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Tachihara Toru - - 2004
The aroma of spotted shrimp (Sergia lucence Hansen) was analyzed upon roasting to determine the components that constitute the characteristic roasted shrimp flavor. Our analyses resulted in the identification of ca. 200 volatiles, including high-impact sulfur and nitrogen compounds. In addition, we synthesized all possible stereoisomers of the pyrrolidine derivatives ...
Baker Nathan E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the ability of endodontic irrigants and medicaments to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis from infected dentinal tubules, and whether their antimicrobial action was enhanced by surfactant. STUDY DESIGN: For the study, 5-mm dentin disks were sectioned from bovine incisor roots and infected with E faecalis. Lumens were instrumented, ...
Urdiain M - - 2004
Locust bean gum (E-410) and guar gum (E-412) are high molecular weight galactomannans used by the food industry as versatile food additives. The compounds, although chemically closely related, do not have the same functional properties when used in foods, and the substitution or unadvertised addition of either could change the ...
Pickering Travis Rayne - - 2004
The reconstructed taphonomic and paleoenvironmental contexts of a ca. 4 million-year-old partial hominid skeleton (Stw 573) from Sterkfontein Member 2 are described through presentation of the results of our analyses of the mammalian faunal assemblage associated stratigraphically with the hominid. The assemblage is dominated by cercopithecoids (Parapapio and Papio) and ...
Scotter M J - - 2004
This paper critically reviews the key literature on food additive-additive chemical interactions published over the last 30 years together with appropriate relevant information on food additive-food component interactions. Five main classes of food additive are included, reflecting the research effort to date: the sulfur (IV) species of preservatives, synthetic food ...
Little C L - - 2003
A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, ...
Chakravarthi S - - 2003
A nutritious weaning food was developed using natural ingredients; namely, staple cereals and pulses, groundnut, Spirulina and gooseberry. The nutritive value of the developed weaning mix was found to be better than a commercial mix. The viscosity of the mixes was reduced by the addition of bacterial and fungal amylases. ...
Zhu Na - - 2003
A systematic study on the effect of additives on the isomerizability of 1-alkoxycarbonyl alkenylcopper(I) intermediates revealed that the lithium chelator 12-crown-4 is significantly more efficient than HMPA at retarding isomerization. On the other hand, 12-crown-4 alone is unable to promote effective coupling with alkyl halides. The combination of 12-crown-4 and ...
Luetzow Manfred - - 2003
The assessment of human exposure to chemicals present in the diet is a rapidly developing discipline. The formulation of the "risk analysis paradigm" by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1994 defined the exposure assessment as an essential step of the risk assessment process. This has re-enforced demands to those joint ...
Ishiwata Hajimu - - 2003
The mean concentration and daily intake of inorganic food additives (nitrite, nitrate, and sulfur dioxide), antioxidants (BHA and BHT), a processing agent (propylene glycol), and a sweetener (sodium saccharin) were estimated based on the results of an analysis of 34,489 food samples obtained in official inspections by 106 local governments ...
Stefanidou M - - 2003
Food additives are widely used for technological purposes and their presence is often substantial daily diet. They have also been accused forvarious toxic reactions in humans. The toxicity of the food color tartrazine, the preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate, and the antioxidant BHT, was studied using the protozoan Tetrahymenapyriformis ...
Au Edmund - - 2003
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) continuously support the regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). In addition, OECs promote regeneration of neurons within the CNS in a number of transplantation paradigms, but details of exactly how they support regeneration remain elusive. The majority of studies using OECs to promote regeneration have thus ...
Uradziński J - - 2003
This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In ...
Gilsenan M B - - 2002
Patterns of food additive usage in the Irish food supply and changes in patterns of usage between 1995-97 and 1998-99 were assessed by means of an Irish National Food Ingredient Database (INFID). Of the 300 additives permitted for use according to the European Union food additives Directives, some 54% were ...
Little C L - - 2002
During August 2001 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat cooked rice from take-aways and of chicken sandwiches made on the premises from sandwich bars was undertaken. The intention was to identify risk factors in the production, storage and handling of cooked rice and sandwiches, and to establish their effect on microbiological ...
Hernanz Margarita - - 2002
Classical nova explosions are very energetic and frequent phenomena caused by explosive hydrogen burning on top of an accreting white dwarf. Observations of the recent nova V2487 Oph 1998 by the X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite (XMM-Newton) provide evidence that accretion (probably on a magnetic white dwarf) was reestablished as early as ...
Cohen Samuel M - - 2002
Carrageenan is a high-molecular-weight, strongly anionic polymer derived from several species of red seaweed that is used for the textural stabilization of foods. Processed Eucheuma Seaweed (PES) is a form of carrageenan with a higher cellulose content. Food-grade carrageenan has a weight average molecular weight greater than 100,000 Da, with ...
Ropkins K - - 2002
Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food ...
Anklam Elke - - 2002
This is a summary report of a joint workshop held in Brussels, Belgium, in December 2000. The workshop was organized by the ILSI Europe Novel Food Task Force in collaboration with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and ILSI International Food Biotechnology Committee. The purpose was to investigate progress ...
Bücking Mark - - 2002
Previous investigations of coffee flavor have been confined to the analysis of the aroma substances. These investigations showed that about 30 volatile compounds were substantially responsible for the coffee flavor. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different milk additives and one coffee whitener on the ...
Kroes Robert - - 2002
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a principle which refers to the possibility of establishing a human exposure threshold value for all chemicals, below which there is no appreciable risk to human health. The concept that exposure thresholds can be identified for individual chemicals in the diet is already ...
Pickup John - - 2002
The public is confused by apparently conflicting messages about the need for hygiene to prevent food poisoning and other infectious intestinal disease (IID) and the hypothesis that the increase in atopic disease may be linked to lack of exposure to microbes in early childhood. The consensus of hygiene experts is ...
- - 2002
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general ...
Yoda Tetsuya - - 2002
The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of arthrocentesis on temporomandibular joint disturbance of mouth closure with loud clicking compared to the effect of one-time pumping into the joint space previous to arthrography. Twenty-one consecutive patients (22 joints) with loud clicking during mouth closure were enrolled. ...
Berhane Y - - 2001
Necropsies were performed on 14 psittacine birds of various species suspected to have proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Eight of the birds exhibited neurological signs (seizures, ataxia, tremors and uncoordinated movements) and digestive tract signs (crop stasis, regurgitation, inappetance and presence of undigested food in the faeces). At necropsy, the birds ...
Hasan M - - 2001
The posterolateral tunnel on the superior surface of the first cervical (atlas) vertebra is of normal occurrence in monkeys and other lower animals, but its presence in the form of a tunnel-like canal, for the passage of the third part of the vertebral artery over the posterior arch of the ...
Jun-Shi C - - 2001
The key principle in the development of Codex standards is to ensure that the decision-making process is based on sound science. The approval for the use of food additives and other chemicals in foods should be made only when adequate scientific data is available. The same principle applies to the ...
Boyce M C - - 2001
The application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to the analysis of additives in food has been reviewed. Additives included in the review are preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, colourings, caffeine, niacin, choline, nitrate, and nitrite. The review highlights the versatility of CE in separating this often widely disparate group of compounds. The application ...
Corredig M - - 2001
The effect of the addition of commercial pectin to orange juice that was de-esterified by alkaline treatment or pectinmethylesterase was evaluated. Pectin at various degrees of esterification (DE) was added to reconstituted frozen orange juice concentrate, and the extent of cloud loss was determined after centrifugation. Of the five pectin ...
Kendrovski V - - 2001
The Republic of Macedonia has 662,000 ha of cultivated land with well-organised agricultural production. It is a well known producer of agricultural products. From 1991 to 1999, authorized laboratories conducted systematic control of about 6,500 food samples in 1991 to 36,000 by 1999 which included a whole range of hygienic ...
Zivković R - - 2001
Historical development of the concern exercised by the public institutions of a country for the food taken by their citizens, through care for its safety and proper testing by authorized governmental institutions, is presented. In the USA, FDA was established for this purpose, whereas European Union agencies are in charge ...
Shim H - - 2000
Recombinant strains of Escherichia coli constitutively expressing toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 and toluene o-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 were investigated for their ability to oxidize trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and chloroform (CF), individually as well as in various mixtures. ...
Leclercq C - - 2000
The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant ...
Callaghan J J - - 2000
Food additives and other forms of alternative medicines have been embraced by the general public. Some of these compounds including glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have shown efficacy in relieving pain associated with osteoarthritis. However, evidence is limited concerning the chondroprotective ability of these agents. More controlled studies and basic research ...
Akiyama T - - 2000
HPCE with UV detection was applied to the analyses of enzymatically glucosylated flavonoids, which are used as natural food additives in Japan. Four items, which have flavonol or flavanone as aglycone, were analyzed. Each of these items is a mixture of glycosides with various lengths of maltooligosaccharide chain. On capillary ...
Akiyama T - - 2000
The constituents of the natural food additive, enzymatically modified naringin, were structurally analyzed. Four constituents were isolated from the glucoamylase-treated sample. An NMR analysis revealed that two of them were novel compounds having 4'-O-alpha-glucosyl moieties on ring B of the naringenin aglycone. Both the aglycone and the glucose moiety in ...
Zhu W - - 2000
The capillary electrophoretic separation of noncharged enantiomers with single-isomer anionic resolving agents is reexamined here with the help of the charged resolving agent migration model. Two general model parameters have been identified that influence the effective mobility, separation selectivity and mobility difference curves of the enantiomers: parameter b, called binding ...
Gilbert R J - - 2000
These guidelines for the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods represent a revision and expansion of guidelines first published by the PHLS in September 1992 and revised in March 1996. The latest guidelines incorporate many of the constructive comments received from food examiners and other microbiologists within and outside the PHLS ...
Tokita S - - 2000
The quenching of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c fluorescence in chlorosomes isolated from Chloroflexus aurantiacus was examined by the addition of various benzoquinones, naphthoquinones (NQ), and anthraquinones (AQ). Many quinones showed strong quenching in the micromolar or submicromolar range. The number of quinone molecules bound to the chlorosomes was estimated to be ...
Groten J P - - 2000
The possibility that structurally unrelated food additives could show either joint actions or interactions has been assessed based on their potential to share common sites and mechanisms of action or common pathways of elimination. All food additives approved in the European Union and allocated numerical acceptable daily intake values were ...
Bruno W J - - 2000
We introduce a distance-based phylogeny reconstruction method called "weighted neighbor joining," or "Weighbor" for short. As in neighbor joining, two taxa are joined in each iteration; however, the Weighbor criterion for choosing a pair of taxa to join takes into account that errors in distance estimates are exponentially larger for ...
- - 2000
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) for humans, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains ...
Hood E - - 1999
The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations ...
Walton K - - 1999
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for food additives is commonly derived from the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) in long-term animal in vivo studies. To derive an ADI a safety or uncertainty factor (commonly 100) is applied to the NOAEL in the most sensitive test species. The 100-fold safety factor is considered ...
McDonald K - - 1999
Predictive food microbiology (PFM) is an emerging multidisciplinary area of food microbiology. It encompasses such disciplines as mathematics, microbiology, engineering and chemistry to develop and apply mathematical models to predict the responses of microorganisms to specified environmental variables. This paper provides a critical review on the development of mathematical modelling ...
Elferink J G - - 1999
The Aztecs in pre-Columbian Mexico used not only a large number of single hallucinogens, they also used some combinations. The present article describes reports of the use of teotlaqualli, an unction prepared from ololiuhqui and picietl, with a large number of additions. The work of the chroniclers of pre-Columbian Mexico ...
Williams G M - - 1999
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are widely used antioxidant food additives. They have been extensively studied for potential toxicities. This review details experimental studies of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity which bear on cancer hazard assessment of exposure to humans. We conclude that BHA and BHT pose no cancer hazard ...
Alvarez-Núñez F A - - 1999
The main objective of this investigation is to develop a phenytoin (DPH) intravenous formulation that does not precipitate upon dilution. The effect of the buffer capacity at pH 12 of several DPH formulations on the extent and lag-time of DPH precipitation upon dilution with Sorensen's phosphate buffer (SPB) is evaluated. ...
Collins T F - - 1999
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the agency responsible for ensuring that the direct food additives and color additives used in food in the United States are safe for all consumers. In 1982, in an effort to provide guidance concerning appropriate tests, the FDA issued Toxicological Principles for the ...
Ujita M - - 1999
Poly-N-acetyllactosamine is a unique carbohydrate that can carry various functional oligosaccharides, such as sialyl Lewis X. It has been shown that the amount of poly-N-acetyllactosamine is increased in N-glycans, when they contain Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->6(Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1 -->2)Manalpha1-->6 branched structure. To determine how this increased synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamines takes place, the branched acceptor was ...
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