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Huang Ling C LC College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-2020, - - 2005
Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and cathelicidin LL-37 are salt-sensitive cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed by ocular surface epithelia. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of preservative-free artificial tears on hBD-2 and LL-37 antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was incubated with hBD-2 or LL-37 in the absence ...
Li Zhuo-Yu - - 2004
An open reading frame of the alpha-subunit 1-205 residues (alpha205) of human acetylcholine receptor (AchR) was amplified by PCR with pUC-AChR alpha205 as the template and inserted into vector pMAL-c2X. The constructed pMAR alpha205 was transferred into E. coli BL21 which were then grown in LB medium. The amount of ...
Qiu Y T - - 2004
Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been transferred elicited a level of attraction similar to a human hand. ...
Stake Jeffrey Evans - - 2004
Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run ...
Seeram Navindra P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a ...
Call Josep - - 2004
Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave differently depending on ...
O'Connell Sanjida - - 2005
Chimpanzees (Pan spp.) were tested on a habituation/dishabituation paradigm that was originally developed to test for comprehension of causality in very young human infants. Three versions of the test were used: a food item being moved by a hand, a human pushing another human off a chair to obtain a ...
Imhoff Marc L - - 2004
The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production--the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis--can ...
Young Helen - - 2004
This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. ...
Lieberman Daniel E - - 2004
Changes in the technology of food preparation over the last few thousand years (especially cooking, softening, and grinding) are hypothesized to have contributed to smaller facial size in humans because of less growth in response to strains generated by chewing softer, more processed food. While there is considerable comparative evidence ...
Riva E E Department of Paediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, - - 2004
It has been hypothesized that feeding human milk through the first year of life may have a protective effect towards a later adiposity development, in contrast with formula feeding. The low protein content of human milk has been hypothesized as a plausible biological hypothesis. Regardless, it is often underscored that ...
Verri G - - 2004
The development of mining to acquire the best raw materials for producing stone tools represents a breakthrough in human technological and intellectual development. We present a new approach to studying the history of flint mining, using in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations. We show that the raw material used to manufacture ...
Teague Claire - - 2004
Metabonomic screening of human urine samples using 1H NMR spectroscopy has revealed the presence of signals resulting from the excretion of ethyl glucoside. Experiments in volunteers have demonstrated that this ethyl glucoside results from dietary exposure to the compound, which is present in beverages such as rice wine and sake, ...
Rollinson, Daniel J.
The urbanised environment provides ecologists with unique situations in which to undertake ecological study. It has been said that urbanisation is like a natural experiment; we often have populations of animals that have gone from living in natural or semi-natural environments to living in a highly modified anthropogenic environment. These ...
Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta
Bioscience Microflora Vol.23 Nr.2, 67 - 80
Grandgirard André - - 2004
The oxidised derivatives of phytosterols (oxyphytosterols) were identified in plasma samples from thirteen healthy human volunteers, using MS. All the samples contained noticeable quantities of (24R)-5beta,6beta-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3beta-ol (beta-epoxysitostanol) and (24R)-ethylcholestan-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (sitostanetriol) and also trace levels of (24R)-5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3beta-ol (alpha-epoxysitostanol), (24R)-methylcholestan-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (campestanetriol) and (24R)-ethylch olest-5-en-3beta-ol-7-one(7-ketositosterol). The amounts of these oxyphytosterols in plasma varied ...
Monro J A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine an adequate daily intake value for dietary fibre (AIdf) based on faecal bulking indexes (FBIs) for 66 foods of known total dietary fibre (TDF) content. DESIGN: FBIs of 66 foods were measured and expressed as wheat bran equivalents (WBEfb) per 100 g of food. A daily WBEfb ...
Kleinsasser Norbert H - - 2003
Myosmine, 3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine, is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. Recently, it was also detected in various edibles and staple foods. Whereas other tobacco alkaloids such as nicotine and nornicotine and their nitrosation products, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been widely discussed, the mutagenic impact of myosmine has not been ...
Milton Katharine - - 2003
Wild primates take most of the daily diet from plant sources, eating moderate to small amounts of animal source foods (ASF). Plant materials make up from 87% to >99% of the annual diet of great apes, the closest living relatives of modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Reflecting their close genetic ...
Gardana Claudio - - 2003
Stevia rebaudiana standardized extracts (SSEs) are used as natural sweeteners or dietary supplements in different countries for their content of stevioside or rebaudioside A. These compounds possess up to 250 times the sweetness intensity of sucrose, and they are noncaloric and noncariogenic sweeteners. The aim of this study was to ...
Kringelbach M L - - 2003
Single-neuron recording studies in non-human primates indicate that orbitofrontal cortex neurons represent the reward value of the sight, smell and taste of food, and even changes in the relative reward value, but provide no direct evidence on brain activity that is correlated with subjective reports of the pleasantness of food. ...
Asokan S - - 2003
Role of habitat-structure and climatic factors in the population dynamics of the small green bee-eater Merops orientalis was evaluated in three habitats viz., agricultural lands, river banks and human habitations during 1991-1993. The river banks supported relatively high population of bee-eaters (157/Km2) followed by the agricultural lands (101/Km2) and human ...
Hoberg Edelgard - - 2003
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sensory and general quality of four different melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) immediately after harvest and at the end of storage and marketing simulation. After 16 days of storage at 5 degrees C and additional 3 days at 20 degrees C, ...
Grinder-Pedersen Lisbeth - - 2003
Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake and excretion of five selected flavonoids and ...
Milton Katharine - - 2003
Low micronutrient intake is implicated in a diversity of human health problems, ranging from problems associated with food insufficiency to those associated with food over-consumption. Humans are members of the order primates, suborder anthropoidea, and are most closely related to the great apes. Humans and apes are remarkably similar biologically. ...
Wrangham Richard - - 2003
No human foragers have been recorded as living without cooking, and people who choose a 'raw-foodist' life-style experience low energy and impaired reproductive function. This suggests that cooking may be obligatory for humans. The possibility that cooking is obligatory is supported by calculations suggesting that a diet of raw food ...
Call Josep - - 2003
Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned ...
Hutton Geoffrey H - - 2003
Vernacular building for humans evolved in much the same way that shelter evolved for birds and animals: largely by trial and error, and experience. Healthy accommodation is critical for the survival of all species, and the existence of molds and fungal spores in the air and food supply has been ...
Pérez-Pérez Alejandro - - 2003
Non-occlusal, buccal tooth microwear variability has been studied in 68 fossil humans from Europe and the Near East. The microwear patterns observed suggest that a major shift in human dietary habits and food processing techniques might have taken place in the transition from the Middle to the Late Pleistocene populations. ...
Wu Renyi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To investigate in human and porcine isolated ciliary bodies the effect of acetazolamide and epinephrine on ciliary transepithelial ionic currents (a parameter linked to aqueous humor production). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Isolated ciliary bodies were mounted in a Ussing-type chamber to measure transepithelial potential difference (PD) and short circuit current ...
Mazza G - - 2002
In recent years, numerous studies have shown that the polyphenolics present in fruit and vegetable products exhibit a wide range of biological effects. However, there is little reliable information on the absorption of glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins in humans. In the present study, the absorption of anthocyanins in humans was ...
Ulijaszek Stanley J - - 2002
Present-day human eating behaviour in industrialised society is characterised by the consumption of high-energy-density diets and often unstructured feeding patterns, largely uncoupled from seasonal cycles of food availability. Broadly similar patterns of feeding are found among advantaged groups in economically-emerging and developing nations. Such patterns of feeding are consistent with ...
Ahl Alwynelle S - - 2002
The role of a few microorganisms, like Brucella and Mycobacterium and certain parasites of food animals, in causing human disease has been recognized for a hundred years. By the 1990s, other microorganisms derived from food animals were recognized as contributing to human illness. Handling and/or consumption of wild game may ...
Raffaelli B - - 2002
A review with 114 references about mammalian lignans (enterolignans). Several aspects have been reviewed: the precursors of mammalian lignans and their biosynthesis, biological activities and health effects, metabolism (in vivo and in vitro) in human and animals, some synthetic strategies to obtain enterolignan skeleton types, including the synthesis of haptens ...
Maureille Bruno - - 2002
Fossil remains of adult Neanderthals are well documented, but juvenile specimens are rare and information about them is scant. Here we identify a beautifully preserved skeleton that has been lost to science for almost 90 years as the Neanderthal neonate known as 'Le Moustier 2', which was originally found at ...
Mittal Gaurav - - 2002
In vitro treatment of erythrocytes of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain resulted in a marginal increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes without affecting their antioxygenic potential as evidenced by insignificant effect on lipid peroxidation (LPO). However, (LPO) ...
Humphries Murray M MM Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 1B1, Canada, - - 2002
The timing and basis of the transition from energy reserve accumulation to reserve utilization in autumn may be a key determinant of winter survival in endotherms, but has rarely been examined directly in the field. In the present study we quantify the energetics of autumn mast hoarding in eastern chipmunks ...
Wackernagel Mathis - - 2002
Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption ...
Aguayo Víctor M - - 2002
Using a simple and conservative methodology, we estimated the volume and monetary value of the human milk produced by lactating women in Francophone West Africa. In that region, children zero to 35.9 months old consume over 1.1 billion liters of human milk per year. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices account for ...
Ulleland Marius - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Only cobalamin carried by transcobalamin (holo-transcobalamin) is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. However, no reliable or accurate methods for quantifying holo-transcobalamin are available. We report a novel holo-transcobalamin assay based on solid-phase capture of transcobalamin. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody specific for human transcobalamin with an ...
Noble Rudolf E - - 2002
Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. ...
Catlin Don H - - 2002
Norbolethone (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-3-one) is a 19-nor anabolic steroid first synthesized in 1966. During the 1960s it was administered to humans in efficacy studies concerned with short stature and underweight conditions. It has never been reported by doping control laboratories. Norbolethone was identified in two urine samples from one athlete by matching ...
- - 2002
As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both ...
Kuliukas Algis - - 2002
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that the large human brain is most likely to have evolved in littoral and estuarine habitats rich in naturally occurring essential fatty acids. This paper adds further weight to this view, suggesting that another key human trait, our bipedality might also be best explained as ...
Neiburger E J - - 2002
Forensic dentistry's role in solving homicide cases is not limited to victim and other human identifications. This science also can apply to perpetrators, human as well as animal, and can clarify historical incidents that occurred many years ago. In two cases more than 90 years apart, three African lions were ...
Cidade H M - - 2001
Further study of one of the fractions from the wood of Artocarpus elasticus furnished two new prenylated flavonoids artelastocarpin and carpelastofuran as well as ethyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate. The two flavonoids and the prenylated flavonoids artelastin, artelastochromene, artelasticin, artocarpesin, and cyclocommunin isolated earlier from this species were tested for cytotoxicity in vitro ...
Nave H - - 2001
At the surface of the respiratory and digestive organs the organism first comes into contact nasally and orally with various foreign agents and substances in the air and in food. The palatine tonsils are located at the centre of this strategic region. Immunological processes, both humoral and cellular, are initiated ...
Dieter R A RA - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Provide a descriptive review of bear and human interactions in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive review. RESULTS: The bear population in the United States includes the grizzly bear, the polar bear, and the black bear, including the glacier phase or blue bear. As the human population grew and ...
Keen C L - - 2001
Cocoa and chocolate products have been delicacies for hundreds of years. Only recently have they been recognized as significant sources of phytochemicals with healthful effects. These foods are among the most concentrated sources of the procyanidin flavonoids, catechin and epicatechin. Recent studies have shown that these polyphenols are absorbed from ...
Penzak S R - - 2001
The Seville orange extract Citrus aurantium contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine; it causes cardiac disturbances in animals and is used by humans for weight loss. Juice from the orange (Seville orange juice [SOJ]) is used to "knock out" intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in bioavailability studies. The purpose of this ...
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