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Results 401 - 450 of 507
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Castilla JC - - 1999
The ecological roles of humans in marine communities have been poorly studied. Humans have special characteristics, such as culture, and are perceived as complex ecological actors. Observations and experiments conducted in coastal (rocky intertidal and nearshore) 'no-take' areas or reserves in Chile and around the world have permitted a better ...
Badmaev V - - 1999
The potential role of vanadium in human health is described as a building material of bones and teeth. However, another very interesting and promising application for vanadium in human health emerges from recent studies that evaluated the role of vanadium in the management of diabetes. Vanadium is present in a ...
Goodwin D - - 1999
Domestication has provided the horse with food, shelter, veterinary care and protection, allowing individuals an increased chance of survival. However, the restriction of movement, limited breeding opportunities and a requirement to expend energy, for the benefit of another species, conflict with the evolutionary processes which shaped the behaviour of its ...
Chesnoy S - - 1999
The purpose of this work was to study the effect of iontophoretic transport of Propranolol hydrochloride on the lipidic organization of the stratum corneum pretreated under passive or iontophoretic conditions by two model penetration enhancers, sodium lauryl sulfate and hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide. Characterization of human stratum corneum was performed by ...
Cashman J R - - 1999
(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a ...
Carr J A JA Department of Psychology, Kenny Building, 2136 West Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T - - 1999
On daily time-place learning tasks animals can work for food at different spatial locations during sessions at different times of the day. In previous experiments rats tracked this pattern of food availability with ordinal timing-they learned to respond at the locations in the correct order each day. In contrast, pigeons ...
Kauffman H F - - 1999
Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) is a ubiquitous human ribonuclease, occurring not only in eosinophils, but also in many tissues and body fluids. It may be a contaminant of commercial human urinary preparations of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other glycoprotein hormones. Here we describe the use of a fast commercial assay ...
Nakajima N - - 1999
Clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group, an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, produced exo-pectate lyase, endo-pectate lyase, and pectin methylesterase, but not polygalacturonase. The production of the two pectate lyases was strongly influenced by the composition of the carbon sources added to the medium. The enzymes secreted by the bacterium into the human large ...
Choi C G - - 1999
Absolute concentrations and proton relaxation times of major metabolites in the human hippocampus were determined with use of fully relaxed, short-echo time STEAM localization sequences at 2.0 T (20 normal adults). Mean metabolite concentrations were 7.6+/-0.9 mM for total Nacetylaspartate (tNAA), 6.9+/-0.8 mM for total creatine (tCr), 2.1+/-0.3 mM for ...
Hiroi T - - 1998
Dopamine is formed form L-tyrosine by tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. In addition to this pathway, however, the formation of catecholamines, including dopamine, from trace amines such as tyramine by hepatic microsomes has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the formation of dopamine from trace amines, using ...
Schramm D D - - 1998
Flavonoid plant pigments are an integral part of the human diet. Although potentially negative mitotic effects of flavonoids have been observed in model organisms, investigation into meiotic effects of flavonoids has been neglected. As flavonoids affect cell signalling and DNA replication, and because the flavonoid content of the human food ...
White WLB - - 1998
In the cyanogenic crop cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), the final step in cyanide production is the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin, the deglycosylation product of linamarin, to cyanide plus acetone. This process occurs spontaneously at pH greater than 5. 0 or enzymatically and is catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). Recently, it ...
Graczyk T K - - 1998
Human echinostomiasis, endemic to southeast Asia and the Far East, is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic parasitosis attributed to at least 16 species of digenean trematodes transmitted by snails. Two separate life cycles of echinostomes, human and sylvatic, efficiently operate in endemic areas. Clinical symptoms of echinostomiasis include abdominal pain, violent ...
Hawkes K - - 1998
Long postmenopausal lifespans distinguish humans from all other primates. This pattern may have evolved with mother-child food sharing, a practice that allowed aging females to enhance their daughters' fertility, thereby increasing selection against senescence. Combined with Charnov's dimensionless assembly rules for mammalian life histories, this hypothesis also accounts for our ...
Kevekordes S - - 1998
The synthetic polycyclic musk fragrance compounds Galaxolide (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclo-penta-(g)-2-++ +benzopyrane, Tonalide (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamerthyltetraline), Celestolide (4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert, butylindane), Phantolide (6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane), Cashmeran (6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4-(5H) indanone) and Traseolide (5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane) are widely used as fragrance ingredients in perfumes, lotions and detergents; as food additives in cigarettes and fish baits. Several studies identified polycyclic musk fragrances in aquatic environment ...
Espeel M - - 1997
Peroxisomes are single membrane-limited cell organelles that are involved in numerous metabolic functions. Peroxisomes do not contain DNA; the matrix and membrane proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome. It is assumed that new peroxisomes are formed by division of existing organelles. The present article gives an overview of microscopic ...
Lindinger W - - 1997
After the consumption of fruit, the concentration of methanol in the human body increases by as much as an order of magnitude. This is due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with methyl alcohol) in the human colon. In vivo tests performed by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass ...
Fingerman M - - 1997
From the first discovery of a hormone in a crustacean in the 1920s until the present, the field of crustacean endocrinology has undergone, as do many crustaceans during their development, a marked metamorphosis. The field has moved from the classical era of endocrinological techniques, such as extirpation and additive methods, ...
Zava D T - - 1997
We investigated the estrogenic activity of various environmental pollutants (xenobiotics), in particular the xenoestrogen o,p-DDT, and compared their effects with those of endogenous estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens on estrogen receptor binding capacity, induction of estrogen end products, and activation of cell proliferation in estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells in monolayer ...
Anderson E S - - 1997
A randomized-control test of a multimedia nutrition intervention-the Nutrition for a Lifetime System (NLS©)- utilized supermarket receipts to examine effects of NLS treatment on the daily per person nutritional content of participants' supermarket purchases. In regression analyses controlling for background variables, baseline purchases and trends toward increased purchasing, NLS treatment ...
Mock D M - - 1997
In human subjects, the metabolic origins of bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide were determined by measuring the urinary excretion of each after chronic administration of large oral doses of biotin. For 2 wk, 14 adult volunteers consumed 1,200 micrograms of biotin per day, an amount approximately 20 times the daily dietary ...
White P A - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) contractile performance remains poorly characterised, particularly in humans. Conductance catheter techniques have the potential to overcome the geometric difficulties in RV volume measurement that have hindered systematic studies of RV pressure volume relations. The present study examines changes in parallel conductance (Vc) that may occur during ...
Worsley A A Department of Community Medicine, The University of Adelaide, - - 1996
Two surveys examined supermarket shoppers' views of food label nutrition information terms. Approximately four out of five of the respondents were women. The first study, conducted among 941 shoppers in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide showed that information about cholesterol, fats, additives and health claims was perceived to be most important ...
Barr R D - - 1996
Boron is a ubiquitous constituent of man's external environment. Levels of the element in human blood reflect both acute and chronic exposure, usually as dietary intake (food and drinking water). There is an absolute requirement for boron in vascular plants but evidence for biological essentiality in animals (including man) is ...
Everhart-Caye M - - 1996
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) results from the production of PTH-related protein (PTHrP) by human tumors. One previous study has reported the results of human (h) PTHrP(1-34) infusion into humans. In that report, hPTHrP(1-34) was found to be qualitatively similar to but 3- to 10-fold less potent than hPTH(1-34). Because ...
Tsuchiya H - - 1995
When human saliva obtained after cigarette smoking was incubated in the presence of tryptamine, the formation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TBC) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (MTBC) was observed in a short time. After incubation with tryptamine (2.5 micrograms/microliter) for 10 min, the concentrations of TBC and MTBC formed were 3.27 +/- 0.94 and 0.35 ...
Hoffmeister B K - - 1995
The content and organization of collagen in the cardiac interstitium may represent significant determinants of the ultrasonic scattering properties of myocardium. This study was designed to investigate the anisotropic backscattering properties of a fibrous soft tissue exhibiting an ordered arrangement of fibers similar to myocardium, but possessing a substantially greater ...
Roy S D - - 1994
The in vitro skin permeabilities of ketorolac acid (KA), a potent nonsteroidal analgesic, and its two ester analogs as prodrug through human cadaver skin were investigated. The two esters of KA, namely, the ethyl ester (KEE) and [(N,N-dimethylamino)carbonyl]methyl ester (KDAE), were selected. The melting temperature of the two esters was ...
Barta D J - - 1994
Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, ...
Takizawa T - - 1994
One of the more routine steps associated with cryosectioning of ultra-thin and semi-thin sections for immunocytochemistry is the transfer of sections to EM grids or coverslips. In a study of the granules of human neutrophils, we have found that the composition of the transfer medium was crucial to the success ...
Harland B F - - 1994
The trace element vanadium has been studied by the nutrition community for four decades, yet has not achieved essential status for human beings. It is found in compounds at valences of 2, 3, 4, or 5, with the tetravalent and pentavalent forms being the most common. In human beings, pharmacologic ...
Bikle D D - - 1994
Keratinocytes produce large amounts of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in vitro. 1,25(OH)2D3 is detectable in anephric humans and pigs and can be increased to near-normal levels by vitamin D or 250HD, indicating an extrarenal source. To determine whether the skin is one of these extrarenal sources, we perfused isolated flaps ...
Davis J R - - 1994
To determine the influence of meterological factors on the diurnal biting cycle of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar (a member of the Simulium damnosum Theoblad complex), we captured host-seeking females as they landed on the exposed lower legs of humans in the Harbel area of Liberia. Biting activity was greatest ...
Ippen H - - 1994
The detection of nitro musk compounds in breast milk and in human adipose tissue is mainly due to the use of such substances as perfume in detergents from which they enter the sewage and finally the whole freshwater system. Due to their low degradability and a high biological concentration factor, ...
Nevalainen T J - - 1993
The catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (cat-PLA2) and the concentration of pancreatic (group I) phospholipase A2 (pan-PLA2) and synovial-type (group II) phospholipase A2 (syn-PLA2) were studied in 19 human tissues in order to find potential sources of circulating phospholipase A2. Five specimens of each tissue were collected at autopsies or ...
Restrepo D - - 1993
The sense of smell allows terrestrial animals to collect information about the chemical nature of their environment through the detection of airborne molecules. In humans smell is believed to play an important role in protecting the organism from environmental hazards such as fire, gas leaks and spoiled food, in determining ...
Bareggi R - - 1993
The ossification pathways of both vertebral centra (i.e., vertebral bodies) and neural arches were studied in human embryos and fetuses (CR-length between 38 and 116 mm). A clearing and double-staining method for whole embryo or fetus, using alcian blue and alizarin red S, allowed an easy and precise detection of ...
Haba J H - - 1993
Campylobacter jejuni is known as the most common human enteropathogen in developed countries. The epidemiology of the organism has now been adequately determined and indicates that campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease. Pets, water, and contaminated foods are the main sources of sporadic infections in humans, and no single animal food ...
O'Leary H - - 1993
Interactions between tourists and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Queen's Gate, Gibraltar, are described. Interaction rates are high, with 99.6 interactions/h at peak times. Macaques spend 13.2% of their day interacting with tourists and 41.9% inactive. An overall ratio of 3.2:1 between human-initiated and macaque-initiated interactions was found. Of interactions ...
Knudsen I - - 1993
The aim of the present Danish regulatory toxicological efforts is to identify and eliminate human carcinogens introduced in the human food supply directly or indirectly through the activity of man. The efforts are directed towards food additives, contaminants and food itself, both individual food items and dietary habits. The overall ...
French R J - - 1993
Vanadium is a pervasive element of biological systems, being widely distributed across the food supply. Food refining and processing appear to increase vanadium content. At higher intakes, it accumulates in body tissues such as liver, kidney and bone. Essentiality of the nutrient has been established in lower life forms but ...
Coe J E - - 1992
Zeranol (alpha-zearalanol) is a beta-resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) that has estrogen activity. It is synthesized by molds and is difficult to avoid in human food products. We tested the ability of this mycoestrogen to damage the liver of the Armenian hamster, a rodent that is especially sensitive to hepatotoxic effects ...
Rummel J D - - 1992
When humans move out into the solar system to stay for long durations, the most immediate challenge will be the provision of a life-supporting environment in locations that are naturally devoid of food, air, and water. Life support systems must provide these commodities in all phases of space flight--during intravehicular ...
Saenz R - - 1992
"This study uses an integrated human capital framework to examine the relationship between human capital, employment and ethnic factors and return migration to the Southwest [United States] among Chicanos. The sample used in the study is derived from the 1980 Public Use Microdata Samples and contains 1,926 Chicano householders between ...
Pariza M W - - 1992
There are numerous anticarcinogens in the diet. An important question is how to use such substances in an effective, directed way to reduce cancer risk in humans. The "designer foods" concept is one approach for accomplishing this goal. Foods would be engineered to contain effective levels of anticarcinogens. This idea ...
Bhatnagar K P - - 1991
Specific gravity values for the pineal gland in any species are lacking. These data are necessary for calculating and interrelating pineal weight and volume. This report deals with the specific gravity of human pineal gland. The specific gravity of fresh, unfixed human pineal has been determined to be 1.197 +/- ...
Burleigh D E - - 1991
Isolated preparations of human colonic mucosa were set up in Ussing chambers. Noradrenaline reduced basal short-circuit current, morphine did not nor did loperamide except at the highest concentration tested. Electrically evoked increases in short-circuit current were unaffected by morphine but reduced by loperamide, by a naloxone-insensitive mechanism. Unidirectional fluxes of ...
Pieters M H - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To study immaturity and aneuploidy in human oocytes after two different stimulation protocols. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Outpatient IVF clinic/laboratory. PATIENTS: One hundred forty-three patients of whom 65 were stimulated with clomiphene citrate (CC)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and 78 were stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a)/hMG. Only patients with at ...
Micco C - - 1991
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin frequently found as a contaminant both in food and in animal feed. It can reach humans through the food chain and can then be excreted in biological fluids, one of which is human milk; it can therefore be transmitted from mother to child during breast-feeding. ...
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