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Results 201 - 250 of 858
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Ozaki Aya - - 2010
We evaluated the characteristics of a coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) formulation created with gum arabic. We defined the formulation's "modulus of inclusion," a reference index of the emulsified state, as the CoQ(10) not extracted by hexane as a percentage of the total CoQ(10) content of the formulation. The emulsified CoQ(10) formulation ...
Bloomer Richard J - - 2010
Dietary modification via caloric restriction is associated with multiple effects related to improved metabolic and cardiovascular health. However, a mandated reduction in kilocalories is not well-tolerated by many individuals, limiting the long-term application of such a plan. The Daniel Fast is a widely utilized fast based on the Biblical book ...
Trepanowski John F - - 2010
The past two decades have seen a rise in the number of investigations examining the health-related effects of religiously motivated fasts. Islamic Ramadan is a 28 - 30 day fast in which food and drink are prohibited during the daylight hours. The majority of health-specific findings related to Ramadan fasting ...
Serra Aida - - 2010
Among procyanidins (PC), monomers, such as catechin and epicatechin, have been widely studied, whereas dimer and trimer oligomers have received much less attention, despite their abundance in our diet. Recent studies have showed that as dimers and trimers could be important in determining the biological effects of procyanidin-rich food, understanding ...
D?at Emmanuelle - - 2009
To exert their health effect, phytochemicals such as carotenoids and vitamin E have to be bioavailable. We investigated the digestive stability and intestinal absorption of lycopene and alpha-tocopherol from a whole food containing red tomatoes and sunflower oil using, for the first time, the dynamic gastrointestinal system TNO gastrointestinal tract ...
Enginar Nurhan - - 2010
Food intake triggers convulsions in fasted mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine. Most of the drugs produced anticonvulsant efficacy in these convulsions have sedative effects. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the contribution of sedation in the suppression of convulsions by using sedative drugs ...
Fitch Rebecca C - - 2009
To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various ...
Neilson Andrew P - - 2009
Conflicting data exist regarding the influence of chocolate matrices on the bioavailability of epicatechin (EC) from cocoa. The objective of this study was to assess the bioavailability of EC from matrices varying in macronutrient composition and physical form. EC bioavailability was assessed from chocolate confections [reference dark chocolate (CDK), high ...
Scheepens Arjan - - 2010
A substantial and growing consumer demand exists for plant-based functional foods that improve general health and wellbeing. Amongst consumed phytochemicals, the polyphenolic compounds tend to be the most bioactive. Many commonly consumed polyphenols have been shown to have specific and potent health-promoting activities when assessed by high-throughput in vitro assays ...
Issartel Julien - - 2010
Food restriction is one of the major and most common constraints that subterranean animals face in their biotope. Cave-dwelling organisms thus have to cope with fasting periods that can extend from a month to a year. However, adaptive fasting resistance previously found in subterranean fauna has only been highlighted by ...
Goldstone Anthony P AP Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK. - - 2009
Nutritional state (e.g. fasted vs. fed) and different food stimuli (e.g. high-calorie vs. low-calorie, or appetizing vs. bland foods) are both recognized to change activity in brain reward systems. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we have studied the interaction between nutritional state and different food stimuli on brain food reward ...
Duffey Kiyah J KJ Department of Nutrition, Schools of Public Health and Medicine, and 4Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27510, - - 2009
Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, ...
Cermak Rainer - - 2009
Postharvest processing and storage not only influence the content and composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in foodstuffs, thereby altering the amount of potentially bioavailable bioactive compounds, but can also modify their chemical form. Moreover, due to the intensive metabolism during absorption, the metabolites circulating in blood differ from the ...
White Karen L - - 2009
The contribution of lymphatic transport to the oral bioavailability of methylnortestosterone (M) after oral administration of the lipophilic prodrug methylnortestosterone undecanoate (MU) has been evaluated, and the sensitivity of lymphatic MU transport to lymphatic lipid transport has been investigated. M and MU were administered intravenously and orally to greyhound dogs ...
Morgenstern Lewis B - - 2009
To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. This work was a prespecified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the ...
Soares Maria Albertina de Miranda - - 2009
The lifespan of intestinal epithelial cells is predetermined by the process of cell proliferation that occurs constantly in the crypt. The control of this process involves some endogenous factors, such as hormones, as well as exogenous factors, like food and natural light variations. These last two exogenous factors seem to ...
Powell Lisa M - - 2009
This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control ...
Wall Julian P - - 2009
Plasma concentrations of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, have been reported to increase during fasting in some species of birds. Although Japanese quail are widely used in laboratory studies, corticosterone responses to fasting have not been described for this species. We therefore investigated the effects of 24h of fasting on plasma ...
Inagami Sanae - - 2009
Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined ...
Chen Ying - - 2009
The objective of this study is to compare the differences between self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and solid dispersion (SD) technology used to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of vinpocetine (VIP). The formulation of VIP-SMEDDS was composed of Labrafac, oleic acid, Cremophor EL, Transcutol P, and gum acacia which ...
Malhotra B - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Fesoterodine is a new, once-daily, oral, antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder. It undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism by plasma esterases to form its principal active moiety, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT). The sustained-release formulation of fesoterodine delivers 5-HMT with linear, dose-proportional pharmacokinetics (PK) suitable for once-daily dosing. ...
Shono Yasushi - - 2009
Since the rate-determining step to the intestinal absorption of poorly soluble drugs is the dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, postprandial changes in GI physiology, in addition to any specific interactions between drug and food, are expected to affect the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of such drugs. In this study, in ...
Zhong Qixin - - 2009
Sustained release of antimicrobials may be a viable solution to enhance the bioavailability during the shelf life of food products. In this work, spray-drying was used to encapsulate a model antimicrobial of lysozyme in corn zein. The effects of zein/lysozyme (20:1 to 4:1) and zein/thymol (1:0 to 4:1) ratios on ...
Moore Latetia V - - 2009
The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as ...
Rubino C M - - 2009
Pirfenidone is a small, synthetic molecule under investigation for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In an open-label, single-dose crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of pirfenidone were investigated with or without food and antacids in healthy adult volunteers. Concentrations of pirfenidone and its metabolites in plasma and urine were determined by ...
MacLean Carol M - - 2009
ARD-07 (also known as EP01572) is a peptidomimetic growth hormone secretagogue that can be administered orally. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of a meal on the oral bioavailability of ARD-07 after a single oral dose (0.5 mg/kg). In addition, the pharmacodynamic effects (growth hormone ...
Morse Kristin L - - 2009
Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to ...
Serrano Elena L - - 2009
Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were recorded, with nutrient content information obtained from their respective ...
Dave Jayna M - - 2009
The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults ...
Markopoulos Constantinos - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the intralumenal stability of oleuropein in human gastric and small intestinal contents. We additionally aimed to assess the stability characteristics of oleuropein in media simulating the intralumenal conditions. METHODS: The intralumenal stability of oleuropein was assessed in aspirates from the stomach and the upper small ...
Mai X-M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fast food consumption and childhood asthma have rapidly increased in recent decades. During the same period there has been an increased rate of prolonged breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if fast food consumption was associated with asthma in children, and if the proposed protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma was ...
Bauer Katherine W - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To examine secular and longitudinal changes (1999-2004) in fast food intake among adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents from Minnesota participating in Project EAT (n=2516) were surveyed in 1999 and 2004. Mixed-model regressions were used to assess secular and longitudinal changes in percentage reporting frequent fast food intake (> or =3 times/week) ...
Walton Michaela C - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a simultaneous intake of food and anthocyanins (ACNs) on ACN absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Blackcurrant ACNs (BcACNs) were dissolved in water with or without the addition of oatmeal and orally administered to rats, providing approximately 250 mg total ...
McClements David Julian - - 2009
The bioavailability of particular lipids may be either increased or decreased by manipulating the microstructure and/or physiochemical properties of the foods that contain them. This article reviews the current understanding of the molecular, physicochemical, and physiological processes that occur during lipid ingestion, digestion, and absorption, and then discusses some approaches ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2009
While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems ...
Park Mi-Young - - 2009
Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. ...
Hurvitz Philip M - - 2009
Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King ...
Demonty Isabelle - - 2009
Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of different phytosterol doses. Eighty-four trials including 141 trial arms were included. A nonlinear ...
Tanno Fumié K - - 2008
Food-drug interactions may reduce the bioavailability of drugs taken after meals (negative food effects). We designed enteric-coated tablets that start to disintegrate when they reach the middle-to-lower region of the small intestine, and examined whether they could reduce negative food effects in dogs. Tablets containing trientine as a model drug ...
Maughan Ronald J - - 2008
Competitive Muslim athletes often have to train and compete during the holy month of Ramadan when they abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in 78 Tunisian junior male soccer players aged ...
Chang Wen-Ruey - - 2008
Friction variation has been related to employees' perception of slipperiness in a field study conducted in fast-food restaurants. However, details of friction variation in actual workplaces have not been reported in the literature. This field study investigated friction variations in 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The results indicated that ...
Dansereau Richard J - - 2008
PURPOSE: The chemical compatibility of commercially available food thickeners used with risedronate sodium tablets is examined. METHODS: Plastic 250-mL disposable beakers were used to prepare solutions for compatibility testing. Two ounces of purified water at room temperature was added to each beaker. One risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet was also added ...
Fadda Hala M - - 2009
PURPOSE: The transit of dosage forms through the small intestine is considered to be constant at around 3 h, and unaffected by the presence of food. Here we address this assumption and examine how the timing of tablet and food administration can influence small intestine transit time. METHODS: A non-disintegrating, ...
Zhang Xiang-Rong - - 2008
To investigate the pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin citrate salt and the effect of food on the absorption of free base and citrate salt, clarithromycin citrate was prepared and the in vitro intrinsic dissolution profiles of the free base and the salt were examined at pH 5.0 and pH 6.8. The pharmacokinetic ...
Chan Kuei Hui - - 2008
Kakkon-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Kakkon-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate ...
Matsubara Takeshi - - 2008
Intestinal absorption of food proteins is well known, whereas its physiological significance remains to be investigated. Various amounts (1, 10 and 50 mg) of ovalbumin were orally administered to mice and the blood kinetics were subsequently analyzed by two-site ELISA. The blood ovalbumin concentration consistently reached its maximum (7-90 ng/ml) ...
Sarathy Srilekha - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients, but many menu items are not compatible with renal diets because of their sodium, potassium, or phosphorus content. Moreover, the phosphorus content of fast foods is difficult for patients to estimate, because phosphorus-containing additives are commonly added to many fast foods. ...
Kang Wonku - - 2008
PURPOSE: Talniflumate was designed as a prodrug of niflumic acid, a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, which is widely prescribed for treating rheumatoid diseases. The prandial effect on talniflumate absorption remains unclear; therefore, this study investigated the effect of food on the systemic exposure to niflumic acid in healthy volunteers. ...
Hemphill Eric - - 2008
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between the placement of fast-food outlets and neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables by determining if indicators of lower socioeconomic status were predictive of exposure to fast food. DESIGN: A descriptive analysis of the fast-food environment in a Canadian urban center, using secondary analysis of census data and ...
Wiczkowski Wieslaw - - 2008
The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low ...
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