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Results 301 - 350 of 532
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Al-Mathal Ebtsam M - - 2007
The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, ...
Taglialatela Jared P JP Division of Psychobiology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. - - 2007
Magnetic resonance images were collected in 76 chimpanzees and the sylvian fissure was examined for the presence of a posterior bifurcation. A bilateral bifurcation of the sylvian fissure into an ascending and descending ramus was identified in 58 of the subjects. The posterior ascending ramus was measured in both hemispheres ...
Jensen Keith - - 2007
People are willing to punish others at a personal cost, and this apparently antisocial tendency can stabilize cooperation. What motivates humans to punish noncooperators is likely a combination of aversion to both unfair outcomes and unfair intentions. Here we report a pair of studies in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) ...
Ey Janine - - 2007
Ergothioneine is a native membrane-impermeable thiol compound that is specifically accumulated in cells via the organic cation transporter OCTN1. In humans, OCTN1 and ergothioneine have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. However, available evidence about dietary sources and the functional role of ergothioneine in human physiology is scarce. ...
Frederiksen Hanne - - 2007
Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar ...
Warneken Felix F Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2007
People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of ...
Hendrickx Larissa - - 2007
Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by ...
Bhutta Mahmood F - - 2007
The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful--such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction ...
Ahearne Mark - - 2007
Cornea is a load-bearing tissue whose mechanical and viscoelastic characteristics are not well understood, due to the challenge associated with most of the measurements. A novel indentation technique has been developed for mechanical characterization of human and porcine corneal tissue, using a tailored depth-sensing microindentation instrument. During indentation, the corneas ...
Li Xiaohua - - 2007
Previously, Srinivasula devised a contiguous molecule (C-cp-3 or immunocaspase-3) containing the small and large subunits similar to that in the active form of caspas-3 and found C-cp-3 had similar cleavage activity to the active form of caspase-3. To search for a new clinical application of C-cp-3 to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, ...
Tomas-Barberan Francisco A - - 2007
Cocoa is a food rich in polyphenols, mainly the flavonoid procyanidins and flavan-3-ols. The improvement of the cardiovascular function in humans upon cocoa consumption has been specifically linked to the presence of flavan-3-ol derived metabolites in plasma, especially epicatechin glucuronide. In this context, a flavonoid-enriched cocoa-derived product could potentially exert ...
Lentz Kimberley A - - 2007
A preclinical canine model capable of predicting a compound's potential for a human food effect was developed. The beagle dog was chosen as the in vivo model. A validation set of compounds with known propensities for human food effect was studied. Several diets were considered including high-fat dog food and ...
Pannacciulli Nicola - - 2007
Postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion can act as a meal termination signal in animals and humans. We tested the hypothesis that the postprandial changes in plasma GLP-1 concentrations are associated with changes in the human brain activity in response to satiety by performing a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study ...
Melintescu A - - 2007
Concerns of increased risk from tritium intake by humans have been claimed in the past. The arguments concerning the radiobiological effectiveness of tritium, its longer retention in the human body and the presence of tritium in the DNA hydration shell are analysed in this paper. A biokinetic model for tritiated ...
Adlercreutz Herman - - 2007
This review focuses on the possible role in human health of the consumption of lignan-rich foods. Most of the plant lignans in human foods are converted by the intestinal microflora in the upper part of the large bowel to enterolactone and enterodiol, called mammalian or enterolignans. The protective role of ...
Bowles Samuel - - 2006
Humans behave altruistically in natural settings and experiments. A possible explanation-that groups with more altruists survive when groups compete-has long been judged untenable on empirical grounds for most species. But there have been no empirical tests of this explanation for humans. My empirical estimates show that genetic differences between early ...
Almogren Adel - - 2007
A detailed investigation of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human secretory IgA2 (S-IgA2) was made possible by the development of a new method of purifying S-IgA1, S-IgA2 and free secretory component from human colostrum using thiophilic gel chromatography and chromatography on Jacalin-agarose. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide ...
Ohya Takeshi - - 2006
Previous study demonstrated that 4-methylspinaceamine (4-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine), a Pictet-Spengler condensation reaction product of histamine with acetaldehyde, is present in human urine. The current study sought to determine whether 4-methylspinaceamine is present in fermented foods; its presence might be expected since both histamine and acetaldehyde are often present in these foods. Soy ...
Aldini Giancarlo - - 2006
Several pieces of evidence indicate that albumin modified by HNE is a promising biomarker of systemic oxidative stress and that HNE-modified albumin may contribute to the immune reactions triggered by lipid peroxidation-derived antigens. In this study, we found by HPLC analysis that HNE is rapidly quenched by human serum albumin ...
Schauss Astrid C - - 2006
The mitochondrial division machinery consists of the large dynamin-related protein Dnm1p (Drp1/Dlp1 in humans), and Fis1p, Mdv1p and Caf4p. Proper assembly of Dnm1p complexes on the mitochondrial surface is crucial for balanced fission and fusion events. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we show that Caf4p is important for the recruitment of ...
Lucas Peter W - - 2006
One of the defining characteristics of humans, one that could also explain our species' success, is probably our ability to cook food. A brief review of the literature suggests several adaptations of the mouth can be interpreted to support this. All probably enhance the efficiency of the physical treatment of ...
Katoh Masuko - - 2006
Nodal and BMP signaling pathways network with WNT signaling pathway during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. CER1 (Cerberus 1) and GREM3 (CKTSF1B3 or CER2) inhibit NODAL signaling through ACVR1B (ALK4) or ACVR1C (ALK7) to SMAD2 or SMAD3. GREM1 (CKTSF1B1) inhibits BMP signaling through BMPR1A (ALK3), BMPR1B (ALK6) or ACVR1 (ALK2) to SMAD1, ...
Melis Alicia P - - 2006
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) competed with a human for food. The human sat inside a booth, with 1 piece of food to her left and 1 to her right, which she could retract from her chimpanzee competitor's reach as needed. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees could approach either side of the booth ...
Falandysz Jerzy - - 2006
Concentrations of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdañsk at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate in the human body. ...
Knight Andrew - - 2006
Due to limited human exposure data, risk classification and the consequent regulation of exposure to potential carcinogens has conventionally relied mainly upon animal tests. However, several investigations have revealed animal carcinogenicity data to be lacking in human predictivity. To investigate the reasons for this, we surveyed 160 chemicals possessing animal ...
Michels Gudrun - - 2006
Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in human diet. Their antioxidative, antiinflammatory and antiviral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. Luteolin is metabolized to glucuronides, but also to methylated derivatives. For example, O-methylation of the catechol group mediated ...
Hare Brian - - 2006
There is little experimental evidence that any non-human species is capable of purposefully attempting to manipulate the psychological states of others deceptively (e.g., manipulating what another sees). We show here that chimpanzees, one of humans' two closest primate relatives, sometimes attempt to actively conceal things from others. Specifically, when competing ...
Higham Tom - - 2006
The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in ...
Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina
Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health. Goktepe, Ipek; Juneja, Vijay K.; Ahmedna, Mohamed (Eds), 309 - 339
Farrimond Samantha J - - 2006
There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.
Aghamiri S Mahmoud Reza - - 2006
The level of natural radiation in some regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, is known to be among the highest levels of natural radiation in the world. 226Ra existing in high concentrations in the soil of this region is washed by underground water and transferred to the ...
Sumida Sajio - - 2006
The modern era of cryomedicine began in 1949 in London and developed world-wide in the second half of the 20th century based on the first report of a novel method of cryopreservation of sperm and erythrocytes using glycerol that was reported in 1949 and 1950 by Polge and Smith. In ...
Tsai Wen-Tien - - 2006
Bisphenol-A (BPA), identified as an environmental hormone (i.e., endocrine disruptor), is an industrially important chemical that is being used as a primary raw material for the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polycarbonate/epoxy resins), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. From the ecotoxicology, human health and regulatory points of ...
Olaharski Andrew J - - 2005
Sirtuins are a family of phylogenetically conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that have a firmly established role in aging. Using a simple Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast heterochromatic derepression assay, we tested a number of environmental chemicals to address the possibility that humans are exposed to sirtuin inhibitors. Here we show that ...
Richards M P - - 2005
We report here on direct evidence for the intensive consumption of marine foods by anatomically modern humans at approximately 12,000 years ago. We undertook isotopic analysis of bone collagen from three humans, dating to the late Palaeolithic, from the site of Kendrick's Cave in North Wales, UK. The isotopic measurements ...
Iwai Koji - - 2005
In the present study, we identified several food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of some gelatin hydrolysates. Healthy human volunteers ingested the gelatin hydrolysates (9.4-23 g) from porcine skin, chicken feet, and cartilage after 12 h of fasting. Negligible amounts of the peptide form of hydroxyproline (Hyp) ...
Miller Gifford H - - 2005
Most of Australia's largest mammals became extinct 50,000 to 45,000 years ago, shortly after humans colonized the continent. Without exceptional climate change at that time, a human cause is inferred, but a mechanism remains elusive. A 140,000-year record of dietary delta(13)C documents a permanent reduction in food sources available to ...
Smith James L - - 2005
Colonic spirochetosis is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacteria Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli induces disease in both humans and animals, whereas B. aalborgi affects only humans and higher primates. Symptoms in humans include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramps. Colonic spirochetosis is common in third world ...
Bain Marcus A - - 2005
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a volatile tertiary aliphatic amine that is derived from the diet either directly from the consumption of foods containing TMA, or by the intake of food containing precursors to TMA such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMNO), choline and L-carnitine. Following oral absorption in humans, TMA undergoes efficient N-oxidation to ...
Schulting Rick J - - 2005
We report here on a human humerus directly dated to 24,470 +/- 110 BP, placing it within the Gravettian, or Mid-Upper Palaeolithic. The partial humerus is an isolated find and can be attributed (with some caution) to the Pleistocene 'bone cave' of Eel Point on Caldey Island, Wales (UK). The ...
Spratt David M - - 2005
Characteristic Australian ecosystems or environments contain numerous food chains some of which may become capriciously side-tracked or appropriated by humans, with parasitic consequences for people in Australia and overseas. Twelve of 13 arboviruses affecting humans are of wildlife origin and all are transmitted by mosquitoes. In this case, transmission is ...
Turnbull Cathryn M - - 2005
There is currently little understanding of the physicochemical properties in the human gastrointestinal tract of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKF), a novel food ingredient with potential for the fibre enrichment of foods such as baked goods. Since physicochemical properties of dietary fibres have been related to beneficial ...
Kaiser Lana G LG Department of Radiology, University of California-San Francisco, MR Unit VA Medical Center at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94141, USA. - - 2005
The scyllo-inositol and myo-inositol concentrations of 24 normal human subjects were measured in vivo using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 T. Single-voxel short-echo (TE = 15 ms) metabolite spectra were collected from the white matter region of the corona radiata. Test-retest studies performed on 10 normal subjects demonstrated coefficient ...
Kennedy G E - - 2005
Although humans have a longer period of infant dependency than other hominoids, human infants, in natural fertility societies, are weaned far earlier than any of the great apes: chimps and orangutans wean, on average, at about 5 and 7.7 years, respectively, while humans wean, on average, at about 2.5 years. ...
Graczyk Thaddeus K - - 2005
The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites. Twenty-one species of filth flies have been listed by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health as ...
Nieminen Petteri - - 2005
The consumption of wild mushrooms is mostly based on tradition and not scientific evidence. Recently the widely consumed Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis in humans. In this study, 42 mice and 4 humans consumed T. flavovirens mixed with regular food items. In mice, the plasma creatine kinase activity increased at ...
Huang Ling C LC College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-2020, - - 2005
Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and cathelicidin LL-37 are salt-sensitive cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed by ocular surface epithelia. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of preservative-free artificial tears on hBD-2 and LL-37 antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was incubated with hBD-2 or LL-37 in the absence ...
Li Zhuo-Yu - - 2004
An open reading frame of the alpha-subunit 1-205 residues (alpha205) of human acetylcholine receptor (AchR) was amplified by PCR with pUC-AChR alpha205 as the template and inserted into vector pMAL-c2X. The constructed pMAR alpha205 was transferred into E. coli BL21 which were then grown in LB medium. The amount of ...
Qiu Y T - - 2004
Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been transferred elicited a level of attraction similar to a human hand. ...
Stake Jeffrey Evans - - 2004
Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run ...
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