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Schauss Astrid C - - 2006
The mitochondrial division machinery consists of the large dynamin-related protein Dnm1p (Drp1/Dlp1 in humans), and Fis1p, Mdv1p and Caf4p. Proper assembly of Dnm1p complexes on the mitochondrial surface is crucial for balanced fission and fusion events. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we show that Caf4p is important for the recruitment of ...
Lucas Peter W - - 2006
One of the defining characteristics of humans, one that could also explain our species' success, is probably our ability to cook food. A brief review of the literature suggests several adaptations of the mouth can be interpreted to support this. All probably enhance the efficiency of the physical treatment of ...
Katoh Masuko - - 2006
Nodal and BMP signaling pathways network with WNT signaling pathway during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. CER1 (Cerberus 1) and GREM3 (CKTSF1B3 or CER2) inhibit NODAL signaling through ACVR1B (ALK4) or ACVR1C (ALK7) to SMAD2 or SMAD3. GREM1 (CKTSF1B1) inhibits BMP signaling through BMPR1A (ALK3), BMPR1B (ALK6) or ACVR1 (ALK2) to SMAD1, ...
Melis Alicia P - - 2006
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) competed with a human for food. The human sat inside a booth, with 1 piece of food to her left and 1 to her right, which she could retract from her chimpanzee competitor's reach as needed. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees could approach either side of the booth ...
Falandysz Jerzy - - 2006
Concentrations of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdañsk at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate in the human body. ...
Knight Andrew - - 2006
Due to limited human exposure data, risk classification and the consequent regulation of exposure to potential carcinogens has conventionally relied mainly upon animal tests. However, several investigations have revealed animal carcinogenicity data to be lacking in human predictivity. To investigate the reasons for this, we surveyed 160 chemicals possessing animal ...
Michels Gudrun - - 2006
Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in human diet. Their antioxidative, antiinflammatory and antiviral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. Luteolin is metabolized to glucuronides, but also to methylated derivatives. For example, O-methylation of the catechol group mediated ...
Hare Brian - - 2006
There is little experimental evidence that any non-human species is capable of purposefully attempting to manipulate the psychological states of others deceptively (e.g., manipulating what another sees). We show here that chimpanzees, one of humans' two closest primate relatives, sometimes attempt to actively conceal things from others. Specifically, when competing ...
Higham Tom - - 2006
The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in ...
Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina
Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health. Goktepe, Ipek; Juneja, Vijay K.; Ahmedna, Mohamed (Eds), 309 - 339
Farrimond Samantha J - - 2006
There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.
Aghamiri S Mahmoud Reza - - 2006
The level of natural radiation in some regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, is known to be among the highest levels of natural radiation in the world. 226Ra existing in high concentrations in the soil of this region is washed by underground water and transferred to the ...
Sumida Sajio - - 2006
The modern era of cryomedicine began in 1949 in London and developed world-wide in the second half of the 20th century based on the first report of a novel method of cryopreservation of sperm and erythrocytes using glycerol that was reported in 1949 and 1950 by Polge and Smith. In ...
Tsai Wen-Tien - - 2006
Bisphenol-A (BPA), identified as an environmental hormone (i.e., endocrine disruptor), is an industrially important chemical that is being used as a primary raw material for the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polycarbonate/epoxy resins), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. From the ecotoxicology, human health and regulatory points of ...
Olaharski Andrew J - - 2005
Sirtuins are a family of phylogenetically conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that have a firmly established role in aging. Using a simple Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast heterochromatic derepression assay, we tested a number of environmental chemicals to address the possibility that humans are exposed to sirtuin inhibitors. Here we show that ...
Richards M P - - 2005
We report here on direct evidence for the intensive consumption of marine foods by anatomically modern humans at approximately 12,000 years ago. We undertook isotopic analysis of bone collagen from three humans, dating to the late Palaeolithic, from the site of Kendrick's Cave in North Wales, UK. The isotopic measurements ...
Iwai Koji - - 2005
In the present study, we identified several food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of some gelatin hydrolysates. Healthy human volunteers ingested the gelatin hydrolysates (9.4-23 g) from porcine skin, chicken feet, and cartilage after 12 h of fasting. Negligible amounts of the peptide form of hydroxyproline (Hyp) ...
Miller Gifford H - - 2005
Most of Australia's largest mammals became extinct 50,000 to 45,000 years ago, shortly after humans colonized the continent. Without exceptional climate change at that time, a human cause is inferred, but a mechanism remains elusive. A 140,000-year record of dietary delta(13)C documents a permanent reduction in food sources available to ...
Smith James L - - 2005
Colonic spirochetosis is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacteria Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli induces disease in both humans and animals, whereas B. aalborgi affects only humans and higher primates. Symptoms in humans include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramps. Colonic spirochetosis is common in third world ...
Bain Marcus A - - 2005
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a volatile tertiary aliphatic amine that is derived from the diet either directly from the consumption of foods containing TMA, or by the intake of food containing precursors to TMA such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMNO), choline and L-carnitine. Following oral absorption in humans, TMA undergoes efficient N-oxidation to ...
Schulting Rick J - - 2005
We report here on a human humerus directly dated to 24,470 +/- 110 BP, placing it within the Gravettian, or Mid-Upper Palaeolithic. The partial humerus is an isolated find and can be attributed (with some caution) to the Pleistocene 'bone cave' of Eel Point on Caldey Island, Wales (UK). The ...
Spratt David M - - 2005
Characteristic Australian ecosystems or environments contain numerous food chains some of which may become capriciously side-tracked or appropriated by humans, with parasitic consequences for people in Australia and overseas. Twelve of 13 arboviruses affecting humans are of wildlife origin and all are transmitted by mosquitoes. In this case, transmission is ...
Turnbull Cathryn M - - 2005
There is currently little understanding of the physicochemical properties in the human gastrointestinal tract of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKF), a novel food ingredient with potential for the fibre enrichment of foods such as baked goods. Since physicochemical properties of dietary fibres have been related to beneficial ...
Kaiser Lana G LG Department of Radiology, University of California-San Francisco, MR Unit VA Medical Center at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94141, USA. - - 2005
The scyllo-inositol and myo-inositol concentrations of 24 normal human subjects were measured in vivo using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 T. Single-voxel short-echo (TE = 15 ms) metabolite spectra were collected from the white matter region of the corona radiata. Test-retest studies performed on 10 normal subjects demonstrated coefficient ...
Kennedy G E - - 2005
Although humans have a longer period of infant dependency than other hominoids, human infants, in natural fertility societies, are weaned far earlier than any of the great apes: chimps and orangutans wean, on average, at about 5 and 7.7 years, respectively, while humans wean, on average, at about 2.5 years. ...
Graczyk Thaddeus K - - 2005
The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites. Twenty-one species of filth flies have been listed by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health as ...
Nieminen Petteri - - 2005
The consumption of wild mushrooms is mostly based on tradition and not scientific evidence. Recently the widely consumed Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis in humans. In this study, 42 mice and 4 humans consumed T. flavovirens mixed with regular food items. In mice, the plasma creatine kinase activity increased at ...
Huang Ling C LC College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-2020, - - 2005
Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and cathelicidin LL-37 are salt-sensitive cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed by ocular surface epithelia. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of preservative-free artificial tears on hBD-2 and LL-37 antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was incubated with hBD-2 or LL-37 in the absence ...
Li Zhuo-Yu - - 2004
An open reading frame of the alpha-subunit 1-205 residues (alpha205) of human acetylcholine receptor (AchR) was amplified by PCR with pUC-AChR alpha205 as the template and inserted into vector pMAL-c2X. The constructed pMAR alpha205 was transferred into E. coli BL21 which were then grown in LB medium. The amount of ...
Qiu Y T - - 2004
Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been transferred elicited a level of attraction similar to a human hand. ...
Stake Jeffrey Evans - - 2004
Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run ...
Seeram Navindra P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a ...
Call Josep - - 2004
Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave differently depending on ...
O'Connell Sanjida - - 2005
Chimpanzees (Pan spp.) were tested on a habituation/dishabituation paradigm that was originally developed to test for comprehension of causality in very young human infants. Three versions of the test were used: a food item being moved by a hand, a human pushing another human off a chair to obtain a ...
Imhoff Marc L - - 2004
The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production--the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis--can ...
Young Helen - - 2004
This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. ...
Lieberman Daniel E - - 2004
Changes in the technology of food preparation over the last few thousand years (especially cooking, softening, and grinding) are hypothesized to have contributed to smaller facial size in humans because of less growth in response to strains generated by chewing softer, more processed food. While there is considerable comparative evidence ...
Riva E E Department of Paediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, - - 2004
It has been hypothesized that feeding human milk through the first year of life may have a protective effect towards a later adiposity development, in contrast with formula feeding. The low protein content of human milk has been hypothesized as a plausible biological hypothesis. Regardless, it is often underscored that ...
Verri G - - 2004
The development of mining to acquire the best raw materials for producing stone tools represents a breakthrough in human technological and intellectual development. We present a new approach to studying the history of flint mining, using in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations. We show that the raw material used to manufacture ...
Teague Claire - - 2004
Metabonomic screening of human urine samples using 1H NMR spectroscopy has revealed the presence of signals resulting from the excretion of ethyl glucoside. Experiments in volunteers have demonstrated that this ethyl glucoside results from dietary exposure to the compound, which is present in beverages such as rice wine and sake, ...
Rollinson, Daniel J.
The urbanised environment provides ecologists with unique situations in which to undertake ecological study. It has been said that urbanisation is like a natural experiment; we often have populations of animals that have gone from living in natural or semi-natural environments to living in a highly modified anthropogenic environment. These ...
Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta
Bioscience Microflora Vol.23 Nr.2, 67 - 80
Grandgirard André - - 2004
The oxidised derivatives of phytosterols (oxyphytosterols) were identified in plasma samples from thirteen healthy human volunteers, using MS. All the samples contained noticeable quantities of (24R)-5beta,6beta-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3beta-ol (beta-epoxysitostanol) and (24R)-ethylcholestan-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (sitostanetriol) and also trace levels of (24R)-5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3beta-ol (alpha-epoxysitostanol), (24R)-methylcholestan-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (campestanetriol) and (24R)-ethylch olest-5-en-3beta-ol-7-one(7-ketositosterol). The amounts of these oxyphytosterols in plasma varied ...
Monro J A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine an adequate daily intake value for dietary fibre (AIdf) based on faecal bulking indexes (FBIs) for 66 foods of known total dietary fibre (TDF) content. DESIGN: FBIs of 66 foods were measured and expressed as wheat bran equivalents (WBEfb) per 100 g of food. A daily WBEfb ...
Kleinsasser Norbert H - - 2003
Myosmine, 3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine, is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. Recently, it was also detected in various edibles and staple foods. Whereas other tobacco alkaloids such as nicotine and nornicotine and their nitrosation products, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been widely discussed, the mutagenic impact of myosmine has not been ...
Milton Katharine - - 2003
Wild primates take most of the daily diet from plant sources, eating moderate to small amounts of animal source foods (ASF). Plant materials make up from 87% to >99% of the annual diet of great apes, the closest living relatives of modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Reflecting their close genetic ...
Gardana Claudio - - 2003
Stevia rebaudiana standardized extracts (SSEs) are used as natural sweeteners or dietary supplements in different countries for their content of stevioside or rebaudioside A. These compounds possess up to 250 times the sweetness intensity of sucrose, and they are noncaloric and noncariogenic sweeteners. The aim of this study was to ...
Kringelbach M L - - 2003
Single-neuron recording studies in non-human primates indicate that orbitofrontal cortex neurons represent the reward value of the sight, smell and taste of food, and even changes in the relative reward value, but provide no direct evidence on brain activity that is correlated with subjective reports of the pleasantness of food. ...
Asokan S - - 2003
Role of habitat-structure and climatic factors in the population dynamics of the small green bee-eater Merops orientalis was evaluated in three habitats viz., agricultural lands, river banks and human habitations during 1991-1993. The river banks supported relatively high population of bee-eaters (157/Km2) followed by the agricultural lands (101/Km2) and human ...
Hoberg Edelgard - - 2003
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sensory and general quality of four different melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) immediately after harvest and at the end of storage and marketing simulation. After 16 days of storage at 5 degrees C and additional 3 days at 20 degrees C, ...
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