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Agbonon Amegnona - - 2010
AIM OF THE STUDY: In Africa, medicinal plants are used intensively and concomitantly with allopathic medicines in the treatment of opportunity diseases by many patients or by healthy person to prevent diseases. However, there is little information about the interactions between medicines and botanical products used currently in West Africa ...
Epstein Jenny - - 2010
Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric. It is widely used as a kitchen spice and food colorant throughout India, Asia and the Western world. Curcumin is a major constituent of curry powder, to which it imparts its characteristic yellow colour. For over 4000 years, curcumin has been used in ...
D'Hollander Wendy - - 2010
The widespread distribution and degradation of PFCs in the environment results in a very complex exposure pattern, which makes it difficult to define the relative contribution to human exposure from different exposure pathways. The present review is designed to provide an overview of the existing data on levels of PFCs ...
Makrides Maria - - 2010
A variety of systems are used to establish efficacy of food ingredients. Immortal human cell lines have the advantage of rapid throughput and often have the ability to point to mechanisms of action. Transgenic and natural variants of animals (usually rats and mice) have proven to be extremely useful in ...
Fan Peng-Fei - - 2010
We studied the altitudinal ranging of one habituated group of black-crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China, between March 2005 and April 2006. The group ranged from 1,900 to 2,680 m above sea level. Food distribution was the driving force behind the altitudinal ranging patterns of the ...
Szanyi Jason M JM Center for Children's Law and Policy, Washington, DC, - - 2010
Food and drug law presents legislators and policy makers with a powerful tool to inform individual dietary decisions and improve public health: mandatory nutritional labeling. Most Americans report that they consult nutritional information when making food purchases; yet, knowing whether individuals report consulting nutritional information is different than knowing how ...
Delhalle L - - 2009
The risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat in Belgium was assessed via a modular risk model covering pork meat production from lairage to human consumption. The main goal of the model was to give concrete options to reduce effectively the risk of human salmonellosis through ...
Dzanis David - - 2009
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandates promulgation of new federal regulations regarding processing, ingredient, and labeling standards for pet foods. Veterinary organizations have submitted comments to assist FDA in this matter. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is also considering changes that ...
Buttelmann David - - 2009
Although apes understand others' goals and perceptions, little is known about their understanding of others' emotional expressions. We conducted three studies following the general paradigm of Repacholi and colleagues (1997, 1998). In Study 1, a human reacted emotionally to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the ape was ...
Maiani Giuseppe - - 2009
Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; ...
Marler Thomas E - - 2009
The bioaccumulation of free and glycosylated forms of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol were determined from Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seeds throughout seed ontogeny. Per-seed pool of the four compounds increased linearly from 2 to 24 months, indicating no developmental period elicited a major shift in the rate of bioaccumulation. The slopes ...
Shakur Yaseer A - - 2009
In 1998, the Canadian government mandated folic acid fortification of white flour and enriched grain products to lower the prevalence of neural tube defects. There is now growing concern over the potential harmful effects of too much folic acid on some segments of the population. Given that the actual amount ...
Möhl Katharina - - 2009
Recent incidental background findings of Alaria alata mesocercariae ["Distomum muscularis suis," Duncker, 1896] in meat of wild boars during official Trichinella inspection initiated a re-assessment of the potential human health risk as posed by this parasite. The present review of the literature on Alaria biology shows that the human exposition ...
Toms Leisa-Maree L - - 2009
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples ...
Perry George H - - 2009
Small human body size, or the 'pygmy' phenotype, is characteristic of certain African, Southeast Asian and South American populations. The convergent evolution of this phenotype, and its strong association with tropical rainforests, have motivated adaptive hypotheses that stress the advantages of small size for coping with food limitation, warm, humid ...
Verginelli Fabio - - 2009
Bio-cultural adaptations to new foods played a key role in human evolution. The fossil record and sequence differences between human and chimpanzee genes point to a major dietary shift at the stem of human evolution. The earliest representatives of the human lineage diverged from the ancestors of chimpanzees because of ...
Carmody R N - - 2009
For our body size, humans exhibit higher energy use yet reduced structures for mastication and digestion of food compared to chimpanzees, our closest living relatives. This suite of features suggests that humans are adapted to a high-quality diet. Although increased consumption of meat during human evolution certainly contributed to dietary ...
Cerna-Cortés Jorge F - - 2009
Recently human illnesses due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have increased worldwide, but the sources of transmission have not been well established. Street-vended food is widely consumed in Mexico, and chili sauces are the most typical dressings for this food. Thus, we examined street-vended chili sauces as a possible source for ...
Chang Wen-Ruey - - 2008
A portable inclinable articulated strut slip tester (PIAST) measures friction at the shoe and floor interface. The squeeze-film effect with the PIAST is excessive in representing a human strike. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the contact area size on friction for reducing the squeeze-film ...
Ezezika Obidimma C - - 2009
Expression of human profilin-I does not complement the temperature-sensitive cdc3-124 mutation of the single profilin gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, resulting in death from cytokinesis defects. Human profilin-I and S. pombe profilin have similar affinities for actin monomers, the FH1 domain of fission yeast formin Cdc12p and poly-L-proline (Lu, ...
Byres Emma - - 2008
AB(5) toxins comprise an A subunit that corrupts essential eukaryotic cell functions, and pentameric B subunits that direct target-cell uptake after binding surface glycans. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB(5) toxin secreted by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes serious gastrointestinal disease in humans. SubAB causes haemolytic uraemic syndrome-like ...
De Somer Filip - - 2008
The study evaluates the mechanical and chemical characteristics of autologous surgical glue made by mixing ultrafiltered plasma with glutaraldehyde (GTA). Human albumin 200 g/L mixed with different concentrations of GTA (25, 50, 75, or 100 g/L) was used as a single protein set-up for testing tensile strength, elasticity, and rate ...
Cobo A - - 2008
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cryopreservation protocols on the repolymerization of metaphase (M)II spindles in human oocytes. Fresh aspirated donor oocytes were cryopreserved 3-4 h after retrieval using four different protocols: slow freezing using 1.5 mol/l 1,2-propanediol (PROH) + 0.2 mol/l sucrose (n ...
Tian Peng - - 2008
Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified previously as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis HBGA in humans have been identified as major HBGA for NOR binding. We have found that pig stomach (gastric) mucin (PGM) contains blood group A, H1, and Lewis ...
Dillehay Tom D - - 2008
The identification of human artifacts at the early archaeological site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World. Remains of nine species of marine algae were recovered from hearths ...
Montedonico Sandra - - 2008
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a major life-threatening cause of respiratory failure in the newborn. Recent data reveal the role of a retinoid-signaling pathway disruption in the pathogenesis of CDH. We describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of human CDH, the metabolism of retinoids and the implications of retinoids in the ...
Lamhoujeb Safaa - - 2008
Noroviruses (NoV) are the major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. However, there is no published study to ascertain their survival on foodstuffs which are directly related to human health risk. In the present study, we developed a rapid, simple, and sensitive real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) combined with an enzymatic ...
Bellisari A - - 2008
Although it appeared relatively suddenly, the current obesity epidemic - largely manifest in industrialized societies but now spreading to the rest of the world - is the result of interaction between human biology and human culture over the long period of human evolution. As mammals and primates, humans have the ...
Kim Soung Min - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate abnormal growth patterns of human fetal maxillae with cleft lip and palate (CLP). SUBJECT: A total of 71 fetal maxillae with CLP were obtained from aborted human fetuses. METHOD: Dimensions of the maxillary trapezoid (MT), formed by the maxillary primary growth centers (MxPGC), were taken from radiographic ...
Tallet Céline - - 2008
The presence of the caregiver around feeding favors the development of a human-animal relationship. To understand the underlying mechanism, we tested various temporal associations between food distribution and human presence: from an early age, a person was repeatedly present for 2 min just before milk distribution ("Forward"), during milk distribution ...
Kitzes Justin - - 2008
Sustainability is the possibility of all people living rewarding lives within the means of nature. Despite ample recognition of the importance of achieving sustainable development, exemplified by the Rio Declaration of 1992 and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the global economy fails to meet the most fundamental minimum condition ...
Oliveira Rogério Nogueira - - 2008
The field of forensic dentistry embodies the human identification in a lot of conditions. A case is described when a tooth-like object was found in a pork sausage. A lawsuit was filed against the food company and the possible dental element was analysed. The tests used to analyze the case ...
Johnson Keith L - - 2008
Ticks have never been reported in archaeological analyses. Here, we present the discovery of a tick from a coprolite excavated from Antelope Cave in extreme northwest Arizona. Dietary analysis indicates that the coprolite has a human origin. This archaeological occupation is associated with the Ancestral Pueblo culture (Anasazi). This discovery ...
Jun Hee-jin - - 2008
Furan is a colorless, volatile compound that is found in heat-treated foods, such as canned and jarred foods, at levels up to 100 ppb. When animals ingest high doses, furan metabolites, such as cis-2-butene-1,4-dial, cause severe hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, the levels and effects of furan on humans are not ...
Rossi Simone - - 2008
Converging evidence indicates that action observation and action-related sounds activate cross-modally the human motor system. Since olfaction, the most ancestral sense, may have behavioural consequences on human activities, we causally investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) whether food odour could additionally facilitate the human motor system during the observation of ...
Brosnan Sarah F - - 2008
Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. ...
Burkart Judith M - - 2007
Human cooperation is unparalleled in the animal world and rests on an altruistic concern for the welfare of genetically unrelated strangers. The evolutionary roots of human altruism, however, remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests a discontinuity between humans and other primates because individual chimpanzees do not spontaneously provide food to ...
Lake I R - - 2008
In New Zealand human cryptosporidiosis demonstrates spring and autumn peaks of incidence with the spring peak being three times greater in magnitude than the autumn peak. The imbalance between the two peaks is notable, and may be associated with the high livestock density in New Zealand. In the summer and ...
Hayden Benjamin Y BY Department of Neurobiology, Center for Neuroeconomic Studies, and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, - - 2007
Humans may be patient when it comes to money, but chimpanzees are willing to wait longer than humans for food, suggesting patience is neither innate nor uniquely human.
Fluckinger Maria - - 2008
beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a member of the lipocalin protein family and a major food-borne allergen in humans. Numerous in vitro studies have suggested a role for BLG in molecular transport processes; however, its physiological role remains enigmatic. A cellular receptor for BLG has been proposed, but has not yet been ...
Marean Curtis W - - 2007
Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100 thousand years (kyr) ago, and recent evidence indicates symbolic behaviour may have appeared approximately 135-75 kyr ago. From 195-130 kyr ago, the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage (marine isotope stage MIS6); ...
Rosati Alexandra G AG Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig D-04103, Germany. - - 2007
To make adaptive choices, individuals must sometimes exhibit patience, forgoing immediate benefits to acquire more valuable future rewards [1-3]. Although humans account for future consequences when making temporal decisions [4], many animal species wait only a few seconds for delayed benefits [5-10]. Current research thus suggests a phylogenetic gap between ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Variety-seeking is a central issue to consumer behaviour research and a phenomenon of crucial relevance, both for human and animal nutrition. Variety-seeking increases the probability of nutrient adequacy in omnivores, and in humans it may also contribute to obesity epidemic by diversifying food selection and leading to excessive food intake. ...
Vitaglione Paola - - 2007
The metabolic fate of dietary anthocyanins (ACN) has not been fully clarified in humans. In all previous studies, the proportion of total ACN absorbed and excreted in urine was <1% intake. This study aimed to elucidate the human metabolism of cyanidin-glucosides (CyG) contained in blood orange juice (BOJ). One liter ...
Al-Mathal Ebtsam M - - 2007
The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, ...
Taglialatela Jared P JP Division of Psychobiology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. - - 2007
Magnetic resonance images were collected in 76 chimpanzees and the sylvian fissure was examined for the presence of a posterior bifurcation. A bilateral bifurcation of the sylvian fissure into an ascending and descending ramus was identified in 58 of the subjects. The posterior ascending ramus was measured in both hemispheres ...
Jensen Keith - - 2007
People are willing to punish others at a personal cost, and this apparently antisocial tendency can stabilize cooperation. What motivates humans to punish noncooperators is likely a combination of aversion to both unfair outcomes and unfair intentions. Here we report a pair of studies in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) ...
Ey Janine - - 2007
Ergothioneine is a native membrane-impermeable thiol compound that is specifically accumulated in cells via the organic cation transporter OCTN1. In humans, OCTN1 and ergothioneine have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. However, available evidence about dietary sources and the functional role of ergothioneine in human physiology is scarce. ...
Frederiksen Hanne - - 2007
Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar ...
Warneken Felix F Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2007
People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of ...
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