewski Boni E - - 2007
Topical formulations containing identical active agents are available in various vehicles and concentrations, which may affect percutaneous absorption. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in different vehicles and concentrations as the active agent in 6 topical formulations. Formulations were applied to sections ...
Shiotani Akiko - - 2007
The actual extent of lumen visualized by capsule endoscopy has not been studied systematically. Volunteers were randomized to receive a bowel preparation (prep) consisting of an isotonic solution containing polyethylene glycol and simethicone. The prep (200 ml) was given 30 min before the capsule. The capsule was taken with 100 ...
Grove Mette - - 2007
The bioavailability of seocalcitol from two lipid-based formulations and a propylene glycol (PG) solution was studied in minipigs in the fasted and fed state. The lipid-based formulations were a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) solution and a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (MC-SMEDDS) having a composition of 25% MCT, 48% cremophor RH ...
Yamazaki A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Quazepam, nitrazepam and diazepam are administered under fed or fasted conditions for insomnia or anxiety disorder. Light bedtime food may have clinically relevant effects on the plasma levels of those drugs and hence on psychomotor performance. This study assessed the effect of light food on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics ...
am Ende Mary T - - 2007
In this investigation, the potency distribution of a low-dose drug in a granulation was optimized through a two-part study using statistically designed experiments. The purpose of this investigation was to minimize the segregation potential by improving content uniformity across the granule particle size distribution, thereby improving content uniformity in the ...
Duffey Kiyah J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Away-from-home food consumption has rapidly increased, though little is known about the independent associations of restaurant food and fast food intake with body mass index (BMI) and BMI change. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the associations of restaurant food and fast food consumption with current and 3-y changes ...
dos Santos Filho Hilton Oliveira - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the comparative bioavailability of two formulations (200 mg tablet) of amiodarone (CAS 19774-82-4) in healthy volunteers of both sexes, with and without food. METHODS: The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 3-week washout interval, in two groups, with ...
Yonekura Lina - - 2007
The assessment of carotenoid bioavailability has long been hampered by the limited knowledge of their absorption mechanisms. However, recent reports have elucidated important aspects of carotenoid digestion and absorption. Disruption of food matrix and increasing amounts of fat seem to enhance the absorption of carotenes to a larger extent than ...
de Campos Daniel Rossi - - 2007
To compare the bioavailability of two pantoprazole (CAS 102625-70-7) formulations (40 mg pantoprazole enteric coated tablets) under fasted and fed conditions as well as to evaluate the dissolution profile in biorelevant media. The subjects received either 40 mg of the reference or of test formulation in fasting (n = 28) ...
Patel Meena V - - 2006
The goal of this study was to identify a structurally distinct D(4)-selective agonist with superior oral bioavailability to our first-generation clinical candidate 1a (ABT-724) for the potential treatment of erectile dysfunction. Arylpiperazines such as (heteroarylmethyl)piperazine 1a, benzamide 2, and acetamides such as 3a,b exhibit poor oral bioavailability. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) ...
Ostlund Richard E RE - - 2006
Phytosterols are chemical homologs of cholesterol that are found in most plant foods and are particularly abundant in vegetable oils and whole grains. They interfere with the micellar solubilization of cholesterol in the intestine and reduce the efficiency of cholesterol absorption. The net absorption of phytosterols themselves is very small ...
Sakata Yukoh - - 2007
Tablets containing both paracetamol (PM) and cloperastine hydrochloride (CLH) in a combination formulation prepared by standard vertical granulation technology were found to have altered pharmaceutical properties. The hardness and disintegration time of tablets containing both PM and CLH gradually increased during storage, and the cross-screw did not operate smoothly during ...
Yun Hwi-yeol - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the relationship between the bioavailability of itraconazole and the type of food consumed and to determine the effects of food consumption on the pharmacokinetic parameters following a single oral dose of itraconazole in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The plasma itraconazole concentration-time ...
Steensma Aukje - - 2006
The present study describes an in vivo bioavailability experiment for genistein and its glycoside genistin, either as pure compounds or from a soy protein isolate extract, using freely moving unanesthetized rats with a cannulation in the portal vein. The results show that genistein is readily bioavailable, being observed in portal ...
Stoeckel Luke E - - 2007
We investigated visual alimentary alliesthesia in non-fasted (N = 369) and fasted participants (N = 257) viewing photographs of food. Fasted participants were asked to not eat for 12 h before the session. Each participant was shown food and non-food images and rated each image on valence (i.e., pleasantness). The ...
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