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Results 451 - 500 of 859
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Ekmekcioglu C - - 2000
The Caco-2 cell model is gaining more and more importance as an in vitro method to study intestinal nutrient bioavailability from foods. In a previous article we presented evidence that fractional Mg2+ transport from different aqueous solutions containing differing amounts of magnesium varies considerably in some cases. In the present ...
Olthof M R - - 2000
The flavonoid quercetin is an antioxidant which occurs in foods mainly as glycosides. The sugar moiety in quercetin glycosides affects their bioavailability in humans. Quercetin-3-rutinoside is an important form of quercetin in foods, but its bioavailability in humans is only 20% of that of quercetin-4'-glucoside. Quercetin-3-rutinoside can be transformed into ...
Ohmori S - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to develop a new sustained-release phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) bilayer caplets that consists of an immediate-release portion and a prolonged-release portion containing a hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2208 (HPMC2208) matrix. Since PPA is a highly water-soluble drug, incorporation of 60% HPMC2208 level in the matrix was required for ...
Jumars PA - - 2000
I solved equations that describe coupled hydrolysis in and absorption from a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), a plug flow reactor (PFR), and a batch reactor (BR) for the rate of ingestion and/or the throughput time that maximizes the rate of absorption (=gross rate of gain from digestion). Predictions are ...
De Marinis L - - 2000
Hexarelin (HEX) is a new synthetic analog of the Growth Hormone releasing peptides and is stronger than GHRH in releasing GH in vivo. No information is available on the effect of food ingestion on HEX-induced GH secretion. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that food intake at lunchtime ...
Huang C - - 2000
To evaluate the bioavailability of beta-carotene from plant foods, the serum beta-carotene response to a single ingestion of various beta-carotene sources was determined in 10 healthy men. Tested beta-carotene sources included stir-fried shredded carrot, stir-fried water convolvulus leaves, deep-fried sweet potato ball, purified beta-carotene in a capsule (beadlets) and beadlets ...
Schulte-Frohlinde E - - 2000
Food-derived opioid peptides such as beta-casomorphins are of interest for treatment of chronic diarrhea. The beta-casomorphin analog casokefamide was administered orally at doses of 5.5, 8.0, and 16.0 mg to 10 healthy male volunteers, respectively. Dose-dependent increases of plasma levels with a maximum of 350 fmol/l were determined. No side-effects ...
Chun A H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the bioavailability of lansoprazole when administered as an intact capsule and when the contents are admixed with various soft foods. BACKGROUND: Patients sometimes cannot swallow or have difficulty swallowing intact capsules such as lansoprazole. To enable them to ingest the drug, the contents ...
Eskens F A - - 2000
MMI270B is a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI) with in vitro and in vivo activity. To exert optimal target inhibition, MMPI must be given chronically, and therefore, oral bioavailability is important. We analyzed the effect of food intake on AUC0-8 h, Cmax, and Tmax. Seventeen patients were entered into the study. ...
Kelly M L - - 2000
The purpose of the study was to investigate the release-controlling action of a swellable hydrophilic material based on heterodisperse polysaccharides (HP) in relation to the initial pore structure of the formulations. HP-based granules were produced under carefully controlled conditions and compacted into matrix tablets having equivalent tablet thickness. Quantification of ...
Modi N B - - 2000
The effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of OROS(R) (methylphenidate HCl), an osmotic controlled-release formulation of methylphenidate HCl, was investigated in healthy subjects. Mean peak methylphenidate plasma concentrations occurred slightly later and peak methylphenidate plasma concentrations and AUC values were slightly higher (approximately 10-30%) in the presence of ...
Stillings M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption of popular preparations of two common analgesics--soluble aspirin and solid paracetamol tablets. An open, randomised, crossover study design was used to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of soluble aspirin and solid paracetamol tablets in 16 healthy, male volunteers from the University ...
Hollman P C - - 1999
Flavonoids are antioxidants present in plant foods. They occur mainly as glycosides, i.e. linked with various sugars. It is uncertain to what extent dietary flavonoid glycosides are absorbed from the gut. We investigated how the nature of the sugar group affected absorption of one major flavonoid, quercetin. Quercetin linked with ...
Skinner G W - - 1999
In solid dosage manufacturing, roller compaction technology plays an important role in providing cost control and a quality product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fine-particle hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a dry binder in roller compaction processing. The formula included acetaminophen (APAP), microcrystalline cellulose, fine-particle HPC, ...
Dugué B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Adhesion proteins such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may be important markers for early atherosclerosis and some other diseases. To devise optimum specimen collection procedures, we investigated the effects on serum sICAM-1 of several preanalytical factors (factors that occur before a specimen is analyzed) such as the time ...
Thomson A B - - 1999
Eight healthy volunteers were used to determine the influence of a normal diet (food) versus an isocaloric chemically defined diet (CDD) on the dose of ranitidine infused continuously over 12 hr, required to maintain the intragastric pH > or = 5 or above. The dose of ranitidine used was adjusted ...
Gelal A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Menthol is widely used in a variety of commercial products and foods, but its clinical pharmacology is not well studied. To determine the disposition kinetics and to examine subjective and cardiovascular effects of menthol, we conducted a crossover placebo-controlled study that compared pure menthol versus placebo, along with an ...
Chittick G E - - 1999
Study A: to determine the absolute bioavailability of a single 300-mg abacavir hemisulfate tablet. Study B: to determine the bioequivalence of two oral abacavir formulations (300-mg hemisulfate tablet, 100-mg succinate caplet), the effect of food on the bioavailability of the 300-mg hemisulfate tablet, and the bioavailability of the hemisulfate tablet ...
Raber M - - 1999
In an open, randomized four-period crossover study in 24 healthy male volunteers a newly developed tramadol (CAS 27203-92-5) sustained release capsule with and without concomitant food intake and an instant release formulation were administered. Additionally, a sustained release tablet was applied as further reference substance. Statistical analysis of AUC(0-infinity) and ...
Garber A K - - 1999
Phylloquinone (K) absorption was assessed in 22- to 30-y-old human subjects consuming a standard test meal [402 kcal (1682 kJ), 27% energy from fat]. The absorption of phylloquinone, measured over a 9-h period as the area under the curve (AUC), was higher (P < 0.01) after the consumption of a ...
Augeri D J - - 1999
Potent and orally bioavailable nonthiol-containing inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase are described. Oral bioavailability was achieved by replacement of the pyridyl ether moiety of 1 with a 2-substituted furan ether to give 4. Potency was regained with 2,5-disubstituted furan ethers while maintaining the bioavailability inherent in 4. p-Chlorophenylfuran ether 24 is ...
Alvarez-Lorenzo C - - 1999
The stability of several varieties of hydroxypropylcellulose was monitored during 3 years of storage (1) under the conditions recommended by manufacturers and official pharmacopoeias (simple storage in closed containers) and (2) at zero relative humidity. After 1 year, severe degradation of the varieties with lower initial pH and particle size ...
Freed M I - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of food on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, period-balanced, single-dose, crossover study, rosiglitazone 2 mg was administered to 12 healthy male volunteers either in the fasting state or following a standard high-fat breakfast. The primary end ...
Netzer P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter status has recently been approved for low-dose H2-antagonists in several countries. Insufficient information is currently available on the effect of food in low-dose H2-antagonist therapy. AIM: Compare the antisecretory efficacy of low-dose ranitidine and famotidine in fasting and non-fasting volunteers. METHODS: Twenty volunteers were randomized into a double-blind, ...
al-Zein H - - 1999
The effect of packaging and storage on carbamazepine (CBZ) tablets was examined using Tegretol and Tegral, dispensed in strip seals, and Finlepsin, dispensed in bottles. Tegretol and Tegral tablets were stored in their original strips at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C for 6 months, 3 ...
Nielsen G D - - 1999
Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water ...
Peloquin C A - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Determine the intrasubject and intersubject variability in, and the effects of food or antacids on, the pharmacokinetics of rifampin (RIF). DESIGN: Randomized, four-period crossover phase I study. SUBJECTS: Fourteen healthy male and female volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects ingested single doses of RIF, 600 mg, under fasting conditions twice, with ...
McEwen J - - 1998
This randomized three-way, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed to determine whether food or an antacid alters the bioavailability of dexketoprofen trometamol. A total of 24 healthy volunteers received three single 25 mg doses of dexketoprofen trometamol administered either in fasting condition, after an antacid (Maalox), or after a high-fat breakfast. ...
Piscitelli D A - - 1998
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of major compositional changes on the bioavailability of piroxicam from immediate-release formulations filled in hard gelatin capsules. The capsules were manufactured according to a 2(5-1) + star point (resolution V) experimental design to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate ...
Andlauer W - - 1998
Chemoprotective potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals in food is a major area of scientific interest. Results acquired from epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of degenerative diseases with high phytochemical consumption. Bioavailability of phytochemicals is a critical issue, though their significant absorption has been demonstrated. Phytochemicals possess an array of ...
Byrd G D - - 1998
The relationship between nicotine yield as determined by the FTC method and nicotine absorption was examined in 72 smokers in a more rigorous repetition of a previous study of 33 smokers. For this study, 113 smokers evenly distributed across four FTC "tar" yield ranges were recruited, only 72 demonstrated reasonable ...
Foulds J - - 1998
AIM: To demonstrate the nicotine absorption and dependence potential from unlicensed nicotine containing lozenges. DESIGN: A single case report of dependence on nicotine lozenges, plus measurements of nicotine levels before and after consumption of eight nicotine lozenges over 2 hours in volunteers. SETTING: Hospital Smokers' Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: One male patient ...
Price K - - 1998
For begging to benefit chicks, parents must respond to increased begging by bringing more food. To investigate whether parents change their provisioning in response to begging levels, I enhanced the begging levels of broods of yellow-headed blackbirds, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, using recorded vocalizations. In a short-term experiment, females and males doubled ...
Shimono K - - 1998
Crystallographic data reveal that Met-118 in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) contacts directly with the C9 methyl group of retinal, and Khorana et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 268, 20305-20311 (1993)] suggest that this contact may regulate the absorption maximum (lambdamax). We have replaced the amino acid (Val-108) corresponding to Met-118 of bR by ...
Sunshine A - - 1998
Objective: This double-blind study was to compare the effect of food on the analgesic response to bromfenac, naproxen sodium, and placebo.Methods: Single doses of bromfenac (BRO) 25 mg, naproxen Na (NAP) 550 mg, or placebo (PLA) were given to 284 patients with moderate or severe pain following cesarean section. A ...
Yoshikawa Y - - 1998
Micro-porous ethylcellulose (EC) membrane capsules were prepared by dissolving polyvinylalcohol (PVA) particles from membranes which were made of a mixture of EC (a water-insoluble polymer). The pore size was approximately 400 microns. Since the dissolution rate of theophylline from the micro-porous EC membrane capsules was fast, gel-forming polymer, poly(acyclic) acid ...
Priest N D - - 1998
1. After overnight fasting, two young male adults each received a single oral dose of 100 Bq 26Al in tap water. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to determine the 26Al content of excretion collections and of blood samples. 2. Close to 100% of the intake was ...
Balogh Nemes K - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of food consumption on the pharmacokinetics of Cordaflex 20 mg retard filmtablet in healthy volunteers through measuring nifedipine plasma levels by an HPLC-ED method both after fasting and food ingestion. The food interaction pharmacokinetic study of Cordaflex 20 mg ...
Vachharajani N N - - 1998
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a high-fat meal on the oral bioavailability of an 300-mg irbesartan tablet in healthy male volunteers. Sixteen healthy young male volunteers participated in this single-center, open-label, single-dose, crossover study. Each volunteer received a single 300-mg irbesartan tablet under fasted conditions and ...
Khullar P - - 1998
Matrix-based controlled-release niacin tablets were formulated using guar gum. The effect on the in vitro dissolution profile was examined using variable guar gum content in the formulation. It was observed that the dissolution profile declined with the increase in the guar gum content in the tablet. The in vitro dissolution ...
Cardot J M - - 1998
The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic rufinamide was investigated in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were treated with single pre-oral doses of 600 mg of rufinamide after overnight fasting or a fat and protein rich breakfast. Mean (+/- S.D.) areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) of ...
Bjornsson T D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of food on the rate and extent of eptastigmine absorption in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was carried out according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design. On three separate occasions, six young subjects received 30 mg eptastigmine ...
Leucuta S E - - 1998
The bioequivalence of oral dosage forms of oxprenolol was assessed in a triple crossover study on two groups of 12 volunteers each. Single 160 mg doses of oxprenolol hydrochloride were given after an overnight fast of either oxprenolol sustained-release tablets in a megaloporous system, a hydrophil matrix and Slow-Trasicor (Ciba-Geigy) ...
Rosillon D - - 1998
The effect of food on the oral bioavailability of a manidipine 20 mg tablet was studied after a single administration in 12 male healthy subjects. The clinical trial was conducted as an open, randomised, crossover study. In two different administration sessions, the subjects received a 20 mg manidipine tablet either ...
Galef jr - - 1998
We conducted three experiments to examine variables that might influence the longevity of socially induced food preferences in Norway rats. The duration of social influence on the food choices of 42-day-old rats (1) increased with both increasing numbers of demonstrators and increasing numbers of demonstrations by a single demonstrator, (2) ...
Reigner B - - 1998
Capecitabine (Ro 09-1978) is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate that was rationally designed to generate 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively in tumors. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and its metabolites was investigated in 11 patients with advanced colorectal cancer using a two-way cross-over design with randomized sequence. Patients ...
Brefel C - - 1998
Ropinirole is a specific non-ergoline dopamine D2-receptor agonist with antiparkinsonian properties. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ropinirole taken in the fasted condition were compared with those when it was co-administered with food. This was an open, randomized, two sessions cross over study in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease, comparing the steady-state ...
Abrahamsson B - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of nifedipine when administered as a hydrophilic matrix tablet (ER) and a push-pull osmotic pump tablet (XL) administrated after fasting, and to evaluate the effect of food for the hydrophilic matrix tablet. For this purpose, three separate studies were ...
Kenyon C J - - 1998
PURPOSE: To evaluate mechanistically the effect of food on the absorption and gastrointestinal transit of the protease inhibitor saquinavir. METHODS: Pharmacoscintigraphic investigation in eight healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Gastric emptying occurred rapidly in the fasted state with some capsules leaving the stomach prior to disintegration. Unmeasurable plasma concentrations were observed in ...
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