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Results 301 - 350 of 747
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Voelkl Bernhard - - 2007
Social foraging is suggested to increase foraging efficiency, as individuals might benefit from public information acquired by monitoring the foraging activities of other group members. We conducted a series experiments with captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to investigate to what extent marmosets utilize social information about food location when foraging ...
Oliveira, Paulo S.
This study provides quantitative field data on the natural history and foraging behaviour of the Neotropical bromeliad-nesting ant Gnamptogenys moelleri (Ponerinae) in a sandy plain forest in Southeast Brazil. The ant nested on different bromeliad species and the nests were more frequently found in bigger bromeliads. The species used a ...
Hansen, Stephen Robert
In an Upper Sonoran Grassland Community, three species of Pogonomyrmex ants coexist. Due to the similarity in their diets and the apparent limitation of food, coexistence is aided by the differential utilization of the available food, according to size and type. Interspecific differences in morphology, physiology and microhabitat nesting sites ...
Perfecto, Ivette
This work is concerned with elucidating competitive interactions between two neotropical ants, Solenopsis geminata and Pheidole radoszkowskii , focusing on their foraging behavior. When released from competition from P. radoszkowskii, S. geminata increased its foraging activity. On the other hand, when released from competition from S. geminata, P. radoszkowskii did ...
Vandermeer, John H.
Observations of the ponerine ant Ectatomma ruidum suggested that this is a cleptobiotic species which appears to use the pheromone trails of other ant species to locate individual workers carrying food. To test this hypothesis an arena was set up to quantify the position of each E. ruidum that entered ...
Benyshek Daniel C - - 2006
The "thrifty genotype hypothesis" has become firmly entrenched as one of the orienting concepts in biomedical anthropology, since first being proposed by Neel (1962 Am. J. Hum. Genet. 14:353-362) over 40 years ago. Its influence on inquiries into the evolutionary origins of diabetes, lactose tolerance, and other metabolic disorders can ...
Bryce Sandra A - - 2006
The Bird Integrity Index (BII) presented here uses bird assemblage information to assess human impacts to 28 stream reaches in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Eighty-one candidate metrics were extracted from bird survey data for testing. The metrics represented aspects of bird taxonomic richness, tolerance or intolerance to human ...
Klaassen Raymond H G - - 2006
We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (<1 m) ...
Graham Paul - - 2006
Some ants and bees readily learn visually guided routes between their nests and feeding sites. They can learn the appearance of visual landmarks for the food-bound or homeward segment of the route when these landmarks are only present during that particular segment of their round trip. We show here that ...
Chouteau Philippe - - 2006
I studied the foraging ecology of Coquerel's Coua (Coua coquereli) and Giant Coua (Coua gigas), which occur in the dry forest in west Madagascar. This kind of forest is characterised by an alternating of a dry and a rainy season. The foraging behaviour was described in several dimensions: i.e. height ...
Persson Anders - - 2006
Optimality theory rests on the assumptions that short-term foraging decisions are driven by variation in environmental quality, and that these decisions have important implications for long-term fitness. These assumptions, however, are rarely tested in a field setting. We linked behavioral foraging decisions in food patches with measures of environmental quality ...
Lee S-H - - 2006
Subterranean termites excavate tunnels in a search pattern to encounter food in soil. To investigate the effect of food size, food distribution and the branch length of tunnels on food encounter rate we used a lattice gas model to simulate tunnels of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The ...
Leus, Kristin
A population of 79 babirusa distributed over 19 zoos in Europe and the United States were the subject of a study of the foraging behaviour, food selection, and digestion of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Stomachs of six adult babirusa and one twelve month old animal were collected from zoological gardens. ...
Price Mary V - - 2006
A biologically explicit simulation model of resource competition between two species of seed-eating heteromyid rodent indicates that stable coexistence is possible on a homogeneous resource if harvested food is stored and consumers steal each other's caches. Here we explore the coexistence mechanisms involved by analyzing how consumer phenotypes and presence ...
Fortin Daniel - - 2006
The distance that mammalian herbivores can travel without interrupting food processing corresponds to a distance threshold (d*) in plant spacing where change occurs in the mechanisms regulating the functional response. The instantaneous rate of food consumption is controlled by food encounter rate when plant spacing exceeds d*. Below this threshold, ...
Fauchald Per - - 2006
In hierarchical patch systems, small-scale patches of high density are nested within large-scale patches of low density. The organization of multiple-scale hierarchical systems makes non-random strategies for dispersal and movement particularly important. Here, we apply a new method based on first-passage time on the pathway of a foraging seabird, the ...
Aanen Duur K - - 2006
At present there is no consensus theory explaining the evolutionary stability of mutualistic interactions. However, the question is whether there are general 'rules', or whether each particular mutualism needs a unique explanation. Here, I address the ultimate evolutionary stability of the 'agricultural' mutualism between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi, and ...
Leaver Lisa A - - 2007
If food pilferage has been a reliable selection pressure on food caching animals, those animals should have evolved the ability to protect their caches from pilferers. Evidence that animals protect their caches would support the argument that pilferage has been an important adaptive challenge. We observed naturally caching Eastern grey ...
Dias Raphael Igor - - 2006
Amongst the benefits of foraging in flocks are the enhancement of food finding and predation avoidance. Characteristics such as size, individual position, as well as position and distance between members are factors that may influence vigilance and foraging. In a study using scaled doves, Columbina squammata, I observed a negative ...
Sarty M - - 2006
The role of habitat complexity in the coexistence of ant species is poorly understood. Here, we examine the influence of habitat complexity on coexistence patterns in ant communities of the remote Pacific atoll of Tokelau. The invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith), exists in high densities on Tokelau, but ...
Iason Glenn R - - 2006
We review the evidence for behavioral avoidance of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and identify how, and the circumstances under which it occurs. Behavioral strategies of avoidance of PSM can only be fully understood in relation to the underlying physiological processes or constraints. There is considerable evidence that animals learn to ...
Iason Glenn R - - 2006
We review the evidence for behavioral avoidance of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and identify how, and the circumstances under which it occurs. Behavioral strategies of avoidance of PSM can only be fully understood in relation to the underlying physiological processes or constraints. There is considerable evidence that animals learn to ...
Dally Joanna M - - 2006
Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) hide food caches for future consumption, steal others' caches, and engage in tactics to minimize the chance that their own caches will be stolen. We show that scrub-jays remember which individual watched them during particular caching events and alter their recaching behavior accordingly. We found no ...
Asseid, BS; Director of ...
At Latham Island, Tanzania, in August 2004 and December 2005, flying fish (Exocoetidae) contributed 90% by mass of prey items regurgitated by masked boobies Sula dactylatra. The fish had a mean caudal length of 164mm. Two boobies generally foraged in deep water, away from the Tanzanian coastline, ranging up to ...
van Wilgenburg, Ellen
My thesis examines the evolutionary significance of polydomy using the ant Iridomyrmex purpureus as a model species. In polydomous colonies, several nests are separated spatially, but connected socially by the interchange of workers, brood and food. The nature of interactions among ants from different nests of a polydomous colony varies ...
Minderman Jeroen - - 2006
1. The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than two trophic levels, and we aim ...
van Gils Jan A - - 2006
Besides the "normal" challenge of obtaining adequate intake rates in a patchy and dangerous world, shorebirds foraging in intertidal habitats face additional environmental hurdles. The tide forces them to commute between a roosting site and feeding grounds, twice a day. Moreover, because intertidal food patches are not all available at ...
Klaassen Raymond H G - - 2006
If the food distribution contains spatial pattern, the food density in a particular patch provides a forager with information about nearby patches. Foragers might use this information to exploit patchily distributed resources profitably. We model the decision on how far to move to the next patch in linear environments with ...
Ndithia, Henry; Research Centre ...
The natural diet of the Rosy-faced Lovebird in the wild was investigated from January┬ľAugust 2004, at three Namibian locations: Claratal, Hohewarte and Haris. Foraging patterns, habitat use, daily feeding activities and preferred dietary species were investigated. The lovebirds fed on food items from at least 19 species, which included seeds, ...
Beveridge Maxine - - 2006
Dawson's burrowing bee is a large, fast-flying solitary nesting bee endemic to the arid zone of Western Australia. In this study the population structure of the species was examined with molecular markers. Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped 531 adult female bees collected from 13 populations of Dawson's burrowing bee, ...
Bozic Janko - - 2006
Foraging behavior was evaluated in honeybees trained to fly to a feeder containing sucrose only, 1% ethanol, 5% ethanol, or 10% ethanol. The results indicated that exposure to ethanol disrupted several types of honeybee social behavior within the hive. Consumption of ethanol at the feeding site reduced waggle dance activity ...
Hrncir Michael - - 2006
An element common to the recruitment communication of eusocial bees (honey bees, stingless bees and bumble bees) are pulsed thorax vibrations generated by successful foragers within the nest. In stingless bees, foragers vibrate during the unloading of the collected food. In the present study on Melipona seminigra we demonstrate that ...
Chen J - - 2006
The effect of fipronil-treated sand on digging behavior and mortality of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, workers was examined in the laboratory. No-choice digging bioassays where fipronil-treated sand was the only available digging substrate were conducted on two colonies at fipronil concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1.00, ...
Touyama, Yoshifumi
A preliminary study of ants and other free-living arthropods which visited bracken at a post-fire stand was conducted. Eight species of ants visited bracken at the post-fire stand, one month after forest fire. In contrast, only one species visited bracken at the fire-free stand. Ants and other arthropods which visited ...
Yearsley Jonathan M - - 2006
Animals often face complex and changing food environments. While such environments are challenging, an animal should make an association between a food type and its properties (such as the presence of a nutrient or toxin). We use information theory concepts, such as mutual information, to establish a theory for the ...
Araújo Arrilton - - 2006
The search for and ingestion of food are essential to all animals, which spend most of their lives looking for nutritional sources, more than other activities such as mating, intra-specific disputes or escaping from predators. The present study aims to describe and quantify several aspects of foraging behavior, diet and ...
O'Keefe S F - - 2006
Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of peanut processing operations. They have been found to contain significant levels of natural antioxidants, but their antioxidant activity in muscle foods is unknown. The effects of peanut skin extracts on oxidation (TBARS) and color (CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗)) was studied in ground beef and ground ...
Bräuer Juliane - - 2006
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and great apes from the genus Pan were tested on a series of object choice tasks. In each task, the location of hidden food was indicated for subjects by some kind of communicative, behavioral, or physical cue. On the basis of differences in the ecologies of ...
Loke Pooi-Yen - - 2006
Monomorium orientale Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a common structure- and food-infesting ant in Asia. There is only limited information on the biology and habits of this species, especially on the preferred foods and distribution of nutrients in colonies. We conducted a laboratory study on the distribution of carbohydrates, proteins, and ...
De Marco Rodrigo J - - 2006
Apis mellifera bees perform dances to communicate the presence of desirable nectar sources. The regulation of these dances does not depend exclusively on properties of the nectar sources, but also upon certain stimuli derived from the foraging status of the colony as a whole; i.e. bees exploiting a source of ...
Hongoh Y - - 2006
The fungus-growing termites Macrotermes cultivate the obligate ectosymbiontic fungi, Termitomyces. While their relationship has been extesively studied, little is known about the gut bacterial symbionts, which also presumably play a crucial role for the nutrition of the termite host. In this study, we investigated the bacterial gut microbiota in two ...
Franks Nigel R - - 2006
The ant Temnothorax albipennis uses a technique known as tandem running to lead another ant from the nest to food--with signals between the two ants controlling both the speed and course of the run. Here we analyse the results of this communication and show that tandem running is an example ...
Scarff, F. R
The bark of trees is an important foraging substrate for a range of vertebrate insectivores. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of food resources available to the bark-foraging insectivore "Phascogale tapoatafa", and to compare prey biomass on bark versus the litter layer. We conducted nocturnal sampling for arthropods on ...
Singaravelan Natarajan - - 2006
Nectar of many bee flowers contains secondary compounds, which are considered toxic for honeybees on repeated exposure. Although many anecdotal reports indicate the toxicity of secondary compounds to bees, only a few studies have tested the extent of toxicity at different honeybee ages, especially at the larval stages. Honeybees encounter ...
Pfeiffer S - - 2006
Temporal and geographic variability in adult body size can be a useful indicator of a population's adaptation. The southern African Cape supported foraging populations exclusively until some pastoralism is seen, ca. 2000 BP. This paper describes and interprets body-size patterns among foragers, as deduced from maximum femoral lengths and femoral ...
Smith D G - - 2006
An experiment was carried out at Alemaya University in Ethiopia to investigate the effect of night kraaling on the dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and foraging behaviour of Ogaden cattle. Three groups of four animals were given either 7 h access to pasture per day, simulating traditional ...
Maloney Margaret A - - 2006
This study tested 3 food enrichment items mentioned in a laboratory primate newsletter with 6 adult Eulemur macaco and 3 adult Lemur catta to examine whether the items would affect the behavior of the lemurs. The results suggest that Food Enrichment Item 3 (a wire box filled with whole grapes, ...
Kanga Lambert H B - - 2006
Strips coated with conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff; Deuteromycetes: Hyphomycetes) to control the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were compared against the miticide, tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) in field trials in Texas and Florida (USA). Apistan and the fungal treatments resulted ...
Deacon Robert M J - - 2006
Hoarding is a species-typical behavior shown by rodents, as well as other animals. By hoarding, the rodent secures a food supply for times of emergency (for example, when threatened by a predator) or for times of seasonal adversity such as winter. Scatter hoarding, as seen typically in squirrels and birds, ...
Mitesser Oliver - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Social insects show considerable variability not only in social organisation but also in the temporal pattern of nest cycles. In annual eusocial sweat bees, nest cycles typically consist of a sequence of distinct phases of activity (queen or workers collect food, construct, and provision brood cells) and inactivity (nest ...
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