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Palomar García V - - 2001
In this article we review the literature concerning the capacity of certain substances to cause ototoxicity when administered topically. The ototoxicity experimentally observed in animals only occurs in humans under certain circumstances. It is concluded that many of these products. which are commonly used for treatment in humans, are ototoxic ...
Deputte B L. - - 2001
A preference for novelty paradigm was used to investigate whether mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), an arboreal non-human primate species, were able to discriminate and to categorize different visual stimuli belonging to natural (food items) and abstract (non-food items) categories. In a comparative perspective human subjects were tested with the same procedure ...
Duhamel G E - - 2001
Research in the past decade has led to the recognition of Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli as the primary etiologic agent of colonic spirochetosis (CS), an emerging cause of colitis in humans and animals. Attachment of spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the lower intestine is considered to be the hallmark ...
Florencio C A - - 2001
Progress in addressing the problems of hunger and malnutrition has been slow and uneven across regions and countries of the world. A rights-based perspective, not merely a utilitarian argument, must serve as the rationale for humans to be properly nourished. Rights impose corresponding binding obligations on others and the concept ...
Hoberg E P - - 2001
Phylogenetic and divergence date analyses indicate that the occurrence of Taenia tapeworms in humans pre-dates the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and domestication of cattle (Bos spp.) or swine (Sus scrofa). Taeniid tapeworms in Africa twice independently colonized hominids and the genus Homo prior to the origin of modern humans. ...
Ortner D J - - 2001
The authors surveyed subadult human skeletons from Native American archeological sites in the United States for evidence of skeletal lesions associated with scurvy. Geographic regions surveyed include the Midatlantic area, the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest, and the Plains. The prevalence of probable subadult scurvy ranged from zero in the Plains ...
Natunen J - - 2001
Human alpha3-fucosyltransferases (Fuc-Ts) are known to convert N-acetyllactosamine to Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis x antigen); some of them transfer fucose also to GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc, generating GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc determinants. Here, we report that recombinant forms of Fuc-TV and Fuc-TVI as well as Fuc-Ts of human milk converted chitin oligosaccharides of 2-4 GlcNAc units efficiently to ...
Ibarreta D - - 2001
Plants produce estrogen-like substances, denominated phytoestrogens, which are present in many human foodstuffs. The consumption of phytoestrogens has been associated with a variety of protective effects. Their relative estrogenic potency combined with their concentrations in food and human plasma indicate biological relevance. However, their biological properties differ from those of ...
Netzel M - - 2001
Anthocyanins are a group of very efficient bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in plant food. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blackberry, red grape) and some vegetables (eggplant, onion, red radish) are rich sources of these natural pigments. Extracts of some of them are used as food colorants as well as components ...
Yang C S - - 2001
Plants consumed by humans contain thousands of phenolic compounds. The effects of dietary polyphenols are of great current interest due to their antioxidative and possible anticarcinogenic activities. A popular belief is that dietary polyphenols are anticarcinogens because they are antioxidants, but direct evidence for this supposition is lacking. This chapter ...
Oh-Oka T - - 2001
Acrin1 (MN7), a 90-kd glycoprotein, is localized in the sperm acrosome of several rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular size and subcellular localization of acrin1 (MN7) in human sperm, and its organization in spermatids during spermiogenesis. Immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses revealed that acrin1 (MN7) is ...
Baron J - - 2000
It has been suggested that the long-term discount rate for environmental goods should decrease at longer delays. One justification for this suggestion is that human judgments support it. This article presents an experiment showing that judgments concerning discount rates are internally inconsistent. These results point to potential problems with the ...
Déprez S - - 2000
Polymeric proanthocyanidins are common constituents of many foods and beverages. Their fate in the human body remains largely unknown. Their metabolism by human colonic microflora incubated in vitro in anoxic conditions has been investigated using nonlabeled and (14)C-labeled purified proanthocyanidin polymers. Polymers were almost totally degraded after 48 h of ...
Kumar N - - 2000
The anatomical parameters of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the deer spine were evaluated and compared with the existing data of the human spine. The objective was to create a database for the anatomical parameters of the deer spine, with a view to establish deer spine as a valid ...
Davis H - - 2000
To predict when food reward was available, 12 New Zealand White rabbits were trained to discriminate between two humans. All subjects had significantly higher response rates and greater behavioral arousal in the presence of the positive stimulus person. The ability to discriminate between individual humans sets the stage for unanticipated ...
Marlar R A - - 2000
The existence of cannibalism is one of the most controversial issues in the archaeology of the American Southwest. Disarticulated, cut-marked and heat-altered human remains from non-burial contexts at prehistoric Puebloan (Anasazi) archaeological sites in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest have been interpreted by some scholars as evidence ...
Pearson O M - - 2000
Postcranial robusticity--the massiveness of the skeleton--figures prominently in the debate over the origin of modern humans. Anthropologists use postcranial robusticity to infer the activity levels of prehistoric populations, and changes in robusticity are often used to support scenarios of adaptive change. These scenarios explain differences in morphology as the result ...
Thier R - - 2000
The high acute toxicity of acrylonitrile may be a result of its intrinsic biological reactivity or of its metabolite cyanide. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine has been recommended for treatment of accidental intoxications in acrylonitrile workers, but such recommendations vary internationally. Acrylonitrile is metabolized in humans and experimental animals via two competing pathways; ...
Trinkaus E - - 2000
In 1997 a human mandibular second deciduous incisor was discovered during excavations at the central Asian Middle Paleolithic site of Khudji, Tajikistan. The specimen was associated with a late Middle Paleolithic assemblage in a minimally disturbed cultural layer. The specimen is average in size for Late Pleistocene archaic human di(2)s ...
Schrader T J - - 2000
In order to produce a reporter gene assay for androgenic chemicals, a constitutive expression vector coding for the human androgen receptor and a reporter construct containing the firefly luciferase coding sequence under transcriptional control of the androgen responsive MMTV promoter were cotransfected into the androgen-insensitive human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell ...
Stiner MC - - 2000
This study illustrates the potential of small-game data for identifying and dating Paleolithic demographic pulses such as those associated with modern human origins and the later evolution of food-producing economies. Archaeofaunal series from Israel and Italy serve as our examples. Three important implications of this study are that (1) early ...
Burin G J - - 1999
Addressing human variability and sensitive subpopulations is one of the challenges of risk assessment and is an important aspect of the Food Quality Protection Act, the law passed in 1996 that regulates food use pesticides in the United States. The intraspecies uncertainty factor is intended to address differences in susceptibility ...
Fayer R - - 1999
Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic waterborne pathogen, can be removed by bivalve molluscs from contaminated water and retained on gills and in hemolymph. We identified oocysts of C. parvum in oysters from seven sites in the Chesapeake Bay area. These findings document the presence of C. parvum infectious for ...
Brzezinski A - - 1999
Phytoestrogens are diphenolic compounds that are present in several plants eaten by human beings. Soybeans and flaxseed are particularly abundant source of phytoestrogens. When ingested in relatively large amounts, phytoestrogens have been shown to have significant estrogen agonists/antagonists effects in animals and humans. There is epidemiological, laboratory and clinical evidence ...
Castilla JC - - 1999
The ecological roles of humans in marine communities have been poorly studied. Humans have special characteristics, such as culture, and are perceived as complex ecological actors. Observations and experiments conducted in coastal (rocky intertidal and nearshore) 'no-take' areas or reserves in Chile and around the world have permitted a better ...
Badmaev V - - 1999
The potential role of vanadium in human health is described as a building material of bones and teeth. However, another very interesting and promising application for vanadium in human health emerges from recent studies that evaluated the role of vanadium in the management of diabetes. Vanadium is present in a ...
Goodwin D - - 1999
Domestication has provided the horse with food, shelter, veterinary care and protection, allowing individuals an increased chance of survival. However, the restriction of movement, limited breeding opportunities and a requirement to expend energy, for the benefit of another species, conflict with the evolutionary processes which shaped the behaviour of its ...
Chesnoy S - - 1999
The purpose of this work was to study the effect of iontophoretic transport of Propranolol hydrochloride on the lipidic organization of the stratum corneum pretreated under passive or iontophoretic conditions by two model penetration enhancers, sodium lauryl sulfate and hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide. Characterization of human stratum corneum was performed by ...
Cashman J R - - 1999
(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a ...
Carr J A JA Department of Psychology, Kenny Building, 2136 West Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T - - 1999
On daily time-place learning tasks animals can work for food at different spatial locations during sessions at different times of the day. In previous experiments rats tracked this pattern of food availability with ordinal timing-they learned to respond at the locations in the correct order each day. In contrast, pigeons ...
Kauffman H F - - 1999
Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) is a ubiquitous human ribonuclease, occurring not only in eosinophils, but also in many tissues and body fluids. It may be a contaminant of commercial human urinary preparations of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other glycoprotein hormones. Here we describe the use of a fast commercial assay ...
Nakajima N - - 1999
Clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group, an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, produced exo-pectate lyase, endo-pectate lyase, and pectin methylesterase, but not polygalacturonase. The production of the two pectate lyases was strongly influenced by the composition of the carbon sources added to the medium. The enzymes secreted by the bacterium into the human large ...
Choi C G - - 1999
Absolute concentrations and proton relaxation times of major metabolites in the human hippocampus were determined with use of fully relaxed, short-echo time STEAM localization sequences at 2.0 T (20 normal adults). Mean metabolite concentrations were 7.6+/-0.9 mM for total Nacetylaspartate (tNAA), 6.9+/-0.8 mM for total creatine (tCr), 2.1+/-0.3 mM for ...
Hiroi T - - 1998
Dopamine is formed form L-tyrosine by tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. In addition to this pathway, however, the formation of catecholamines, including dopamine, from trace amines such as tyramine by hepatic microsomes has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the formation of dopamine from trace amines, using ...
Schramm D D - - 1998
Flavonoid plant pigments are an integral part of the human diet. Although potentially negative mitotic effects of flavonoids have been observed in model organisms, investigation into meiotic effects of flavonoids has been neglected. As flavonoids affect cell signalling and DNA replication, and because the flavonoid content of the human food ...
White WLB - - 1998
In the cyanogenic crop cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), the final step in cyanide production is the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin, the deglycosylation product of linamarin, to cyanide plus acetone. This process occurs spontaneously at pH greater than 5. 0 or enzymatically and is catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). Recently, it ...
Graczyk T K - - 1998
Human echinostomiasis, endemic to southeast Asia and the Far East, is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic parasitosis attributed to at least 16 species of digenean trematodes transmitted by snails. Two separate life cycles of echinostomes, human and sylvatic, efficiently operate in endemic areas. Clinical symptoms of echinostomiasis include abdominal pain, violent ...
Hawkes K - - 1998
Long postmenopausal lifespans distinguish humans from all other primates. This pattern may have evolved with mother-child food sharing, a practice that allowed aging females to enhance their daughters' fertility, thereby increasing selection against senescence. Combined with Charnov's dimensionless assembly rules for mammalian life histories, this hypothesis also accounts for our ...
Kevekordes S - - 1998
The synthetic polycyclic musk fragrance compounds Galaxolide (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclo-penta-(g)-2-++ +benzopyrane, Tonalide (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamerthyltetraline), Celestolide (4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert, butylindane), Phantolide (6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane), Cashmeran (6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4-(5H) indanone) and Traseolide (5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane) are widely used as fragrance ingredients in perfumes, lotions and detergents; as food additives in cigarettes and fish baits. Several studies identified polycyclic musk fragrances in aquatic environment ...
Espeel M - - 1997
Peroxisomes are single membrane-limited cell organelles that are involved in numerous metabolic functions. Peroxisomes do not contain DNA; the matrix and membrane proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome. It is assumed that new peroxisomes are formed by division of existing organelles. The present article gives an overview of microscopic ...
Lindinger W - - 1997
After the consumption of fruit, the concentration of methanol in the human body increases by as much as an order of magnitude. This is due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with methyl alcohol) in the human colon. In vivo tests performed by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass ...
Fingerman M - - 1997
From the first discovery of a hormone in a crustacean in the 1920s until the present, the field of crustacean endocrinology has undergone, as do many crustaceans during their development, a marked metamorphosis. The field has moved from the classical era of endocrinological techniques, such as extirpation and additive methods, ...
Zava D T - - 1997
We investigated the estrogenic activity of various environmental pollutants (xenobiotics), in particular the xenoestrogen o,p-DDT, and compared their effects with those of endogenous estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens on estrogen receptor binding capacity, induction of estrogen end products, and activation of cell proliferation in estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells in monolayer ...
Anderson E S - - 1997
A randomized-control test of a multimedia nutrition intervention-the Nutrition for a Lifetime System (NLS©)- utilized supermarket receipts to examine effects of NLS treatment on the daily per person nutritional content of participants' supermarket purchases. In regression analyses controlling for background variables, baseline purchases and trends toward increased purchasing, NLS treatment ...
Mock D M - - 1997
In human subjects, the metabolic origins of bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide were determined by measuring the urinary excretion of each after chronic administration of large oral doses of biotin. For 2 wk, 14 adult volunteers consumed 1,200 micrograms of biotin per day, an amount approximately 20 times the daily dietary ...
White P A - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) contractile performance remains poorly characterised, particularly in humans. Conductance catheter techniques have the potential to overcome the geometric difficulties in RV volume measurement that have hindered systematic studies of RV pressure volume relations. The present study examines changes in parallel conductance (Vc) that may occur during ...
Worsley A A Department of Community Medicine, The University of Adelaide, - - 1996
Two surveys examined supermarket shoppers' views of food label nutrition information terms. Approximately four out of five of the respondents were women. The first study, conducted among 941 shoppers in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide showed that information about cholesterol, fats, additives and health claims was perceived to be most important ...
Barr R D - - 1996
Boron is a ubiquitous constituent of man's external environment. Levels of the element in human blood reflect both acute and chronic exposure, usually as dietary intake (food and drinking water). There is an absolute requirement for boron in vascular plants but evidence for biological essentiality in animals (including man) is ...
Everhart-Caye M - - 1996
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) results from the production of PTH-related protein (PTHrP) by human tumors. One previous study has reported the results of human (h) PTHrP(1-34) infusion into humans. In that report, hPTHrP(1-34) was found to be qualitatively similar to but 3- to 10-fold less potent than hPTH(1-34). Because ...
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