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Results 201 - 250 of 301
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Kajanne A - - 1996
The focus of this article is on laypeople's notions about additives in food. A dilemma embodying the basic controversial standpoints on additives was given in interviews with 145 young and middle-aged adults representing different educational levels and fields during the years 1986-1988. The least and most educated subjects were interviewed ...
Setz J - - 1996
Pumice is a potential source of infection for the dental technician and of cross-contamination between different dentures and patients. In this study, the number of microorganisms in two different combinations of pumice and disinfectant was compared with a conventional mixture of pumice and water. The results revealed that under practical ...
Lawrie C A - - 1996
The UK has developed considerable experience in the estimating additive intake over the past 20 years. The earliest approach involved collecting large amounts of detailed information on additive concentrations and aimed to provide accurate estimates of intake for all additives in a given class. This has been replaced in recent ...
Langlais R - - 1996
With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive ...
Wagstaffe P J - - 1996
Directive 89/107/EEC on food additives authorized for foodstuffs intended for human consumption includes the requirement that 'all food additives must be kept under continuous observation and must be re-evaluated whenever necessary in the light of changing conditions of use and new scientific information'. During the period June 1994 to March ...
Gawlik J A - - 1996
The purposes of this study were: 1) to compare silver solder joint strength using flame and electric soldering techniques, and 2) to determine the effect of tack welding and increasing metal-to-metal contact area prior to tack welding, on the tensile strength of silver solder joints. Six methods: (flame soldered; tack ...
Verger P - - 1996
This paper presented the French scientific approach to the monitoring of food additive consumption. This method consists of two steps: a first level for the detection of the risk; and a second level for a more refined estimation of additive consumption. The first step, referred to as the 'crude method' ...
Aoshima H - - 1996
To study the effects of food additives on glutamate receptors, they were expressed in Xenopus oocytes that received an injection of poly(A)+ mRNAs prepared from rat brain. The response of the receptors elicited by kainate (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was measured electrophysiologically in the presence and absence of food additives. ...
Ishiwata H - - 1996
The official methods for 'readily oxidizable substances (ROS)' in propionic acid as a food additive were compared. The methods examined were those adopted in the Compendium of Food Additive Specifications (CFAS) by the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, FAO, The Japanese Standards for Food Additives (JSFA) by the ...
Rahkio M - - 1996
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between the hygienic practice of slaughterhouse workers and the microbiological contamination level of carcasses. In 5 Finnish slaughterhouses the workers' hygienic practice was observed and the carcasses were sampled by the swabbing method. The overall means (log10 cfu cm-2) of ...
Mashimo K - - 1995
The successful use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for a patient in catatonic stupor with joint contracture is reported. A 53-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, developed a catatonic stupor unresponsive to neuroleptics. Physical emaciation gradually developed under food refusal and poor nutrition. Joint contracture of her extremities resulted ...
- - 1995
This article proposes that microbiological criteria should only be drawn up and applied to foods if there is a full understanding and consideration of raw material selection, production process, packaging and finished product characteristics. The combined knowledge and expertise of public sector microbiologists and food industry microbiologists and technologists need ...
Christian R R - - 1994
Models of the microbial food web have generally used compartments aggregated by general body size and gross taxonomy. It has been assumed that these also reflect guilds or holons. Generally, results of simulation or analysis based on this structure have been reasonably well validated. Herein I summarize why the aggregations ...
Butchko H H - - 1994
Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative ...
Francesch M - - 1994
1. The effect of pelleting process and Trichoderma viride enzymes (TVE) addition on apparent metabolisable energy, corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) and on productive value of practical diets containing 40 and 45% of three different barley cultivars and one wheat were studied in poultry. 2. The effect of the pelleting ...
Chong Y H - - 1993
The effect of loading and syringing on void formation in five automixed addition silicones was evaluated by determining the voids created in the first and second halves of material loaded and dispensed from a metal syringe. Impressions were made of a model with six stainless-steel cylinders. The voids were counted ...
Bartelt R J - - 1993
Males ofCarpophilus antiquus Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) emit an aggregation pheromone that was found to be a novel hydrocarbon, (3E,5E,7E,9E)-6,8-diethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7,9-dodecatetraene. A synthetic scheme and spectra (mass and proton NMR) are given for the compound. Beetles produced the pheromone when feeding on a variety of media, including the brewer's yeast-based artificial diet, ...
Poulsen E - - 1993
Erythrosine (FD & C Red No. 3) is an iodine-containing food colour which was used as an example in the application of the proposed approach of data-derived safety factors. The effect of erythrosine on the thyroid and the mechanism by which the effect is induced has been central to the ...
de Ligny C L - - 1993
Two new potential bone scanning agents have been prepared and characterized. One of the agents, Tc(Sn,pH 12)-HEDP, is prepared at pH 12 (and subsequently neutralized). The other agent, Tc(Fe)-HEDP, is prepared by reducing [99mTc]TcO4- by a mixture of Fe(II) and Sn(II). From ion exchange chromatography on Aminex A-28 it appeared ...
Lumens M E - - 1993
The impact of hygienic behaviour on the uptake of chromium has been studied in two small chromium plating factories. The correlation between the environmental monitoring measure (Cr-A) and the biological monitoring measure (Cr-U) varied between the two factories. In one factory (I) the correlation between Cr-U and Cr-A was 0.68 ...
Singh A - - 1992
Potential chemopreventive role of an Indian food additive-garam masala has been assessed through its impact on the hepatic levels of detoxication enzymes like glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 (cyt. b5) and cytochrome P-450 (cyt. P-450), and acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content in 8-9 weeks old Swiss albino mice of either ...
Hinson A L - - 1992
A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of ...
Chappel C I - - 1992
Caramel colours used in the manufacture of a wide variety of foods and beverages have been an item of commerce for more than one hundred years. The regulatory history of these additives in the US, the UK, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC is ...
Klug C - - 1992
The stability of acesulfame K during baking was investigated at different baking temperatures and baking times. The contents of acesulfame K in baked and unbaked doughs were determined by HPLC. The recovery rate of acesulfame K was independent of the baking conditions chosen and correlated with the recovery rate of ...
Almquist E E - - 1992
The evolution of the wrist joint began 400 million years ago with the pectoral fins in primitive fish. The five-rayed extremity with 13 carpal bones and a syndesmotic distal radioulnar joint first appeared in the primitive amphibian, Eryops, some 230 million years ago. These characteristics remained similar through the evolution ...
Benz R D - - 1991
The priority-based assessment of food additives (PAFA) is a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. PAFA contains extensive administrative, chemical, and toxicological information on 1685 regulated direct food additives. The database also has limited administrative and chemical information on ...
Woods L A - - 1991
The review describes the evolution of the process of GRAS evaluation of flavoring substances by the Expert Panel of FEMA during the past 30 years. These materials possess prominent olfactory and gustatory effects and, therefore, are added to foods in very small quantities. The procedures used and criteria employed for ...
Anderson D M - - 1991
Gum samples from six individual Combretum nigricans trees and two additional reference samples have been characterized. 13C Fourier-transform NMR spectra show that all have the same structure and confirm that the variations observed in their analytical parameters reflect only small fine-structural differences. NMR spectra also reveal that eight West African ...
Poulsen E - - 1991
The different types of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are described as used by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EEC Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). The allocation is discussed of a full ADI or a temporary ADI, and examples are given for the establishment (or withdrawal) ...
Weiner M L - - 1991
Food-grade carrageenan is a safe natural product prepared from seaweed. Its addition to food imparts many desirable characteristics which have allowed it to be used continuously for centuries. The long safe history of this natural food additive is confirmed by negative results in subchronic and chronic feeding studies in many ...
Gard P R - - 1990
1. Ethamsylate (diethylammonium 2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate, Dicynene), a systemic haemostatic agent with an unknown mechanism of action, was tested for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. 2. Ethamsylate was shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent with a time course and amplitude of effect similar to that of ...
Smelt J P - - 1990
A microbiological sampling system on the basis of variables is presented which requires only small numbers of replicates (n greater than or equal to 2). The system uses previous data on standard deviations of numbers of micro-organisms in batches and is particularly useful for in-plant situations. The discriminating power of ...
Skovgaard N - - 1990
The dissemination in food factories of the organisms I have referred to earlier, represent significant and interesting issues of public health concern. Yet there seem to be difficulties in incorporating material in education-training-information programmes explaining merely the most simple and basic facts about the risk involved in food being contaminated ...
Kiriishi S - - 1990
The prothoracic glands of a variety of insects were tested for their ability to synthesize ecdysteroids in vitro. More specifically, they were evaluated for their ability to produce 3-dehydroecdysone and ecdysone using both radioimmunoassay and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Three categories of insect prothoracic glands were noted: a) ...
Rubery E D - - 1990
The U.K. Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) provides advice to government on the safety-in-use of additives and on the possible health hazards from contaminants in food. In the past the COT has given advice on additives in descriptive rather than numerical terms; ...
Anderson D M - - 1990
Combretum gums, readily available at low prices in East and West Africa, may be offered for sale as 'gum arabic'. Vigilance is necessary to detect such misrepresentations because Combretum gums differ greatly from gum arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.) in terms of quality, solution properties and value. Moreover, because there ...
Hansen S C - - 1990
Permitted levels of use for food additives should agree with the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) established by toxicologists. To ensure accordance, nutritional and physiological factors can be used to estimate high intakes of food and beverages. Appetite and thirst (energy and liquid requirements) are such quantitative factors. They are universal ...
Anderson D M - - 1990
Only three gum exudates are permitted for pharmaceutical and food use by international regulatory authorities, viz. gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.), gum karaya (Sterculia spp.) and gum arabic [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.], but a wide range of other tree exudates is used for a variety of uses in their countries ...
Tebbutt G M - - 1989
The possible relationship between the results of a microbiological sampling programme and visual inspections carried out in local food-manufacturing premises was examined. Using five main parameters - overall appearance, personal hygiene, risk of contamination, temperature control, and training and education - a visual inspection rating score was established for each ...
Weisburger E K - - 1989
Advances in analytical chemistry, as applied to foods, as well as further investigations of the role of essential trace elements, constituents of natural products, and metabolic processes, have all shown that the Delaney clause of the 1958 Food Additives Amendment is an anachronism. Although the limitations of this clause are ...
Pachor M L - - 1989
We present a case of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome that occurred in an adult patient who experienced intolerance to the food additives sodium benzoate and tartrazine. The main symptoms were the facial swelling, hypertrophy of the gums, and a typical infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells around the small vessels observed in ...
Schaner A M - - 1989
(Z)-11-Octadecenyl acetate (Z11-18∶Ac) was identified as the aggregation pheromone ofDrosophila mauritiana, D. yakuba, andD. rajasekari. The amount of pheromone in the ejaculatory bulb of male flies increased with age, reaching plateau levels of ca. 240, 800, and 1100 ng/fly forD. mauritiana, D. yakuba, andD. rajasekari, respectively. Thirty to 50% of ...
Poulsen E - - 1989
The influence of toxicology on legislation is quite clear in countries where chemicals are regulated by the authorities. There is normally a toxicological evaluation--in addition to other considerations--behind sales and use permissions and the levels that are accepted in food, air, water, etc. How does legislation affect toxicology? If there ...
White P R - - 1989
Over 200 beetle- and food-produced volatiles were collected from cultures of the saw-toothed grain beetleOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) on oats. It proved possible to develop the electroantennogram recording technique for these beetles, despite their small size, allowing volatiles causing antennal responses to be identified by coupled GC-EAG and subsequent GCMS techniques. ...
Schaner A M - - 1989
(Z)-11-Octadecenyl acetate (Z11-18∶Ac) and (Z)-11-eicosenyl acetate (Z11-20∶Ac) were identified as the aggregation pheromones ofDrosophila ananassae, andZ11-20∶Ac was identified as the aggregation pheromone ofDrosophila bipectinata. Z11-18∶Ac andZ11-20∶Ac were not attractive alone; however, in combination with fermenting food odors, the acetates attracted flies of both sexes in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. The pheromones ...
Anderson D M - - 1989
Gum tragacanth (GT), affirmed as GRAS within the USA since 1961, was evaluated as 'ADI not specified' by JECFA in 1985. Within the EEC, GT has been permitted temporarily as a food additive (E413), without an ADI, since 1974; a decision regarding its permanent status must be reached before the ...
Bitsch R - - 1989
The biotin content of plant and animal food samples as well as of human plasma and urine specimens was assessed by a modified protein binding assay (PBA). Protein bound biotin in samples was released by digestion with papain, food samples were in addition treated previously with liquid nitrogen. Comparing analyses ...
Arruda J A - - 1989
1. The permeability of the isolated turtle urinary bladder to ammonia was investigated by varying the ratio of NH3 to NH4+ concentration in the serosal bath and measuring the flux of ammonia into the mucosal bath. 2. The permeability of the turtle bladder to NH3 was in the range of ...
Schaner A M - - 1989
(Z)-11-Eicosenyl acetate (Z11-20:Ac) was identified as the aggregation pheromone inDrosophila malerkotliana. The pheromone (200-300 ng/fly) was isolated from hexane extracts of the ejaculatory bulb of sexually mature male flies. Males released very little, if any,Z11-20:Ac to the food at any time. During mating there was a transfer of ca. 100 ...
Pierce H D HD - - 1988
When feeding on rolled oats, male square-necked grain beetles,Cathartus quadricollis (Guér.), produced the aggregation pheromone (3R,6E)-7-methyl-6-nonen-3-yl acetate, for which the trival name "quadrilure" is proposed. The pheromone was highly attractive to both sexes in a two-choice, pitfall olfactometer modified to retain responding beetles by placing a food stimulus (an oat ...
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