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Results 201 - 250 of 843
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Soares Maria Albertina de Miranda - - 2009
The lifespan of intestinal epithelial cells is predetermined by the process of cell proliferation that occurs constantly in the crypt. The control of this process involves some endogenous factors, such as hormones, as well as exogenous factors, like food and natural light variations. These last two exogenous factors seem to ...
Powell Lisa M - - 2009
This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control ...
Wall Julian P - - 2009
Plasma concentrations of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, have been reported to increase during fasting in some species of birds. Although Japanese quail are widely used in laboratory studies, corticosterone responses to fasting have not been described for this species. We therefore investigated the effects of 24h of fasting on plasma ...
Inagami Sanae - - 2009
Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined ...
Chen Ying - - 2009
The objective of this study is to compare the differences between self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and solid dispersion (SD) technology used to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of vinpocetine (VIP). The formulation of VIP-SMEDDS was composed of Labrafac, oleic acid, Cremophor EL, Transcutol P, and gum acacia which ...
Malhotra B - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Fesoterodine is a new, once-daily, oral, antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder. It undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism by plasma esterases to form its principal active moiety, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT). The sustained-release formulation of fesoterodine delivers 5-HMT with linear, dose-proportional pharmacokinetics (PK) suitable for once-daily dosing. ...
Shono Yasushi - - 2009
Since the rate-determining step to the intestinal absorption of poorly soluble drugs is the dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, postprandial changes in GI physiology, in addition to any specific interactions between drug and food, are expected to affect the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of such drugs. In this study, in ...
Zhong Qixin - - 2009
Sustained release of antimicrobials may be a viable solution to enhance the bioavailability during the shelf life of food products. In this work, spray-drying was used to encapsulate a model antimicrobial of lysozyme in corn zein. The effects of zein/lysozyme (20:1 to 4:1) and zein/thymol (1:0 to 4:1) ratios on ...
Moore Latetia V - - 2009
The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as ...
Rubino C M - - 2009
Pirfenidone is a small, synthetic molecule under investigation for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In an open-label, single-dose crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of pirfenidone were investigated with or without food and antacids in healthy adult volunteers. Concentrations of pirfenidone and its metabolites in plasma and urine were determined by ...
MacLean Carol M - - 2009
ARD-07 (also known as EP01572) is a peptidomimetic growth hormone secretagogue that can be administered orally. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of a meal on the oral bioavailability of ARD-07 after a single oral dose (0.5 mg/kg). In addition, the pharmacodynamic effects (growth hormone ...
Morse Kristin L - - 2009
Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to ...
Serrano Elena L - - 2009
Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were recorded, with nutrient content information obtained from their respective ...
Dave Jayna M - - 2009
The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults ...
Markopoulos Constantinos - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the intralumenal stability of oleuropein in human gastric and small intestinal contents. We additionally aimed to assess the stability characteristics of oleuropein in media simulating the intralumenal conditions. METHODS: The intralumenal stability of oleuropein was assessed in aspirates from the stomach and the upper small ...
Mai X-M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fast food consumption and childhood asthma have rapidly increased in recent decades. During the same period there has been an increased rate of prolonged breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if fast food consumption was associated with asthma in children, and if the proposed protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma was ...
Bauer Katherine W - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To examine secular and longitudinal changes (1999-2004) in fast food intake among adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents from Minnesota participating in Project EAT (n=2516) were surveyed in 1999 and 2004. Mixed-model regressions were used to assess secular and longitudinal changes in percentage reporting frequent fast food intake (> or =3 times/week) ...
Walton Michaela C - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a simultaneous intake of food and anthocyanins (ACNs) on ACN absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Blackcurrant ACNs (BcACNs) were dissolved in water with or without the addition of oatmeal and orally administered to rats, providing approximately 250 mg total ...
McClements David Julian - - 2009
The bioavailability of particular lipids may be either increased or decreased by manipulating the microstructure and/or physiochemical properties of the foods that contain them. This article reviews the current understanding of the molecular, physicochemical, and physiological processes that occur during lipid ingestion, digestion, and absorption, and then discusses some approaches ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2009
While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems ...
Park Mi-Young - - 2009
Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. ...
Hurvitz Philip M - - 2009
Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King ...
Demonty Isabelle - - 2009
Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of different phytosterol doses. Eighty-four trials including 141 trial arms were included. A nonlinear ...
Tanno Fumié K - - 2008
Food-drug interactions may reduce the bioavailability of drugs taken after meals (negative food effects). We designed enteric-coated tablets that start to disintegrate when they reach the middle-to-lower region of the small intestine, and examined whether they could reduce negative food effects in dogs. Tablets containing trientine as a model drug ...
Maughan Ronald J - - 2008
Competitive Muslim athletes often have to train and compete during the holy month of Ramadan when they abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in 78 Tunisian junior male soccer players aged ...
Chang Wen-Ruey - - 2008
Friction variation has been related to employees' perception of slipperiness in a field study conducted in fast-food restaurants. However, details of friction variation in actual workplaces have not been reported in the literature. This field study investigated friction variations in 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The results indicated that ...
Dansereau Richard J - - 2008
PURPOSE: The chemical compatibility of commercially available food thickeners used with risedronate sodium tablets is examined. METHODS: Plastic 250-mL disposable beakers were used to prepare solutions for compatibility testing. Two ounces of purified water at room temperature was added to each beaker. One risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet was also added ...
Fadda Hala M - - 2009
PURPOSE: The transit of dosage forms through the small intestine is considered to be constant at around 3 h, and unaffected by the presence of food. Here we address this assumption and examine how the timing of tablet and food administration can influence small intestine transit time. METHODS: A non-disintegrating, ...
Zhang Xiang-Rong - - 2008
To investigate the pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin citrate salt and the effect of food on the absorption of free base and citrate salt, clarithromycin citrate was prepared and the in vitro intrinsic dissolution profiles of the free base and the salt were examined at pH 5.0 and pH 6.8. The pharmacokinetic ...
Chan Kuei Hui - - 2008
Kakkon-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Kakkon-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate ...
Matsubara Takeshi - - 2008
Intestinal absorption of food proteins is well known, whereas its physiological significance remains to be investigated. Various amounts (1, 10 and 50 mg) of ovalbumin were orally administered to mice and the blood kinetics were subsequently analyzed by two-site ELISA. The blood ovalbumin concentration consistently reached its maximum (7-90 ng/ml) ...
Sarathy Srilekha - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients, but many menu items are not compatible with renal diets because of their sodium, potassium, or phosphorus content. Moreover, the phosphorus content of fast foods is difficult for patients to estimate, because phosphorus-containing additives are commonly added to many fast foods. ...
Kang Wonku - - 2008
PURPOSE: Talniflumate was designed as a prodrug of niflumic acid, a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, which is widely prescribed for treating rheumatoid diseases. The prandial effect on talniflumate absorption remains unclear; therefore, this study investigated the effect of food on the systemic exposure to niflumic acid in healthy volunteers. ...
Hemphill Eric - - 2008
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between the placement of fast-food outlets and neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables by determining if indicators of lower socioeconomic status were predictive of exposure to fast food. DESIGN: A descriptive analysis of the fast-food environment in a Canadian urban center, using secondary analysis of census data and ...
Wiczkowski Wieslaw - - 2008
The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low ...
Bryant Rachel - - 2008
Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American ...
Scully Maree - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between television advertising exposure and adults' consumption of fast foods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions included measures of frequency of fast-food consumption at different meal times and average daily hours spent watching commercial television. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Subjects comprised 1495 adults (41 % response rate) aged >or=18 ...
Rosenheck R - - 2008
Consumption of fast food, which have high energy densities and glycemic loads, and expose customers to excessive portion sizes, may be greatly contributing to and escalating the rates of overweight and obesity in the USA. Whether an association exists between fast food consumption and weight gain is unclear. Sixteen studies ...
Dunn Kirsten I - - 2008
The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast ...
Yokel Robert A - - 2008
Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined ...
Krishnan Suma - - 2008
The relative bioavailability of oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine, and active d-amphetamine was assessed in an open-label, single-dose, 3-treatment, 3-period, randomized, crossover study in 18 healthy adult volunteers. Following a fast of at least 10 hours, subjects were administered an intact capsule of 70 mg lisdexamfetamine, a solution ...
Galanello Renzo - - 2008
Deferasirox (ICL670) is representative of a new class of tridentate iron chelators, formulated as tablets for dispersion. Deferasirox has exhibited high potency and a clinically manageable safety profile in preclinical models and in an extensive clinical program. The effect of food and time of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of ...
Lee R D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dexlansoprazole MR is a proton pump inhibitor with a Dual Delayed Release (DDR) formulation designed to prolong the dexlansoprazole plasma concentration-time profile. The presence of food or time of dosing relative to food may affect dexlansoprazole absorption. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and ...
Ohno Tomoya - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of imidafenacin and to explore the factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of imidafenecin. A total of 2406 plasma samples were collected from 90 healthy volunteers and 457 patients with overactive bladder. We determined the plasma concentrations of imidafenacin ...
Koono Eunice Emiko Mori - - 2008
The bioequivalence of two different tablet formulations of tinidazole (CAS 19387-91-8) was determined in healthy volunteers after a single dose in a randomized crossover study, with a 1-week washout period between the doses. Reference and test products were administered to 24 volunteers with 240 mL water after overnight fasting. Plasma ...
Zmitek Janko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a naturally occurring compound that plays a fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics and is an effective antioxidant. Numerous health benefits of CoQ10 supplementation have been reported, resulting in growing demands for its use in fortifying food. Due to its insolubility in water, the enrichment of ...
Mendes Fabiana D - - 2008
To assess the comparative bioavailability of two formulations (40 mg delayed-released [DR] tablet; test and reference) of pantoprazole (CAS 102625-70-7) in healthy volunteers of both sexes, with and without food. The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 1-week washout interval, in two groups, with ...
Creel Jennifer S - - 2008
Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for ...
Woo Jong Soo - - 2008
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) represent a possible alternative to traditional oral formulations of lipophilic compounds. This study was designed to compare the oral bioavailability and food-effect of SMEDDS of itraconazole (ITRA-GSMP capsule containing 50mg itraconazole) to that of the currently marketed formulation (Sporanox capsule containing 100mg itraconazole). Eight healthy ...
Caviedes-Vidal Enrique - - 2007
Anecdotal evidence suggests that birds have smaller intestines than mammals. In the present analysis, we show that small birds and bats have significantly shorter small intestines and less small intestine nominal (smooth bore tube) surface area than similarly sized nonflying mammals. The corresponding >50% reduction in intestinal volume and hence ...
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