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Results 351 - 400 of 506
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Mazza G - - 2002
In recent years, numerous studies have shown that the polyphenolics present in fruit and vegetable products exhibit a wide range of biological effects. However, there is little reliable information on the absorption of glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins in humans. In the present study, the absorption of anthocyanins in humans was ...
Ulijaszek Stanley J - - 2002
Present-day human eating behaviour in industrialised society is characterised by the consumption of high-energy-density diets and often unstructured feeding patterns, largely uncoupled from seasonal cycles of food availability. Broadly similar patterns of feeding are found among advantaged groups in economically-emerging and developing nations. Such patterns of feeding are consistent with ...
Ahl Alwynelle S - - 2002
The role of a few microorganisms, like Brucella and Mycobacterium and certain parasites of food animals, in causing human disease has been recognized for a hundred years. By the 1990s, other microorganisms derived from food animals were recognized as contributing to human illness. Handling and/or consumption of wild game may ...
Raffaelli B - - 2002
A review with 114 references about mammalian lignans (enterolignans). Several aspects have been reviewed: the precursors of mammalian lignans and their biosynthesis, biological activities and health effects, metabolism (in vivo and in vitro) in human and animals, some synthetic strategies to obtain enterolignan skeleton types, including the synthesis of haptens ...
Maureille Bruno - - 2002
Fossil remains of adult Neanderthals are well documented, but juvenile specimens are rare and information about them is scant. Here we identify a beautifully preserved skeleton that has been lost to science for almost 90 years as the Neanderthal neonate known as 'Le Moustier 2', which was originally found at ...
Mittal Gaurav - - 2002
In vitro treatment of erythrocytes of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain resulted in a marginal increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes without affecting their antioxygenic potential as evidenced by insignificant effect on lipid peroxidation (LPO). However, (LPO) ...
Humphries Murray M MM Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 1B1, Canada, - - 2002
The timing and basis of the transition from energy reserve accumulation to reserve utilization in autumn may be a key determinant of winter survival in endotherms, but has rarely been examined directly in the field. In the present study we quantify the energetics of autumn mast hoarding in eastern chipmunks ...
Wackernagel Mathis - - 2002
Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption ...
Aguayo Víctor M - - 2002
Using a simple and conservative methodology, we estimated the volume and monetary value of the human milk produced by lactating women in Francophone West Africa. In that region, children zero to 35.9 months old consume over 1.1 billion liters of human milk per year. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices account for ...
Ulleland Marius - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Only cobalamin carried by transcobalamin (holo-transcobalamin) is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. However, no reliable or accurate methods for quantifying holo-transcobalamin are available. We report a novel holo-transcobalamin assay based on solid-phase capture of transcobalamin. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody specific for human transcobalamin with an ...
Noble Rudolf E - - 2002
Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. ...
Catlin Don H - - 2002
Norbolethone (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-3-one) is a 19-nor anabolic steroid first synthesized in 1966. During the 1960s it was administered to humans in efficacy studies concerned with short stature and underweight conditions. It has never been reported by doping control laboratories. Norbolethone was identified in two urine samples from one athlete by matching ...
- - 2002
As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both ...
Kuliukas Algis - - 2002
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that the large human brain is most likely to have evolved in littoral and estuarine habitats rich in naturally occurring essential fatty acids. This paper adds further weight to this view, suggesting that another key human trait, our bipedality might also be best explained as ...
Neiburger E J - - 2002
Forensic dentistry's role in solving homicide cases is not limited to victim and other human identifications. This science also can apply to perpetrators, human as well as animal, and can clarify historical incidents that occurred many years ago. In two cases more than 90 years apart, three African lions were ...
Cidade H M - - 2001
Further study of one of the fractions from the wood of Artocarpus elasticus furnished two new prenylated flavonoids artelastocarpin and carpelastofuran as well as ethyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate. The two flavonoids and the prenylated flavonoids artelastin, artelastochromene, artelasticin, artocarpesin, and cyclocommunin isolated earlier from this species were tested for cytotoxicity in vitro ...
Nave H - - 2001
At the surface of the respiratory and digestive organs the organism first comes into contact nasally and orally with various foreign agents and substances in the air and in food. The palatine tonsils are located at the centre of this strategic region. Immunological processes, both humoral and cellular, are initiated ...
Dieter R A RA - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Provide a descriptive review of bear and human interactions in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive review. RESULTS: The bear population in the United States includes the grizzly bear, the polar bear, and the black bear, including the glacier phase or blue bear. As the human population grew and ...
Keen C L - - 2001
Cocoa and chocolate products have been delicacies for hundreds of years. Only recently have they been recognized as significant sources of phytochemicals with healthful effects. These foods are among the most concentrated sources of the procyanidin flavonoids, catechin and epicatechin. Recent studies have shown that these polyphenols are absorbed from ...
Penzak S R - - 2001
The Seville orange extract Citrus aurantium contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine; it causes cardiac disturbances in animals and is used by humans for weight loss. Juice from the orange (Seville orange juice [SOJ]) is used to "knock out" intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in bioavailability studies. The purpose of this ...
Henderson J V - - 2001
1. Small flocks of ducks (Anasplatyrhynchos domesticus) were exposed to two stimuli, a small mobile vehicle and a walking human, to investigate their flight responses. 2. Experiment 1. Flocks were herded around an annular arena by each stimulus at 0.5 ms(-1) and the flight distance between the stimulus and the ...
Hanihara T - - 2001
Seven discrete cranial traits usually categorised as hyperostotic characters, the medial palatine canal, hypoglossal canal bridging, precondylar tubercle, condylus tertius, jugular foramen bridging, auditory exostosis, and mylohyoid bridging were investigated in 81 major human population samples from around the world. Significant asymmetric occurrences of the bilateral traits were detected in ...
Killian J K - - 2001
M6P/IGF2R imprinting first appeared approximately 150 million years ago following the divergence of prototherian from therian mammals. Although M6P/IGF2R is clearly imprinted in opossums and rodents, its imprint status in humans remains ambiguous. It is also still unknown if M6P/IGF2R imprinting was an ancestral mammalian epigenotype or if it evolved ...
Cal K - - 2001
Polyurethane matrices containing up to 39% of the terpenes eucalyptol, L-limonene, D-limonene, dipentene or terpinolene were produced. Release of the terpenes directly to the acceptor fluid, as well as through isolated human epidermis and dermis, was studied. In the presence of dermis the penetration profiles were very similar to the ...
Sax L - - 2001
Two questions relevant to the safety of phosphate additives have been raised in the literature: 1) Is the dietary ratio of calcium to phosphorus clinically significant in humans? Specifically, can a high-phosphorus, low-calcium diet cause hypocalcemia and/or secondary hyperparathyroidism in humans? 2) Does the growing use of phosphate-containing food additives ...
Palomar García V - - 2001
In this article we review the literature concerning the capacity of certain substances to cause ototoxicity when administered topically. The ototoxicity experimentally observed in animals only occurs in humans under certain circumstances. It is concluded that many of these products. which are commonly used for treatment in humans, are ototoxic ...
Deputte B L. - - 2001
A preference for novelty paradigm was used to investigate whether mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), an arboreal non-human primate species, were able to discriminate and to categorize different visual stimuli belonging to natural (food items) and abstract (non-food items) categories. In a comparative perspective human subjects were tested with the same procedure ...
Duhamel G E - - 2001
Research in the past decade has led to the recognition of Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli as the primary etiologic agent of colonic spirochetosis (CS), an emerging cause of colitis in humans and animals. Attachment of spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the lower intestine is considered to be the hallmark ...
Florencio C A - - 2001
Progress in addressing the problems of hunger and malnutrition has been slow and uneven across regions and countries of the world. A rights-based perspective, not merely a utilitarian argument, must serve as the rationale for humans to be properly nourished. Rights impose corresponding binding obligations on others and the concept ...
Hoberg E P - - 2001
Phylogenetic and divergence date analyses indicate that the occurrence of Taenia tapeworms in humans pre-dates the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and domestication of cattle (Bos spp.) or swine (Sus scrofa). Taeniid tapeworms in Africa twice independently colonized hominids and the genus Homo prior to the origin of modern humans. ...
Ortner D J - - 2001
The authors surveyed subadult human skeletons from Native American archeological sites in the United States for evidence of skeletal lesions associated with scurvy. Geographic regions surveyed include the Midatlantic area, the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest, and the Plains. The prevalence of probable subadult scurvy ranged from zero in the Plains ...
Natunen J - - 2001
Human alpha3-fucosyltransferases (Fuc-Ts) are known to convert N-acetyllactosamine to Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis x antigen); some of them transfer fucose also to GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc, generating GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc determinants. Here, we report that recombinant forms of Fuc-TV and Fuc-TVI as well as Fuc-Ts of human milk converted chitin oligosaccharides of 2-4 GlcNAc units efficiently to ...
Ibarreta D - - 2001
Plants produce estrogen-like substances, denominated phytoestrogens, which are present in many human foodstuffs. The consumption of phytoestrogens has been associated with a variety of protective effects. Their relative estrogenic potency combined with their concentrations in food and human plasma indicate biological relevance. However, their biological properties differ from those of ...
Netzel M - - 2001
Anthocyanins are a group of very efficient bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in plant food. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blackberry, red grape) and some vegetables (eggplant, onion, red radish) are rich sources of these natural pigments. Extracts of some of them are used as food colorants as well as components ...
Yang C S - - 2001
Plants consumed by humans contain thousands of phenolic compounds. The effects of dietary polyphenols are of great current interest due to their antioxidative and possible anticarcinogenic activities. A popular belief is that dietary polyphenols are anticarcinogens because they are antioxidants, but direct evidence for this supposition is lacking. This chapter ...
Oh-Oka T - - 2001
Acrin1 (MN7), a 90-kd glycoprotein, is localized in the sperm acrosome of several rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular size and subcellular localization of acrin1 (MN7) in human sperm, and its organization in spermatids during spermiogenesis. Immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses revealed that acrin1 (MN7) is ...
Baron J - - 2000
It has been suggested that the long-term discount rate for environmental goods should decrease at longer delays. One justification for this suggestion is that human judgments support it. This article presents an experiment showing that judgments concerning discount rates are internally inconsistent. These results point to potential problems with the ...
Déprez S - - 2000
Polymeric proanthocyanidins are common constituents of many foods and beverages. Their fate in the human body remains largely unknown. Their metabolism by human colonic microflora incubated in vitro in anoxic conditions has been investigated using nonlabeled and (14)C-labeled purified proanthocyanidin polymers. Polymers were almost totally degraded after 48 h of ...
Kumar N - - 2000
The anatomical parameters of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the deer spine were evaluated and compared with the existing data of the human spine. The objective was to create a database for the anatomical parameters of the deer spine, with a view to establish deer spine as a valid ...
Davis H - - 2000
To predict when food reward was available, 12 New Zealand White rabbits were trained to discriminate between two humans. All subjects had significantly higher response rates and greater behavioral arousal in the presence of the positive stimulus person. The ability to discriminate between individual humans sets the stage for unanticipated ...
Marlar R A - - 2000
The existence of cannibalism is one of the most controversial issues in the archaeology of the American Southwest. Disarticulated, cut-marked and heat-altered human remains from non-burial contexts at prehistoric Puebloan (Anasazi) archaeological sites in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest have been interpreted by some scholars as evidence ...
Pearson O M - - 2000
Postcranial robusticity--the massiveness of the skeleton--figures prominently in the debate over the origin of modern humans. Anthropologists use postcranial robusticity to infer the activity levels of prehistoric populations, and changes in robusticity are often used to support scenarios of adaptive change. These scenarios explain differences in morphology as the result ...
Thier R - - 2000
The high acute toxicity of acrylonitrile may be a result of its intrinsic biological reactivity or of its metabolite cyanide. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine has been recommended for treatment of accidental intoxications in acrylonitrile workers, but such recommendations vary internationally. Acrylonitrile is metabolized in humans and experimental animals via two competing pathways; ...
Trinkaus E - - 2000
In 1997 a human mandibular second deciduous incisor was discovered during excavations at the central Asian Middle Paleolithic site of Khudji, Tajikistan. The specimen was associated with a late Middle Paleolithic assemblage in a minimally disturbed cultural layer. The specimen is average in size for Late Pleistocene archaic human di(2)s ...
Schrader T J - - 2000
In order to produce a reporter gene assay for androgenic chemicals, a constitutive expression vector coding for the human androgen receptor and a reporter construct containing the firefly luciferase coding sequence under transcriptional control of the androgen responsive MMTV promoter were cotransfected into the androgen-insensitive human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell ...
Stiner MC - - 2000
This study illustrates the potential of small-game data for identifying and dating Paleolithic demographic pulses such as those associated with modern human origins and the later evolution of food-producing economies. Archaeofaunal series from Israel and Italy serve as our examples. Three important implications of this study are that (1) early ...
Burin G J - - 1999
Addressing human variability and sensitive subpopulations is one of the challenges of risk assessment and is an important aspect of the Food Quality Protection Act, the law passed in 1996 that regulates food use pesticides in the United States. The intraspecies uncertainty factor is intended to address differences in susceptibility ...
Fayer R - - 1999
Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic waterborne pathogen, can be removed by bivalve molluscs from contaminated water and retained on gills and in hemolymph. We identified oocysts of C. parvum in oysters from seven sites in the Chesapeake Bay area. These findings document the presence of C. parvum infectious for ...
Brzezinski A - - 1999
Phytoestrogens are diphenolic compounds that are present in several plants eaten by human beings. Soybeans and flaxseed are particularly abundant source of phytoestrogens. When ingested in relatively large amounts, phytoestrogens have been shown to have significant estrogen agonists/antagonists effects in animals and humans. There is epidemiological, laboratory and clinical evidence ...
Castilla JC - - 1999
The ecological roles of humans in marine communities have been poorly studied. Humans have special characteristics, such as culture, and are perceived as complex ecological actors. Observations and experiments conducted in coastal (rocky intertidal and nearshore) 'no-take' areas or reserves in Chile and around the world have permitted a better ...
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