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Sulikowski Danielle - - 2007
The tendency of nectarivorous birds to perform better on tasks requiring them to avoid previously rewarding locations (to win-shift) than to return to them (win-stay) has been explained as an adaptation to the depleting nature of nectar. This interpretation relies on the previously untested assumption that the win-shift tendency is ...
Schloegl Christian - - 2008
Most animals seem to have difficulties in using gaze cues to find hidden food in object-choice tasks. For instance, chimpanzees usually fail in these tests, even though they are capable of following other's gaze geometrically behind barriers. Similar to chimpanzees, common ravens are skilled in tracking other's gaze but fail ...
LaPierre Louis - - 2007
Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps ...
Yeates Laura C - - 2007
As the smallest and one of the most recently evolved marine mammals, sea otters face physiological challenges rarely encountered by larger, more derived aquatic species. To examine the effect of these challenges on foraging costs and resultant daily energy budgets, we measured the energetics of resting, grooming, diving and foraging ...
Graham Paul - - 2007
Insects can guide themselves along a familiar route to a familiar place by retrieving and using visual snapshots that they have stored both along the route and at their destination and moving so that their current views match the target snapshots. To learn more about the matching process, we have ...
Karino Kenji - - 2007
In the guppy Poecilia reticulata, males exhibit orange spots on their body and tail, and the orange spot patterns are often criteria for female mate choice. The orange spot coloration of males is determined by the intake of algae, a natural source of carotenoids. Therefore, males exhibiting conspicuous orange coloration ...
Werth Alexander J - - 2007
Foraging methods vary considerably among semiaquatic and fully aquatic mammals. Semiaquatic animals often find food in water yet consume it on land, but as truly obligate aquatic mammals, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) must acquire and ingest food underwater. It is hypothesized that differences in foraging methods are reflected in ...
Morand-Ferron Julie - - 2007
Dunking, the softening of dry food in water to speed up consumption time, is normally a very rare behaviour in wild Carib grackles (Quiscalus lugubris) of Barbados. Its frequency can be experimentally increased when large numbers of dry items are repeatedly placed near a standing source of water in conditions ...
Lian Xinming - - 2007
Large group sizes have been hypothesized to decrease predation risk and increase food competition. We investigated group size effects on vigilance and foraging behaviour during the migratory period in female Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni, in the Kekexili Nature Reserve of Qinghai Province, China. During June to August, adult female antelope ...
Lim, Grace T
The weaver ant is a promising biological control agent of a shoot borer, <i>Hypsipyla robusta</i> Moore, on mahogany, but techniques to conserve ant colonies redistributed to mahogany plantations have not yet been developed. The effect of food supplementation and host plant species preference of the weaver ant, <i>Oecophylla smaragdina</i> F., ...
Lee S-H - - 2007
Subterranean termites excavate branching tunnels for searching and transporting food in soil. Experimentally, the length distribution of the branch tunnels, P(L), was characterized by the exponentially decaying function, P(L) approximately exp(-alphaL) with a branch length exponent of alpha=0.15. To evaluate the significance of this alpha value, we used a lattice ...
Kaun Karla R KR Department of Biology, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, - - 2007
Animals must be able to find and evaluate food to ensure survival. The ability to associate a cue with the presence of food is advantageous because it allows an animal to quickly identify a situation associated with a good, bad, or even harmful food. Identifying genes underlying these natural learned ...
Clayton Nicola S NS Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. - - 2007
Food-caching corvids hide food, but such caches are susceptible to pilfering by other individuals. Consequently, the birds use several counter strategies to protect their caches from theft, e.g. hiding most of them out of sight. When observed by potential pilferers at the time of caching, experienced jays that have been ...
Watanabe, Tsuyoshi, 1970-
Populations of Lesser Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis canadensis) have been increasing during the last decades in Eastern Siberia, an area historically known as breeding grounds of endangered Siberian Cranes (G. leucogeranus). Significant overlap in niche dimensions between the two species may occur and could lead to competition between them. Therefore, ...
du Plessis, Morné A; ...
We studied the behavioural ecology of the Violet Woodhoopoe <i>Phoeniculus damarensis</i>, a rare species endemic to Namibia and southern Angola. Groups in Namibia consisted on average of 4.3 ± 1.6 individuals, with apparently only a single breeding pair. Non-breeding group members of both sexes brought food to the incubating female, ...
Chouteau, Philippe; Laboratoire d'Ecologie, ...
Habitat structure — an important consideration in all ecological studies of relationships between animals and their environment — can be studied at different scales. This topic was studied at the microhabitat scale in burned and unburned plots of a dry forest of Madagascar. The response of two endemic terrestrial coua ...
Mazlan Abd., Ghaffar
An in-situ behavioral study of giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri) was conducted in the coastal mudflat of Kuala Gula, Matang Mangrove Reserve, Perak. Observations were made based on scan and focal sampling methods during low tides. The main objective of this study was to understand the foraging behaviors and food selection ...
Stanley Margaret C - - 2007
Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis ...
Irwin Mitchell T - - 2007
Primates usually locate food resources using visual cues and memory, yet the potential for olfactory-guided (or olfactory-assisted) food location remains relatively unexplored. Here we report observations of wild Propithecus diadema that strongly suggest that olfaction is used to locate the inflorescences of two subterranean parasitic plant species (Langsdorffia sp. and ...
Schorkopf Dirk Louis P - - 2007
Stingless bees of the species Trigona spinipes (Fabricius 1793) use their saliva to lay scent trails communicating the location of profitable food sources. Extracts of the cephalic labial glands of the salivary system (not the mandibular glands, however) contain a large amount (approx. 74%) of octyl octanoate. This ester is ...
Luther Roger M - - 2007
We extend the game theoretic model of kleptoparasitism discussed in Broom et al. (2004), by considering a population of foragers consisting of two groups with different behaviours--those who forage and steal from other feeders, and those who only forage. We a sume that those who do not steal have a ...
Hall Spencer R - - 2007
Species interactions may profoundly influence disease outbreaks. However, disease ecology has only begun to integrate interactions between hosts and their food resources (foraging ecology) despite that hosts often encounter their parasites while feeding. A zooplankton-fungal system illustrated this central connection between foraging and transmission. Using experiments that varied food density ...
Sánchez Daniel - - 2007
Recruitment precision, i.e. the proportion of recruits that reach an advertised food source, is a crucial adaptation of social bees to their environment. Studies with honeybees showed that recruitment precision is not a fixed feature, but it may be enhanced by factors like experience and distance. However, little is known ...
Borrell Brendan J - - 2007
Morphology influences the rate at which foraging bees visit nectar flowers, the quantity of nectar they must consume to fuel their activities, and, consequently, the profitability of flower species. Because feeding time is a major determinant of visitation rate, I used a biomechanical model to examine how energy intake rate ...
Sparling Carol E - - 2007
Seals may delay costly physiological processes (e.g. digestion) that are incompatible with the physiological adjustments to diving until after periods of active foraging. We present unusual profiles of metabolic rate (MR) in grey seals measured during long-term simulation of foraging trips (4-5 days) that provide evidence for this. We measured ...
Raby C R CR Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, - - 2007
Knowledge of and planning for the future is a complex skill that is considered by many to be uniquely human. We are not born with it; children develop a sense of the future at around the age of two and some planning ability by only the age of four to ...
Amat Juan A - - 2007
Greater flamingos in southern Spain foraged in areas distant from a breeding site, spending 4-6 days in foraging areas between successive visits to the colony to feed their chicks. During four years, we took blood samples from chicks to ascertain whether there were interannual variations in several blood parameters, indicative ...
Césard, Nicolas
The Asian weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) larvae and pupae are collected in the wild from trees and commercialised as songbird food and fishing bait in Java, Indonesia. The produce called kroto brings substancial income to numerous rural households throughout the year. The resource's durability is until ensured by the species' ...
Stone Anita I - - 2007
A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of perceived predation risk on the use of foraging areas by juvenile and adult primates under different conditions of local food abundance. Wild squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus, were observed in an experiment conducted during the dry and the wet seasons at ...
Arzel C - - 2007
The functional response, i.e. the change in per capita food intake rate per time unit with changed food availability, is a widely used tool for understanding the ecology and behaviour of animals. However, waterfowl remain poorly explored in this context. In an aviary experiment we derived a functional response curve ...
Druce, Dave.J.
Individuals select for habitats at different scales. Can a species' response to different spatial and temporal heterogeneities be placed in a common currency? Is it possible to rank the relative importance of different habitat features on the organism's behavior and ecology? Do the effects of different spatial and temporal heterogeneities ...
Mattern, Thomas
Seabirds have become adapted for foraging in an oceanic environment that can be highly dynamic. Oceanographic processes determine the spatial distribution of seabird prey, while seasonality often has a temporal influence on prey availability. In penguins, these factors are reflected in the different species&#146; foraging strategies. Penguins can broadly be ...
Shaner Pei-Jen - - 2007
Dietary shifts are commonly exhibited by omnivorous consumers when foraging from variable food resources. One advantage of dietary shifts for a consumer is the ability to gain complementary resources from different foods. In addition, dietary shifts often affect food-web dynamics. Despite the importance of dietary shifts to organismal, community, and ...
Bowen B W - - 2007
Hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) migrate between nesting beaches and feeding habitats that are often associated with tropical reefs, but it is uncertain which nesting colonies supply which feeding habitats. To address this gap in hawksbill biology, we compile previously published and new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype data for 10 nesting ...
Elston Jennifer J - - 2007
Carmine bee-eaters make attractive additions to zoo aviaries but breeding programs have had challenges and limited success. The objectives of this study were to document nesting behavior of Carmine bee-eaters in a captive setting and compare reproductive success between a novel nest box (plastic, 17 x 30 x 22 cm) ...
Klaassen Raymond H G - - 2007
1. Heterogeneity in food abundance allows a forager to concentrate foraging effort in patches that are rich in food. This might be problematic when food is cryptic, as the content of patches is unknown prior to foraging. In such case knowledge about the spatial pattern in the distribution of food ...
Korb Judith - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Social insects (ants, bees, wasps and termites) are considered as prime examples of altruism in which individuals (workers) forego their own reproduction to help other individuals reproduce. Such a behaviour is favoured by natural selection because the workers rear close kin and in doing so enhance their inclusive fitness. ...
Badland Hannah M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationships between objectively measured commute distance with actual and perceived transport-related physical activity (TPA) engagement. METHODS: A telephone survey assessed travel behaviors to place of work/study within an adult sample (n = 772) residing in New Zealand. RESULT: Overall, 50% of respondents perceived they ...
Stevens Mark I - - 2007
The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become more normally distributed. It has been conjectured that the CLT has the potential to provide benefits for ...
Torres-Contreras Hugo - - 2007
Several North American species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants exhibit group foraging, whereas South American species are exclusively solitary foragers. The composition of the secretions of the poison and Dufour glands in the South American species, Pogonomyrmex vermiculatus, were analyzed, and the secretions and their components were tested as trail pheromones ...
Norasmah B - - 2006
A field study on foraging activity and proteinacous food preference was performed on the tropical fire ant (Solenopsis geminata) (Fabricius) at the School of Biological Sciences and Desasiswa Bakti Permai, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang. Foraging activity studies of 4 colonies of S. geminata were conducted in the field for ...
Jeanson Raphaël - - 2006
In gregarious insects, the exploration and the use of the home range can involve both individual navigational abilities and/or chemical trails. Trail formation can result from an active laying of pheromones but can also derive from the incidental deposition of chemical cues. In this study, we investigated whether scent trails ...
Navarro Joan - - 2007
A central point in life history theory is that parental investment in current reproduction should be balanced by the costs in terms of residual reproductive value. Long-lived seabirds are considered fixed investors, that is, parents fix a specific level of investment in their current reproduction independent to the breeding requirements. ...
Arenas Andrés - - 2007
Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during ...
Mailleux Anne-Catherine - - 2006
The decision for an ant forager to launch recruitment is governed by an internal response threshold. Here, we demonstrate that this threshold (the desired volume) triggering trail-laying increases under starvation. As a consequence, highly starved foragers lay a recruitment trail and bring back to the nest higher quantities of food ...
Nieh James C - - 2006
The ability of bees to generate metabolic heat plays an important role in their ability to forage and pollinate because they must achieve a minimum temperature to activate their flight muscles. In honey bees and stingless bees, the thoracic temperature of feeding foragers is correlated with the caloric value of ...
Nolet Bart A - - 2006
1. The carrying capacity of a site for migratory water birds, expressed in bird-days, can be of particular conservation value. Several attempts have been made to model this carrying capacity using ideal free distribution models such as, for instance, depletion models, in which the distribution is fully determined by exploitative ...
Schilman Pablo E - - 2006
We examined the quantitative relationship between the energetic costs and benefits of nectar collection by nectar-feeding ants, Camponotus rufipes. In the laboratory, individual workers were trained to visit an artificial feeder that provided a sucrose solution of 1%, 5%, 10%, 30% or 50% at controlled flows, in a similar span ...
Henderson Marlone D MD Department of Psychology, New York University, USA. - - 2006
Across 3 experiments, the authors examined the effects of temporal distance on negotiation behavior. They found that greater temporal distance from negotiation decreased preference for piecemeal, single-issue consideration over integrative, multi-issue consideration (Experiment 1). They also found that greater temporal distance from an event being negotiated increased interest in conceding ...
Korb Judith - - 2006
The evolution of cooperation and altruistic behaviour where individuals forego their own reproduction to help others reproduce can be explained by kin selection. Depending on the costs and benefits provided, altruism can be evolutionarily favoured if it is directed at close relatives. A considerable body of data supports the role ...
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