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Results 201 - 250 of 317
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Collins T F - - 1999
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the agency responsible for ensuring that the direct food additives and color additives used in food in the United States are safe for all consumers. In 1982, in an effort to provide guidance concerning appropriate tests, the FDA issued Toxicological Principles for the ...
Ujita M - - 1999
Poly-N-acetyllactosamine is a unique carbohydrate that can carry various functional oligosaccharides, such as sialyl Lewis X. It has been shown that the amount of poly-N-acetyllactosamine is increased in N-glycans, when they contain Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6(Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1 -->2)Manalpha1-->6 branched structure. To determine how this increased synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamines takes place, the branched acceptor was ...
Barnett W - - 1999
The criminal careers of all arsonists convicted in former West-Germany between 1983 and 1985 who were found not to be responsible due to diminished responsibility for psychiatric reasons and a random sample (every third) of all criminally liable arsonists during the same period of time were followed up until 1994 ...
Carlson B A - - 1999
The possibility of whether tRNAs with and without a highly modified base in their anticodon loop may influence the level of retroviral ribosomal frameshifting was examined. Rabbit reticulocyte lysates were programmed with mRNA encoding UUU or AAC at the frameshift site and the corresponding Phe tRNA with or without the ...
Hoe V B VB Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Agriculture, Kuching, Sarawak, - - 1999
The proximate composition including mineral and vitamin contents of 16 fruits and 46 vegetables (leaves, fruits, palm hearts and shoots) of indigenous origin in Sarawak are provided. Fruits like dabai (Canarium odontophyllum), kembayau (Dacryodes rostrata f. cuspidata), durian nyekak (Durio kutejensis) and durian kuning (Durio graveolens) are very nutritious with ...
Burdock G A - - 1999
Polydextrose (CAS no. 68424-04-4) is a water-soluble polymer of glucose that provides to foods the bulk and texture of sucrose. There are two main forms of polydextrose, an acidic form (PD-A) and a neutralized potassium salt (PD-N). Polydextrose is resistant to mammalian metabolic and microbial degeneration, rendering it both low ...
- - 1999
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes for humans, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report ...
Yasuda M - - 1998
Denatured lysozyme was refolded by a dilution method. The refolding yield depended greatly on the lysozyme concentration in the refolding mixture. When the concentration of denatured lysozyme was 0.02 g/L, the refolding yield was as high as 60%. However, when the concentration of denatured lysozyme was 0.2 g/L, the refolding ...
Kshitish Acharya K K Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, - - 1998
The proportion of captivated Indian short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx, approaching fruits within a specified duration and the fruit-approaching latency were recorded under various test conditions (involving variations in the olfactory and certain aspects of the physical environment, and the time of food presentation). While alterations in the majority of ...
Dabbah R - - 1998
There has been progress in the pharmacopeial harmonization initiative among the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia and the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Monographs on excipients and on biotechnology-derived products, as well as for General Chapters are progressing through the various stages of the harmonization process. An additional initiative, Concordance of ...
Mansour R - - 1998
Of the micromanipulation techniques developed in the twentieth century, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been the major breakthrough in the field of assisted fertilization. This article reviews the indications for the use of ICSI, its clinical application, the establishment of an ICSI programme including protocol and the results obtained since ...
- - 1998
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in foods and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers standards for the performance of studies, residues at the ...
Hallagan J B - - 1997
Cassia gum is approved for use in Europe by the Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) and is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) as a stabilizer (thickening and gelling agent) in the manufacture of canned pet foods (for cats and dogs). It is also approved for ...
Hague B A - - 1997
This study evaluates skin bacterial flora before and after aseptic preparation of clipped and nonclipped arthrocentesis sites in horses. The hair over one midcarpal joint and one distal interphalangeal joint on each horse was clipped. The contralateral joint served as the nonclipped comparison. Twelve adult horses. A prescrub sample for ...
- - 1997
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes for humans, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report ...
Kajanne A - - 1996
The focus of this article is on laypeople's notions about additives in food. A dilemma embodying the basic controversial standpoints on additives was given in interviews with 145 young and middle-aged adults representing different educational levels and fields during the years 1986-1988. The least and most educated subjects were interviewed ...
Setz J - - 1996
Pumice is a potential source of infection for the dental technician and of cross-contamination between different dentures and patients. In this study, the number of microorganisms in two different combinations of pumice and disinfectant was compared with a conventional mixture of pumice and water. The results revealed that under practical ...
Lawrie C A - - 1996
The UK has developed considerable experience in the estimating additive intake over the past 20 years. The earliest approach involved collecting large amounts of detailed information on additive concentrations and aimed to provide accurate estimates of intake for all additives in a given class. This has been replaced in recent ...
Langlais R - - 1996
With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive ...
Wagstaffe P J - - 1996
Directive 89/107/EEC on food additives authorized for foodstuffs intended for human consumption includes the requirement that 'all food additives must be kept under continuous observation and must be re-evaluated whenever necessary in the light of changing conditions of use and new scientific information'. During the period June 1994 to March ...
Gawlik J A - - 1996
The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare silver solder joint strength using flame and electric soldering techniques, and 2) to determine the effect of tack welding and increasing metal-to-metal contact area prior to tack welding, on the tensile strength of silver solder joints. Six methods: (flame soldered; tack ...
Verger P - - 1996
This paper presented the French scientific approach to the monitoring of food additive consumption. This method consists of two steps: a first level for the detection of the risk; and a second level for a more refined estimation of additive consumption. The first step, referred to as the 'crude method' ...
Aoshima H - - 1996
To study the effects of food additives on glutamate receptors, they were expressed in Xenopus oocytes that received an injection of poly(A)+ mRNAs prepared from rat brain. The response of the receptors elicited by kainate (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was measured electrophysiologically in the presence and absence of food additives. ...
Ishiwata H - - 1996
The official methods for 'readily oxidizable substances (ROS)' in propionic acid as a food additive were compared. The methods examined were those adopted in the Compendium of Food Additive Specifications (CFAS) by the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, FAO, The Japanese Standards for Food Additives (JSFA) by the ...
Rahkio M - - 1996
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between the hygienic practice of slaughterhouse workers and the microbiological contamination level of carcasses. In 5 Finnish slaughterhouses the workers' hygienic practice was observed and the carcasses were sampled by the swabbing method. The overall means (log10 cfu cm-2) of ...
Mashimo K - - 1995
The successful use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for a patient in catatonic stupor with joint contracture is reported. A 53-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, developed a catatonic stupor unresponsive to neuroleptics. Physical emaciation gradually developed under food refusal and poor nutrition. Joint contracture of her extremities resulted ...
- - 1995
This article proposes that microbiological criteria should only be drawn up and applied to foods if there is a full understanding and consideration of raw material selection, production process, packaging and finished product characteristics. The combined knowledge and expertise of public sector microbiologists and food industry microbiologists and technologists need ...
Christian R R - - 1994
Models of the microbial food web have generally used compartments aggregated by general body size and gross taxonomy. It has been assumed that these also reflect guilds or holons. Generally, results of simulation or analysis based on this structure have been reasonably well validated. Herein I summarize why the aggregations ...
Butchko H H - - 1994
Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative ...
Francesch M - - 1994
1. The effect of pelleting process and Trichoderma viride enzymes (TVE) addition on apparent metabolisable energy, corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) and on productive value of practical diets containing 40 and 45% of three different barley cultivars and one wheat were studied in poultry. 2. The effect of the pelleting ...
Chong Y H - - 1993
The effect of loading and syringing on void formation in five automixed addition silicones was evaluated by determining the voids created in the first and second halves of material loaded and dispensed from a metal syringe. Impressions were made of a model with six stainless-steel cylinders. The voids were counted ...
Bartelt R J - - 1993
Males ofCarpophilus antiquus Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) emit an aggregation pheromone that was found to be a novel hydrocarbon, (3E,5E,7E,9E)-6,8-diethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7,9-dodecatetraene. A synthetic scheme and spectra (mass and proton NMR) are given for the compound. Beetles produced the pheromone when feeding on a variety of media, including the brewer's yeast-based artificial diet, ...
Poulsen E - - 1993
Erythrosine (FD & C Red No. 3) is an iodine-containing food colour which was used as an example in the application of the proposed approach of data-derived safety factors. The effect of erythrosine on the thyroid and the mechanism by which the effect is induced has been central to the ...
de Ligny C L - - 1993
Two new potential bone scanning agents have been prepared and characterized. One of the agents, Tc(Sn,pH 12)-HEDP, is prepared at pH 12 (and subsequently neutralized). The other agent, Tc(Fe)-HEDP, is prepared by reducing [99mTc]TcO4- by a mixture of Fe(II) and Sn(II). From ion exchange chromatography on Aminex A-28 it appeared ...
Lumens M E - - 1993
The impact of hygienic behaviour on the uptake of chromium has been studied in two small chromium plating factories. The correlation between the environmental monitoring measure (Cr-A) and the biological monitoring measure (Cr-U) varied between the two factories. In one factory (I) the correlation between Cr-U and Cr-A was 0.68 ...
Singh A - - 1992
Potential chemopreventive role of an Indian food additive-garam masala has been assessed through its impact on the hepatic levels of detoxication enzymes like glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 (cyt. b5) and cytochrome P-450 (cyt. P-450), and acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content in 8-9 weeks old Swiss albino mice of either ...
Hinson A L - - 1992
A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of ...
Chappel C I - - 1992
Caramel colours used in the manufacture of a wide variety of foods and beverages have been an item of commerce for more than one hundred years. The regulatory history of these additives in the US, the UK, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC is ...
Klug C - - 1992
The stability of acesulfame K during baking was investigated at different baking temperatures and baking times. The contents of acesulfame K in baked and unbaked doughs were determined by HPLC. The recovery rate of acesulfame K was independent of the baking conditions chosen and correlated with the recovery rate of ...
Almquist E E - - 1992
The evolution of the wrist joint began 400 million years ago with the pectoral fins in primitive fish. The five-rayed extremity with 13 carpal bones and a syndesmotic distal radioulnar joint first appeared in the primitive amphibian, Eryops, some 230 million years ago. These characteristics remained similar through the evolution ...
Benz R D - - 1991
The priority-based assessment of food additives (PAFA) is a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. PAFA contains extensive administrative, chemical, and toxicological information on 1685 regulated direct food additives. The database also has limited administrative and chemical information on ...
Woods L A - - 1991
The review describes the evolution of the process of GRAS evaluation of flavoring substances by the Expert Panel of FEMA during the past 30 years. These materials possess prominent olfactory and gustatory effects and, therefore, are added to foods in very small quantities. The procedures used and criteria employed for ...
Anderson D M - - 1991
Gum samples from six individual Combretum nigricans trees and two additional reference samples have been characterized. 13C Fourier-transform NMR spectra show that all have the same structure and confirm that the variations observed in their analytical parameters reflect only small fine-structural differences. NMR spectra also reveal that eight West African ...
Poulsen E - - 1991
The different types of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are described as used by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EEC Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). The allocation is discussed of a full ADI or a temporary ADI, and examples are given for the establishment (or withdrawal) ...
Weiner M L - - 1991
Food-grade carrageenan is a safe natural product prepared from seaweed. Its addition to food imparts many desirable characteristics which have allowed it to be used continuously for centuries. The long safe history of this natural food additive is confirmed by negative results in subchronic and chronic feeding studies in many ...
Gard P R - - 1990
1. Ethamsylate (diethylammonium 2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate, Dicynene), a systemic haemostatic agent with an unknown mechanism of action, was tested for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. 2. Ethamsylate was shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent with a time course and amplitude of effect similar to that of ...
Smelt J P - - 1990
A microbiological sampling system on the basis of variables is presented which requires only small numbers of replicates (n greater than or equal to 2). The system uses previous data on standard deviations of numbers of micro-organisms in batches and is particularly useful for in-plant situations. The discriminating power of ...
Skovgaard N - - 1990
The dissemination in food factories of the organisms I have referred to earlier, represent significant and interesting issues of public health concern. Yet there seem to be difficulties in incorporating material in education-training-information programmes explaining merely the most simple and basic facts about the risk involved in food being contaminated ...
Kiriishi S - - 1990
The prothoracic glands of a variety of insects were tested for their ability to synthesize ecdysteroids in vitro. More specifically, they were evaluated for their ability to produce 3-dehydroecdysone and ecdysone using both radioimmunoassay and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Three categories of insect prothoracic glands were noted: a) ...
Rubery E D - - 1990
The U.K. Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) provides advice to government on the safety-in-use of additives and on the possible health hazards from contaminants in food. In the past the COT has given advice on additives in descriptive rather than numerical terms; ...
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