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Results 251 - 300 of 507
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Ezezika Obidimma C - - 2009
Expression of human profilin-I does not complement the temperature-sensitive cdc3-124 mutation of the single profilin gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, resulting in death from cytokinesis defects. Human profilin-I and S. pombe profilin have similar affinities for actin monomers, the FH1 domain of fission yeast formin Cdc12p and poly-L-proline (Lu, ...
Byres Emma - - 2008
AB(5) toxins comprise an A subunit that corrupts essential eukaryotic cell functions, and pentameric B subunits that direct target-cell uptake after binding surface glycans. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB(5) toxin secreted by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes serious gastrointestinal disease in humans. SubAB causes haemolytic uraemic syndrome-like ...
De Somer Filip - - 2008
The study evaluates the mechanical and chemical characteristics of autologous surgical glue made by mixing ultrafiltered plasma with glutaraldehyde (GTA). Human albumin 200 g/L mixed with different concentrations of GTA (25, 50, 75, or 100 g/L) was used as a single protein set-up for testing tensile strength, elasticity, and rate ...
Cobo A - - 2008
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cryopreservation protocols on the repolymerization of metaphase (M)II spindles in human oocytes. Fresh aspirated donor oocytes were cryopreserved 3-4 h after retrieval using four different protocols: slow freezing using 1.5 mol/l 1,2-propanediol (PROH) + 0.2 mol/l sucrose (n ...
Tian Peng - - 2008
Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified previously as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis HBGA in humans have been identified as major HBGA for NOR binding. We have found that pig stomach (gastric) mucin (PGM) contains blood group A, H1, and Lewis ...
Dillehay Tom D - - 2008
The identification of human artifacts at the early archaeological site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World. Remains of nine species of marine algae were recovered from hearths ...
Montedonico Sandra - - 2008
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a major life-threatening cause of respiratory failure in the newborn. Recent data reveal the role of a retinoid-signaling pathway disruption in the pathogenesis of CDH. We describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of human CDH, the metabolism of retinoids and the implications of retinoids in the ...
Lamhoujeb Safaa - - 2008
Noroviruses (NoV) are the major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. However, there is no published study to ascertain their survival on foodstuffs which are directly related to human health risk. In the present study, we developed a rapid, simple, and sensitive real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) combined with an enzymatic ...
Bellisari A - - 2008
Although it appeared relatively suddenly, the current obesity epidemic - largely manifest in industrialized societies but now spreading to the rest of the world - is the result of interaction between human biology and human culture over the long period of human evolution. As mammals and primates, humans have the ...
Kim Soung Min - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate abnormal growth patterns of human fetal maxillae with cleft lip and palate (CLP). SUBJECT: A total of 71 fetal maxillae with CLP were obtained from aborted human fetuses. METHOD: Dimensions of the maxillary trapezoid (MT), formed by the maxillary primary growth centers (MxPGC), were taken from radiographic ...
Tallet Céline - - 2008
The presence of the caregiver around feeding favors the development of a human-animal relationship. To understand the underlying mechanism, we tested various temporal associations between food distribution and human presence: from an early age, a person was repeatedly present for 2 min just before milk distribution ("Forward"), during milk distribution ...
Kitzes Justin - - 2008
Sustainability is the possibility of all people living rewarding lives within the means of nature. Despite ample recognition of the importance of achieving sustainable development, exemplified by the Rio Declaration of 1992 and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the global economy fails to meet the most fundamental minimum condition ...
Oliveira Rogério Nogueira - - 2008
The field of forensic dentistry embodies the human identification in a lot of conditions. A case is described when a tooth-like object was found in a pork sausage. A lawsuit was filed against the food company and the possible dental element was analysed. The tests used to analyze the case ...
Johnson Keith L - - 2008
Ticks have never been reported in archaeological analyses. Here, we present the discovery of a tick from a coprolite excavated from Antelope Cave in extreme northwest Arizona. Dietary analysis indicates that the coprolite has a human origin. This archaeological occupation is associated with the Ancestral Pueblo culture (Anasazi). This discovery ...
Jun Hee-jin - - 2008
Furan is a colorless, volatile compound that is found in heat-treated foods, such as canned and jarred foods, at levels up to 100 ppb. When animals ingest high doses, furan metabolites, such as cis-2-butene-1,4-dial, cause severe hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, the levels and effects of furan on humans are not ...
Rossi Simone - - 2008
Converging evidence indicates that action observation and action-related sounds activate cross-modally the human motor system. Since olfaction, the most ancestral sense, may have behavioural consequences on human activities, we causally investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) whether food odour could additionally facilitate the human motor system during the observation of ...
Brosnan Sarah F - - 2008
Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. ...
Burkart Judith M - - 2007
Human cooperation is unparalleled in the animal world and rests on an altruistic concern for the welfare of genetically unrelated strangers. The evolutionary roots of human altruism, however, remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests a discontinuity between humans and other primates because individual chimpanzees do not spontaneously provide food to ...
Lake I R - - 2008
In New Zealand human cryptosporidiosis demonstrates spring and autumn peaks of incidence with the spring peak being three times greater in magnitude than the autumn peak. The imbalance between the two peaks is notable, and may be associated with the high livestock density in New Zealand. In the summer and ...
Hayden Benjamin Y BY Department of Neurobiology, Center for Neuroeconomic Studies, and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, - - 2007
Humans may be patient when it comes to money, but chimpanzees are willing to wait longer than humans for food, suggesting patience is neither innate nor uniquely human.
Fluckinger Maria - - 2008
beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a member of the lipocalin protein family and a major food-borne allergen in humans. Numerous in vitro studies have suggested a role for BLG in molecular transport processes; however, its physiological role remains enigmatic. A cellular receptor for BLG has been proposed, but has not yet been ...
Marean Curtis W - - 2007
Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100 thousand years (kyr) ago, and recent evidence indicates symbolic behaviour may have appeared approximately 135-75 kyr ago. From 195-130 kyr ago, the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage (marine isotope stage MIS6); ...
Rosati Alexandra G AG Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig D-04103, Germany. - - 2007
To make adaptive choices, individuals must sometimes exhibit patience, forgoing immediate benefits to acquire more valuable future rewards [1-3]. Although humans account for future consequences when making temporal decisions [4], many animal species wait only a few seconds for delayed benefits [5-10]. Current research thus suggests a phylogenetic gap between ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2008
Variety-seeking is a central issue to consumer behaviour research and a phenomenon of crucial relevance, both for human and animal nutrition. Variety-seeking increases the probability of nutrient adequacy in omnivores, and in humans it may also contribute to obesity epidemic by diversifying food selection and leading to excessive food intake. ...
Vitaglione Paola - - 2007
The metabolic fate of dietary anthocyanins (ACN) has not been fully clarified in humans. In all previous studies, the proportion of total ACN absorbed and excreted in urine was <1% intake. This study aimed to elucidate the human metabolism of cyanidin-glucosides (CyG) contained in blood orange juice (BOJ). One liter ...
Al-Mathal Ebtsam M - - 2007
The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, ...
Taglialatela Jared P - - 2007
Magnetic resonance images were collected in 76 chimpanzees and the sylvian fissure was examined for the presence of a posterior bifurcation. A bilateral bifurcation of the sylvian fissure into an ascending and descending ramus was identified in 58 of the subjects. The posterior ascending ramus was measured in both hemispheres ...
Jensen Keith - - 2007
People are willing to punish others at a personal cost, and this apparently antisocial tendency can stabilize cooperation. What motivates humans to punish noncooperators is likely a combination of aversion to both unfair outcomes and unfair intentions. Here we report a pair of studies in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) ...
Ey Janine - - 2007
Ergothioneine is a native membrane-impermeable thiol compound that is specifically accumulated in cells via the organic cation transporter OCTN1. In humans, OCTN1 and ergothioneine have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. However, available evidence about dietary sources and the functional role of ergothioneine in human physiology is scarce. ...
Frederiksen Hanne - - 2007
Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar ...
Warneken Felix F Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2007
People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of ...
Hendrickx Larissa - - 2007
Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by ...
Bhutta Mahmood F - - 2007
The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful--such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction ...
Ahearne Mark - - 2007
Cornea is a load-bearing tissue whose mechanical and viscoelastic characteristics are not well understood, due to the challenge associated with most of the measurements. A novel indentation technique has been developed for mechanical characterization of human and porcine corneal tissue, using a tailored depth-sensing microindentation instrument. During indentation, the corneas ...
Li Xiaohua - - 2007
Previously, Srinivasula devised a contiguous molecule (C-cp-3 or immunocaspase-3) containing the small and large subunits similar to that in the active form of caspas-3 and found C-cp-3 had similar cleavage activity to the active form of caspase-3. To search for a new clinical application of C-cp-3 to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, ...
Tomas-Barberan Francisco A - - 2007
Cocoa is a food rich in polyphenols, mainly the flavonoid procyanidins and flavan-3-ols. The improvement of the cardiovascular function in humans upon cocoa consumption has been specifically linked to the presence of flavan-3-ol derived metabolites in plasma, especially epicatechin glucuronide. In this context, a flavonoid-enriched cocoa-derived product could potentially exert ...
Lentz Kimberley A - - 2007
A preclinical canine model capable of predicting a compound's potential for a human food effect was developed. The beagle dog was chosen as the in vivo model. A validation set of compounds with known propensities for human food effect was studied. Several diets were considered including high-fat dog food and ...
Pannacciulli Nicola - - 2007
Postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion can act as a meal termination signal in animals and humans. We tested the hypothesis that the postprandial changes in plasma GLP-1 concentrations are associated with changes in the human brain activity in response to satiety by performing a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study ...
Melintescu A - - 2007
Concerns of increased risk from tritium intake by humans have been claimed in the past. The arguments concerning the radiobiological effectiveness of tritium, its longer retention in the human body and the presence of tritium in the DNA hydration shell are analysed in this paper. A biokinetic model for tritiated ...
Adlercreutz Herman - - 2007
This review focuses on the possible role in human health of the consumption of lignan-rich foods. Most of the plant lignans in human foods are converted by the intestinal microflora in the upper part of the large bowel to enterolactone and enterodiol, called mammalian or enterolignans. The protective role of ...
Bowles Samuel - - 2006
Humans behave altruistically in natural settings and experiments. A possible explanation-that groups with more altruists survive when groups compete-has long been judged untenable on empirical grounds for most species. But there have been no empirical tests of this explanation for humans. My empirical estimates show that genetic differences between early ...
Almogren Adel - - 2007
A detailed investigation of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human secretory IgA2 (S-IgA2) was made possible by the development of a new method of purifying S-IgA1, S-IgA2 and free secretory component from human colostrum using thiophilic gel chromatography and chromatography on Jacalin-agarose. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide ...
Ohya Takeshi - - 2006
Previous study demonstrated that 4-methylspinaceamine (4-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine), a Pictet-Spengler condensation reaction product of histamine with acetaldehyde, is present in human urine. The current study sought to determine whether 4-methylspinaceamine is present in fermented foods; its presence might be expected since both histamine and acetaldehyde are often present in these foods. Soy ...
Aldini Giancarlo - - 2006
Several pieces of evidence indicate that albumin modified by HNE is a promising biomarker of systemic oxidative stress and that HNE-modified albumin may contribute to the immune reactions triggered by lipid peroxidation-derived antigens. In this study, we found by HPLC analysis that HNE is rapidly quenched by human serum albumin ...
Schauss Astrid C - - 2006
The mitochondrial division machinery consists of the large dynamin-related protein Dnm1p (Drp1/Dlp1 in humans), and Fis1p, Mdv1p and Caf4p. Proper assembly of Dnm1p complexes on the mitochondrial surface is crucial for balanced fission and fusion events. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we show that Caf4p is important for the recruitment of ...
Lucas Peter W - - 2006
One of the defining characteristics of humans, one that could also explain our species' success, is probably our ability to cook food. A brief review of the literature suggests several adaptations of the mouth can be interpreted to support this. All probably enhance the efficiency of the physical treatment of ...
Katoh Masuko - - 2006
Nodal and BMP signaling pathways network with WNT signaling pathway during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. CER1 (Cerberus 1) and GREM3 (CKTSF1B3 or CER2) inhibit NODAL signaling through ACVR1B (ALK4) or ACVR1C (ALK7) to SMAD2 or SMAD3. GREM1 (CKTSF1B1) inhibits BMP signaling through BMPR1A (ALK3), BMPR1B (ALK6) or ACVR1 (ALK2) to SMAD1, ...
Melis Alicia P - - 2006
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) competed with a human for food. The human sat inside a booth, with 1 piece of food to her left and 1 to her right, which she could retract from her chimpanzee competitor's reach as needed. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees could approach either side of the booth ...
Falandysz Jerzy - - 2006
Concentrations of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdañsk at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate in the human body. ...
Knight Andrew - - 2006
Due to limited human exposure data, risk classification and the consequent regulation of exposure to potential carcinogens has conventionally relied mainly upon animal tests. However, several investigations have revealed animal carcinogenicity data to be lacking in human predictivity. To investigate the reasons for this, we surveyed 160 chemicals possessing animal ...
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