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Anker Justin J JJ Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, MMC 392, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. - - 2011
Research suggests that age and sex are vulnerability factors for drug abuse. However, few studies have systematically examined their interaction. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female, adult and adolescent rats under a procedure that measures responding during periods of signaled availability and nonavailability of ...
Ratnovsky Yevgeniya - - 2011
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) occurs when there is limited access to food and an opportunity to engage in high levels of physical activity. While the ABA effect is well established, the distinct functions of exercise and food restriction in maintaining ABA have not been determined. The current study examined the effect ...
Nagata E - - 2011
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a substantially greater incidence of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Animal studies have shown that IUGR offspring are hyperphagic during the early postnatal period and therefore exhibit obesity. The molecular mechanisms underlying food intake regulation in the gastrointestinal tract have not been clarified in ...
Carnicer Jofre - - 2011
Climate change is progressively increasing severe drought events in the Northern Hemisphere, causing regional tree die-off events and contributing to the global reduction of the carbon sink efficiency of forests. There is a critical lack of integrated community-wide assessments of drought-induced responses in forests at the macroecological scale, including defoliation, ...
Carrera Olaia - - 2011
This study examined the effect of 24 hr per day wheel access on running, body weight, and food intake for 30- or 50-day-old male and female rats under ad lib feeding conditions. Food intake and body weight were also monitored in a control group housed without access to running wheels. A ...
Burri Betty J - - 2011
β-Carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (CX) and α-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form retinol. The amount of retinol (vitamin A) formed from carotenoid-rich foods should depend chiefly on the bioavailability (absorption and circulation time in the body) of carotenoids from their major food sources and the selectivity and reactivity of carotene ...
Kwon G Y - - 2011
The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using ...
Martens Maria - - 2011
The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically ...
Gong HanLin - - 2011
Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation used to treat digestive diseases, is composed of dahuang (Rheum officinale Baill, Polygonaceae), houpu (Magnolia officinalis Rehd., Magnoliaceae), zhishi (Citrus aurantium L, Rutaceae) and mangxiao (sodium sulphate). Rhein and emodin are the major active components of Rheum officinale Baill. To investigate the ...
Hayasaka Naoto - - 2011
Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are a multi-functional protein family, which functions in part as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) of G protein α-subunits to terminate G protein signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Rgs16 transcripts exhibit robust circadian rhythms both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian light-entrainable ...
Mazur James E - - 2011
Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined reasons for previous findings that in choices with probabilistic delayed reinforcers, rats' choices were affected by the time between trials whereas pigeons' choices were not. In both experiments, the animals chose between a standard alternative and an adjusting alternative. A choice of the ...
Stella Judi L JL Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2011
To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Prospective observational study. 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary ...
Steinman Michael Q - - 2011
Food restriction has been reported to have positive effects on cognition. This study examines how another environmental factor, daylength, can alter the impact of food restriction on the brain and behavior. Female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), housed on either long days (16 h of light and 8 h of darkness) or short ...
Yan Xiaodan X Laboratory for Higher Brain Function, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2011
Regulation of food intake is very important for health. It has been reported that people have decreased appetite at high altitude (HA). The current study recruited long-term HA residents to participate in an fMRI experiment which involved food craving. Result shows that the HA group showed decreased activation in the ...
Senthil Amudha - - 2011
Seaweed is a macroscopic marine algae which has been used as human food since ancient times. Food values of seaweed are mainly due to significant amounts of protein, vitamin, mineral, trace elements and dietary fibre apart from substances of antibiotic nature. In this study edible red seaweed Eucheuma (Kappaphycus alvarezzi), ...
Saarela M - - 2010
Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. ...
Mehlhorn Heinz - - 2011
Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm ...
Choi June-Seek - - 2010
In a natural environment, foragers constantly face the risk of encountering predators. Fear is a defensive mechanism evolved to protect animals from danger by balancing the animals' needs for primary resources with the risk of predation, and the amygdala is implicated in mediating fear responses. However, the functions of fear ...
Xu Su Yun - - 2011
The effects of pH and bulking agents on hydrolysis/acidogenesis of food waste were studied using leach bed reactor (LBR) coupled with methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The hydrolysis rate under regulated pH (6.0) was studied and compared with unregulated one during initial experiment. Then, the efficacies of five ...
Michel L Martínez - - 2011
Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, ...
Brouwers Joachim - - 2011
In the present study, we demonstrated the value of two advanced tools, the TNO gastric and small Intestinal Model (TIM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for the in vitro evaluation of food-dependent disintegration of immediate release fosamprenavir tablets. Upon introduction of a tablet with the nutritional drink Scandishake Mix® in ...
Bevernage Jan - - 2010
It was the purpose of this study to explore supersaturation of poorly soluble drugs in human intestinal fluids (HIF), and to assess potential food effects on the creation and maintenance of supersaturation. Duodenal fluids were collected from healthy volunteers and pooled according to three nutritional states (fasted-, fed-, and fat-enriched ...
Kumar Suneel - - 2010
Chronic (2 h/d x 8 weeks) exposure to magnetic field (MF; 50 Hz, 17.9 microT) in complete spinal cord (T13) transected rats restored food intake (FI), water intake (WI) and body weight (BW) which were decreased in the spinal cord injured rats. The results suggest a significant beneficial effect of ...
Thornton Lukar E - - 2011
Background It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with ...
Chen Lingyun - - 2010
The purpose of this work was to study the performance of microspheres of soy protein isolate (SPI), zein, or SPI-zein complex as vehicles of nutraceutical delivery under fasting and prandial conditions in an artificial digestive system (TIM-1). Riboflavin availability for absorption from the small intestine compartments reached 90% of the ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2010
The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food ...
Vettorazzi A - - 2010
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that causes renal tumors in rats, particularly in males. In previous kinetic studies performed in fed conditions (Vettorazzi et al., 2008), mature F344 male rats presented a significantly lower OTA bioavailability than females and young animals. The objective of the present study was to ...
Bade Steffen - - 2010
The gastrointestinal tract is a hostile biological environment, yet not all ingested materials are destroyed. The minute differences that determine whether a substance persists or is digested, liberated, adsorbed, excreted, or taken up are still poorly understood. Most attempts to investigate the events occurring during an orogastrointestinal passage rely on ...
Park Chul Ho - - 2010
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which is common in the human body, is efficacious in appetite suppression. However, its typical formulations of salt or micronized crystals cannot satisfy the desired bioavailability requirements for appetite suppression due to low absorption and a short plasma half-life. Herein, we describe a new ALA nanoparticulate formulation ...
Tharakan A - - 2010
There is an increasing need to understand how food formulations behave in vivo from both food and pharma industries. A number of models have been proposed for the stomach, but few are available for the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. An experimental rig that simulates the segmentation motion occurring ...
Chen Bingcan - - 2010
Soybean oil bodies are naturally coated by a layer of phospholipids and oleosin proteins, which protect them from in vivo environmental stresses. When oil bodies are incorporated into food products, they encounter new environmental stresses such as changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Consequently, additional protection mechanisms are often ...
Lin M-Y - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of food and antacids on the bioavailability of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHOD: Systematic search of electronic databases PubMed (January 1950-May 2009), and the Cochrane Library database (January 1974-May 2009), including the Cochrane Centre register of controlled trials, and ongoing trials from research registers using key ...
Mendell Jeanne - - 2011
The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a standard high-fat meal on the single-dose (60 mg) pharmacokinetics (PK) of edoxaban in healthy Japanese and Caucasian male volunteers matched by body mass index. This was an open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study. All 32 enrolled volunteers completed ...
Cao Qing-Ri - - 2010
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of food components and dosing time on the oral exposure of nifedipine in rats. Nifedipine was given orally to rats with and without food components at 8:00a.m. (morning time) or 4:00p.m. (evening time) during winter periods. Food components included milk, sodium ...
Knorr Barbara - - 2010
PURPOSE: The primary objective of the studies was to demonstrate bioequivalence between the oral granules formulation and chewable tablet of montelukast in the fasted state. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of the oral granules was also evaluated. METHODS: The Formulation Biocomparison Study (Study 1) and the Final Market Image ...
Yuen Kah-Hay - - 2010
The human small intestine, with its enormous absorptive surface area, is invariably the principal site of drug absorption. Hence, the residence time of a dosage form in this part of the gut can have a great influence on the absorption of the contained drug. Various methods have been employed to ...
Curatolo William - - 2010
PURPOSE: Azithromycin capsules are known to exhibit a negative food effect, manifest as a decrease in azithromycin bioavailability in the fed state. Azithromycin tablets are known to be bioequivalent to capsules in the fasted state, but do not exhibit a food effect. In the present study, the involvement of gastric ...
Madrigal-Santillán Eduardo - - 2010
Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a ...
Sugano Kiyohiko - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to derive a theoretical framework for prediction of the food effects by interactions with bile micelles on oral drug absorption. The effect of bile micelles was discussed based on the categories of permeability limited (PL), dissolution rate limited (DRL) and solubility limited (SL) ...
Stanek Edward J EJ - - 2010
Bioavailability of arsenic (As) from ingested soil is estimated in a two-period experimental study involving 11 subjects/period. In the first period, a 7-day mass-balance study measured As in food/beverages, urine, and stool to estimate bioavailability of As in food and beverages. Food/beverage As bioavailability (percentage ingested that is not in ...
Lincoln Jana - - 2010
Determining a drug dosing regimen that produces consistent bioavailability and patient effects is one of the goals of the drug development process. Food consumption is one factor that can significantly alter the bioavailability of some drugs. This manuscript describes a research approach to determine what recommendations to give patients regarding ...
Borrmann Steffen - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in many African countries. Concomitant food consumption may affect absorption of lumefantrine but data in the most important target population, i.e. children, are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of food intake on oral lumefantrine bioavailability in African children with malaria. ...
Tracy C R - - 2010
Passerine birds migrating long distances arrive at stopover sites to refuel having lost as much as 50% of their initial body mass (mb), including significant losses to digestive organs that may serve as a reservoir of protein catabolised for fuel during flight. Birds newly arrived at a stopover show slow ...
Paquet Catherine - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To test the moderating role of the extent of fast-food restaurants in one's immediate environment in the association between mastery and metabolic risk. Higher sense of mastery (perceived control over one's circumstances) has been associated with better metabolic outcomes. Mastery may be instrumental in resisting unhealthful environmental food cues ...
Paquet Catherine C School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. - - 2010
Local fast-food environments have been increasingly linked to obesity and related outcomes. Individuals who are more sensitive to reward-related cues might be more responsive to such environments. This study aimed to assess the moderating role of sensitivity to reward on the relation between residential fast-food restaurant exposure and fast-food consumption. ...
Al-Tabakha Moawia M - - 2010
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is employed for a wide variety of pharmaceutical and food preparations. Its applications as viscolizing agent (thickening agent), coating polymer, bioadhesive, in solid dispersion to enhance solubility, binder in the process of granulation and in modified release formulations have been well documented. One other notable use is ...
Smith Jennifer K - - 2010
Infantile botulism is a rare cause of neuromuscular weakness resulting from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum-an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus found universally in soil. The only definite food source known to cause infantile botulism is honey; previously, links to formula milk have been postulated but not definitely sourced. We present an interesting ...
Huang Qingrong - - 2010
Nanotechnology is an enable technology that has the potential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. Driven by increasing consumer demand for healthy food products, researchers have been applying tools and knowledge in nanotechnology to address the issues relevant to food and nutrition. This concise review is mainly focused on nanoemulsions ...
Azizi Fereidoun - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. METHODS: Related ...
Ozaki Aya - - 2010
We evaluated the characteristics of a coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) formulation created with gum arabic. We defined the formulation's "modulus of inclusion," a reference index of the emulsified state, as the CoQ(10) not extracted by hexane as a percentage of the total CoQ(10) content of the formulation. The emulsified CoQ(10) formulation ...
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