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Results 301 - 350 of 467
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Kleinsasser Norbert H - - 2003
Myosmine, 3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine, is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. Recently, it was also detected in various edibles and staple foods. Whereas other tobacco alkaloids such as nicotine and nornicotine and their nitrosation products, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been widely discussed, the mutagenic impact of myosmine has not been ...
Milton Katharine - - 2003
Wild primates take most of the daily diet from plant sources, eating moderate to small amounts of animal source foods (ASF). Plant materials make up from 87% to >99% of the annual diet of great apes, the closest living relatives of modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Reflecting their close genetic ...
Gardana Claudio - - 2003
Stevia rebaudiana standardized extracts (SSEs) are used as natural sweeteners or dietary supplements in different countries for their content of stevioside or rebaudioside A. These compounds possess up to 250 times the sweetness intensity of sucrose, and they are noncaloric and noncariogenic sweeteners. The aim of this study was to ...
Kringelbach M L - - 2003
Single-neuron recording studies in non-human primates indicate that orbitofrontal cortex neurons represent the reward value of the sight, smell and taste of food, and even changes in the relative reward value, but provide no direct evidence on brain activity that is correlated with subjective reports of the pleasantness of food. ...
Asokan S - - 2003
Role of habitat-structure and climatic factors in the population dynamics of the small green bee-eater Merops orientalis was evaluated in three habitats viz., agricultural lands, river banks and human habitations during 1991-1993. The river banks supported relatively high population of bee-eaters (157/Km2) followed by the agricultural lands (101/Km2) and human ...
Hoberg Edelgard - - 2003
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sensory and general quality of four different melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) immediately after harvest and at the end of storage and marketing simulation. After 16 days of storage at 5 degrees C and additional 3 days at 20 degrees C, ...
Grinder-Pedersen Lisbeth - - 2003
Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake and excretion of five selected flavonoids and ...
Milton Katharine - - 2003
Low micronutrient intake is implicated in a diversity of human health problems, ranging from problems associated with food insufficiency to those associated with food over-consumption. Humans are members of the order primates, suborder anthropoidea, and are most closely related to the great apes. Humans and apes are remarkably similar biologically. ...
Wrangham Richard - - 2003
No human foragers have been recorded as living without cooking, and people who choose a 'raw-foodist' life-style experience low energy and impaired reproductive function. This suggests that cooking may be obligatory for humans. The possibility that cooking is obligatory is supported by calculations suggesting that a diet of raw food ...
Call Josep - - 2003
Twelve domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial (control condition), whereas in others, the human (a) left the room, (b) turned ...
Hutton Geoffrey H - - 2003
Vernacular building for humans evolved in much the same way that shelter evolved for birds and animals: largely by trial and error, and experience. Healthy accommodation is critical for the survival of all species, and the existence of molds and fungal spores in the air and food supply has been ...
Pérez-Pérez Alejandro - - 2003
Non-occlusal, buccal tooth microwear variability has been studied in 68 fossil humans from Europe and the Near East. The microwear patterns observed suggest that a major shift in human dietary habits and food processing techniques might have taken place in the transition from the Middle to the Late Pleistocene populations. ...
Wu Renyi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To investigate in human and porcine isolated ciliary bodies the effect of acetazolamide and epinephrine on ciliary transepithelial ionic currents (a parameter linked to aqueous humor production). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Isolated ciliary bodies were mounted in a Ussing-type chamber to measure transepithelial potential difference (PD) and short circuit current ...
Mazza G - - 2002
In recent years, numerous studies have shown that the polyphenolics present in fruit and vegetable products exhibit a wide range of biological effects. However, there is little reliable information on the absorption of glycosylated and acylated anthocyanins in humans. In the present study, the absorption of anthocyanins in humans was ...
Ulijaszek Stanley J - - 2002
Present-day human eating behaviour in industrialised society is characterised by the consumption of high-energy-density diets and often unstructured feeding patterns, largely uncoupled from seasonal cycles of food availability. Broadly similar patterns of feeding are found among advantaged groups in economically-emerging and developing nations. Such patterns of feeding are consistent with ...
Ahl Alwynelle S - - 2002
The role of a few microorganisms, like Brucella and Mycobacterium and certain parasites of food animals, in causing human disease has been recognized for a hundred years. By the 1990s, other microorganisms derived from food animals were recognized as contributing to human illness. Handling and/or consumption of wild game may ...
Raffaelli B - - 2002
A review with 114 references about mammalian lignans (enterolignans). Several aspects have been reviewed: the precursors of mammalian lignans and their biosynthesis, biological activities and health effects, metabolism (in vivo and in vitro) in human and animals, some synthetic strategies to obtain enterolignan skeleton types, including the synthesis of haptens ...
Maureille Bruno - - 2002
Fossil remains of adult Neanderthals are well documented, but juvenile specimens are rare and information about them is scant. Here we identify a beautifully preserved skeleton that has been lost to science for almost 90 years as the Neanderthal neonate known as 'Le Moustier 2', which was originally found at ...
Mittal Gaurav - - 2002
In vitro treatment of erythrocytes of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain resulted in a marginal increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes without affecting their antioxygenic potential as evidenced by insignificant effect on lipid peroxidation (LPO). However, (LPO) ...
Humphries Murray M MM Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 1B1, Canada, - - 2002
The timing and basis of the transition from energy reserve accumulation to reserve utilization in autumn may be a key determinant of winter survival in endotherms, but has rarely been examined directly in the field. In the present study we quantify the energetics of autumn mast hoarding in eastern chipmunks ...
Wackernagel Mathis - - 2002
Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption ...
Aguayo Víctor M - - 2002
Using a simple and conservative methodology, we estimated the volume and monetary value of the human milk produced by lactating women in Francophone West Africa. In that region, children zero to 35.9 months old consume over 1.1 billion liters of human milk per year. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices account for ...
Ulleland Marius - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Only cobalamin carried by transcobalamin (holo-transcobalamin) is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. However, no reliable or accurate methods for quantifying holo-transcobalamin are available. We report a novel holo-transcobalamin assay based on solid-phase capture of transcobalamin. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody specific for human transcobalamin with an ...
Noble Rudolf E - - 2002
Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. ...
Catlin Don H - - 2002
Norbolethone (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-3-one) is a 19-nor anabolic steroid first synthesized in 1966. During the 1960s it was administered to humans in efficacy studies concerned with short stature and underweight conditions. It has never been reported by doping control laboratories. Norbolethone was identified in two urine samples from one athlete by matching ...
- - 2002
As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both ...
Kuliukas Algis - - 2002
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that the large human brain is most likely to have evolved in littoral and estuarine habitats rich in naturally occurring essential fatty acids. This paper adds further weight to this view, suggesting that another key human trait, our bipedality might also be best explained as ...
Neiburger E J - - 2002
Forensic dentistry's role in solving homicide cases is not limited to victim and other human identifications. This science also can apply to perpetrators, human as well as animal, and can clarify historical incidents that occurred many years ago. In two cases more than 90 years apart, three African lions were ...
Cidade H M - - 2001
Further study of one of the fractions from the wood of Artocarpus elasticus furnished two new prenylated flavonoids artelastocarpin and carpelastofuran as well as ethyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate. The two flavonoids and the prenylated flavonoids artelastin, artelastochromene, artelasticin, artocarpesin, and cyclocommunin isolated earlier from this species were tested for cytotoxicity in vitro ...
Nave H - - 2001
At the surface of the respiratory and digestive organs the organism first comes into contact nasally and orally with various foreign agents and substances in the air and in food. The palatine tonsils are located at the centre of this strategic region. Immunological processes, both humoral and cellular, are initiated ...
Dieter R A RA - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Provide a descriptive review of bear and human interactions in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive review. RESULTS: The bear population in the United States includes the grizzly bear, the polar bear, and the black bear, including the glacier phase or blue bear. As the human population grew and ...
Keen C L - - 2001
Cocoa and chocolate products have been delicacies for hundreds of years. Only recently have they been recognized as significant sources of phytochemicals with healthful effects. These foods are among the most concentrated sources of the procyanidin flavonoids, catechin and epicatechin. Recent studies have shown that these polyphenols are absorbed from ...
Penzak S R - - 2001
The Seville orange extract Citrus aurantium contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine; it causes cardiac disturbances in animals and is used by humans for weight loss. Juice from the orange (Seville orange juice [SOJ]) is used to "knock out" intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in bioavailability studies. The purpose of this ...
Henderson J V - - 2001
1. Small flocks of ducks (Anasplatyrhynchos domesticus) were exposed to two stimuli, a small mobile vehicle and a walking human, to investigate their flight responses. 2. Experiment 1. Flocks were herded around an annular arena by each stimulus at 0.5 ms(-1) and the flight distance between the stimulus and the ...
Hanihara T - - 2001
Seven discrete cranial traits usually categorised as hyperostotic characters, the medial palatine canal, hypoglossal canal bridging, precondylar tubercle, condylus tertius, jugular foramen bridging, auditory exostosis, and mylohyoid bridging were investigated in 81 major human population samples from around the world. Significant asymmetric occurrences of the bilateral traits were detected in ...
Killian J K - - 2001
M6P/IGF2R imprinting first appeared approximately 150 million years ago following the divergence of prototherian from therian mammals. Although M6P/IGF2R is clearly imprinted in opossums and rodents, its imprint status in humans remains ambiguous. It is also still unknown if M6P/IGF2R imprinting was an ancestral mammalian epigenotype or if it evolved ...
Cal K - - 2001
Polyurethane matrices containing up to 39% of the terpenes eucalyptol, L-limonene, D-limonene, dipentene or terpinolene were produced. Release of the terpenes directly to the acceptor fluid, as well as through isolated human epidermis and dermis, was studied. In the presence of dermis the penetration profiles were very similar to the ...
Sax L - - 2001
Two questions relevant to the safety of phosphate additives have been raised in the literature: 1) Is the dietary ratio of calcium to phosphorus clinically significant in humans? Specifically, can a high-phosphorus, low-calcium diet cause hypocalcemia and/or secondary hyperparathyroidism in humans? 2) Does the growing use of phosphate-containing food additives ...
Palomar García V - - 2001
In this article we review the literature concerning the capacity of certain substances to cause ototoxicity when administered topically. The ototoxicity experimentally observed in animals only occurs in humans under certain circumstances. It is concluded that many of these products. which are commonly used for treatment in humans, are ototoxic ...
Deputte B L. - - 2001
A preference for novelty paradigm was used to investigate whether mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), an arboreal non-human primate species, were able to discriminate and to categorize different visual stimuli belonging to natural (food items) and abstract (non-food items) categories. In a comparative perspective human subjects were tested with the same procedure ...
Duhamel G E - - 2001
Research in the past decade has led to the recognition of Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli as the primary etiologic agent of colonic spirochetosis (CS), an emerging cause of colitis in humans and animals. Attachment of spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the lower intestine is considered to be the hallmark ...
Florencio C A - - 2001
Progress in addressing the problems of hunger and malnutrition has been slow and uneven across regions and countries of the world. A rights-based perspective, not merely a utilitarian argument, must serve as the rationale for humans to be properly nourished. Rights impose corresponding binding obligations on others and the concept ...
Hoberg E P - - 2001
Phylogenetic and divergence date analyses indicate that the occurrence of Taenia tapeworms in humans pre-dates the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and domestication of cattle (Bos spp.) or swine (Sus scrofa). Taeniid tapeworms in Africa twice independently colonized hominids and the genus Homo prior to the origin of modern humans. ...
Ortner D J - - 2001
The authors surveyed subadult human skeletons from Native American archeological sites in the United States for evidence of skeletal lesions associated with scurvy. Geographic regions surveyed include the Midatlantic area, the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest, and the Plains. The prevalence of probable subadult scurvy ranged from zero in the Plains ...
Natunen J - - 2001
Human alpha3-fucosyltransferases (Fuc-Ts) are known to convert N-acetyllactosamine to Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis x antigen); some of them transfer fucose also to GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc, generating GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc determinants. Here, we report that recombinant forms of Fuc-TV and Fuc-TVI as well as Fuc-Ts of human milk converted chitin oligosaccharides of 2-4 GlcNAc units efficiently to ...
Ibarreta D - - 2001
Plants produce estrogen-like substances, denominated phytoestrogens, which are present in many human foodstuffs. The consumption of phytoestrogens has been associated with a variety of protective effects. Their relative estrogenic potency combined with their concentrations in food and human plasma indicate biological relevance. However, their biological properties differ from those of ...
Netzel M - - 2001
Anthocyanins are a group of very efficient bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in plant food. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blackberry, red grape) and some vegetables (eggplant, onion, red radish) are rich sources of these natural pigments. Extracts of some of them are used as food colorants as well as components ...
Yang C S - - 2001
Plants consumed by humans contain thousands of phenolic compounds. The effects of dietary polyphenols are of great current interest due to their antioxidative and possible anticarcinogenic activities. A popular belief is that dietary polyphenols are anticarcinogens because they are antioxidants, but direct evidence for this supposition is lacking. This chapter ...
Oh-Oka T - - 2001
Acrin1 (MN7), a 90-kd glycoprotein, is localized in the sperm acrosome of several rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular size and subcellular localization of acrin1 (MN7) in human sperm, and its organization in spermatids during spermiogenesis. Immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses revealed that acrin1 (MN7) is ...
Baron J - - 2000
It has been suggested that the long-term discount rate for environmental goods should decrease at longer delays. One justification for this suggestion is that human judgments support it. This article presents an experiment showing that judgments concerning discount rates are internally inconsistent. These results point to potential problems with the ...
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