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Taylor Benjamin J - - 2010
While foraging, social insects encounter a dynamic array of food resources of varying quality and profitability. Because food acquisition influences colony growth and fitness, natural selection can be expected to favor colonies that allocate their overall foraging effort so as to maximize their intake of high-quality nutrients. Social wasps lack ...
Atalayer Deniz - - 2011
The effects of running wheel activity on food intake and meal patterns were measured under several cost conditions for food in CD1 mice. In a first experiment, voluntary wheel running activity increased daily food intake relative to a sedentary group, and runners consumed bigger but fewer meals. Although they ate ...
Nicolis S C - - 2011
A mathematical model of food recruitment and resource exploitation in group-living organisms accounting for direct traffic of individuals between the available sources is developed. It is shown that traffic between sources gives rise to the enhancement of the range of stability of the homogeneous mode of exploitation and of the ...
Juan Joon Ching - - 2011
Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable ...
Sensenig Ryan L - - 2010
The high herbivore diversity in savanna systems has been attributed to the inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity related to the quantity and quality of food resources. Allometric scaling predicts that smaller-bodied grazers rely on higher quality forage than larger-bodied grazers. We replicated burns at varying scales in an East African ...
Chiu Chen - - 2010
Foraging and flight behavior of echolocating bats were quantitatively analyzed in this study. Paired big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, competed for a single food item in a large laboratory flight room. Their sonar beam patterns and flight paths were recorded by a microphone array and two high-speed cameras, respectively. Bats ...
Caspers Barbara A - - 2011
Passerine birds have an extensive repertoire of olfactory receptor genes. However, the circumstances in which passerine birds use olfactory signals are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate whether olfactory cues play a role in natal nest recognition in fledged juvenile passerines. The natal nest provides fledglings ...
Dindo Marietta - - 2011
Field reports suggest that orangutans acquire local traditions by observing neighbouring conspecifics. However, there is little direct evidence of social learning to support this conclusion. The present study investigated whether orangutans would learn a novel foraging method through observation of a conspecific in a diffusion-chain paradigm testing for the spread ...
Ament Seth A - - 2010
Organisms adapt their behavior and physiology to environmental conditions through processes of phenotypic plasticity. In one well-studied example, the division of labor among worker honey bees involves a stereotyped yet plastic pattern of behavioral and physiological maturation. Early in life, workers perform brood care and other in-hive tasks and have ...
Scholz B - - 2010
The provision for dustbathing material will be a legal requirement in cage-housing systems for laying hens within the European Union beginning in 2012. At present, food particles are widely used and typically offered in small amounts on Astroturf mats one or more times per day to facilitate dustbathing, pecking, and ...
Pravosudov Vladimir V - - 2010
Many food-caching animals live in groups and cache pilferage may be one of the negative consequences of social living. Several hypotheses have been proposed to suggest that individuals may benefit from caching even when cache pilferage is high if all individuals can cache and pilfer equally. Stable groups may hypothetically ...
Chang Gang - - 2010
Many hoarding rodents use burrows not only for dwelling and protection from natural enemies, but also for food storage. However, little is known how burrows used by scatter-hoarding animals influence their foraging behaviors. In addition, handling time for a given food item has a fundamental impact on hoarding strategies of ...
Tabone Michaelangelo - - 2010
Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We ...
McGowan Ragen T S - - 2010
Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment ...
Berec Ludek - - 2010
Recent modeling studies exploring the effect of consumers' adaptivity in diet composition on food web complexity invariably suggest that adaptivity in foraging decisions of consumers makes food webs more complex. That is, it allows for survival of a higher number of species when compared with non-adaptive food webs. Population-dynamical models ...
Suckling David M - - 2010
The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The ...
Jarau Stefan - - 2010
Stingless bees, like honeybees, live in highly organized, perennial colonies. Their eusocial way of life, which includes division of labor, implies that only a fraction of the workers leave the nest to forage for food. To ensure a sufficient food supply for all colony members, stingless bees have evolved different ...
Romero Susan A - - 2010
Movement behavior determines the success or failure of insects in finding important resources such as food, mates, reproductive sites, and shelter. We examined the response of female red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum Herbst: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to habitat cues by quantifying the number of individuals that located a patch (either with ...
Cerda Osvaldo - - 2010
Many small arthropod herbivores from terrestrial and marine environments construct tubicolous nest-like domiciles on their host plants or algae by rolling up selected portions of the leaf or blade. Nests serve as both shelter and food, which results in conflicting needs for the grazers because feeding activity continuously destroys parts ...
Mc Cabe S I SI Grupo de Estudio de Insectos Sociales, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires, - - 2010
Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees are considered as solitary foragers that lack specific communication strategies. In their orientation towards a food source, these social bees use chemical cues left by co-specifics and the information obtained in previous foraging trips by the association of visual stimuli with the food reward. Here, we ...
Ihle Kate E - - 2010
In honeybee colonies, food collection is performed by a group of mostly sterile females called workers. After an initial nest phase, workers begin foraging for nectar and pollen, but tend to bias their collection towards one or the other. The foraging choice of honeybees is influenced by vitellogenin (vg), an ...
Franks Nigel R - - 2010
Tandem runs are a form of recruitment in ants. During a tandem run, a single leader teaches one follower the route to important resources such as sources of food or better nest sites. In the present study, we investigate what tandem leaders and followers do, in the context of nest ...
Genersch Elke - - 2010
Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety ...
Moralez-Silva E - - 2010
Habitat use by the Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea) and discovery of feeding territoriality are discussed here. The results showed the existence of a territorial individual defending an area (2,564.46 +/- 943.56 m(2)) close to the mangrove, and non-territorial individuals (9.17 +/- 2.54) in the rest of a demarcated area ...
Nunes Débora Moraes - - 2010
The aerial/terrestrial scan and glance behaviors of 20 captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata), kept undisturbed in their own familiar social environments, were assessed at 07:00, 09:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 h, as little is known on the temporal organization of their vigilance repertoire, particularly under normal social and ...
Reichle Christian - - 2010
The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice ...
Wang Ying - - 2010
Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be ...
Pravosudov Vladimir V - - 2010
Many animals regularly hoard food for future use, which appears to be an important adaptation to a seasonally and/or unpredictably changing environment. This food-hoarding paradigm is an excellent example of a natural system that has broadly influenced both theoretical and empirical work in the field of biology. The food-hoarding paradigm ...
Keen-Rhinehart Erin - - 2010
The study of ingestive behaviour has an extensive history, starting as early as 1918 when Wallace Craig, an animal behaviourist, coined the terms 'appetitive' and 'consummatory' for the two-part sequence of eating, drinking and sexual behaviours. Since then, most ingestive behaviour research has focused on the neuroendocrine control of food ...
Sherry David F - - 2010
Both food-storing behaviour and the hippocampus change annually in food-storing birds. Food storing increases substantially in autumn and winter in chickadees and tits, jays and nutcrackers and nuthatches. The total size of the chickadee hippocampus increases in autumn and winter as does the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis. The hippocampus is ...
Grodzinski Uri - - 2010
The scatter hoarding of food, or caching, is a widespread and well-studied behaviour. Recent experiments with caching corvids have provided evidence for episodic-like memory, future planning and possibly mental attribution, all cognitive abilities that were thought to be unique to humans. In addition to the complexity of making flexible, informed ...
Ashbrook Kate - - 2010
For species with positive density dependence, costs and benefits of increasing density may depend on environmental conditions, but this has seldom been tested. By examining a colonial seabird (common guillemot) over a period of unprecedented poor food availability, we test two contrasting hypotheses suggesting that birds breeding at high density ...
Dierking R M - - 2010
Consumers are increasingly concerned with the form and quantity of fat present in the foods they consume. This is leading to a shift in the way food is produced. In particular the animal industry is increasing the number of organic and naturally finished meat animals rather than finishing them on ...
Sayers Ken K Language Research Center, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Decatur, GA 30034, USA. - - 2010
Optimal foraging theory has only been sporadically applied to nonhuman primates. The classical prey model, modified for patch choice, predicts a sliding "profitability threshold" for dropping patch types from the diet, preference for profitable foods, dietary niche breadth reduction as encounter rates increase, and that exploitation of a patch type ...
Nieh James C - - 2010
Decision making in superorganisms such as honey bee colonies often uses self-organizing behaviors, feedback loops that allow the colony to gather information from multiple individuals and achieve reliable and agile solutions. Honey bees use positive feedback from the waggle dance to allocate colony foraging effort. However, the use of negative ...
Laca Emilio A - - 2010
Herbivores forage in spatially complex habitats. Due to allometry and scale-dependent foraging, herbivores are hypothesized to perceive and respond to heterogeneity of resources at scales relative to their body sizes. This hypothesis has not been manipulatively tested for animals with only moderate differences in body size and similar food niches. ...
Mommaerts Veerle - - 2010
Bombus terrestris bumblebees are important pollinators of wild flowers, and in modern agriculture they are used to guarantee pollination of vegetables and fruits. In the field it is likely that worker bees are exposed to pesticides during foraging. To date, several tests exist to assess lethal and sublethal side-effects of ...
Beaulieu M - - 2010
Foraging strategies play a key role in breeding effort. Little is known, however, about their connection with hormonal and nutritional states, especially when breeding constraints vary. Here, we experimentally increased foraging costs and thus breeding constraints by handicapping Ad?lie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) with dummy devices representing 3-4% of the penguins' ...
Latty Tanya - - 2010
How individuals deal with multiple conflicting demands is an important aspect of foraging ecology, yet work on foraging behavior has typically neglected neurologically simple organisms. Here we examine the impact of an abiotic risk (light) and energetic status on the foraging decisions of a protist, the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. ...
Tsurim Ido - - 2010
Predation cost (Pc) is often regarded as a pivotal component determining foraging behavior. We hypothesized that variations in two of its major constituents, predation risk (mu) and the marginal value of energy ([see text for symbol]Fs/ [see text for symbol]e, where Fs is the survivor's fitness and e represents the ...
Marriott Chris - - 2010
We study the effects of an imitation mechanism on a population of animats capable of individual ontogenetic learning. An urge to imitate others augments a network-based reinforcement learning strategy used in the control system of the animats. We test populations of animats with imitation against populations without for their ability ...
Lenoir Lisette - - 2010
Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant ...
Weimerskirch Henri - - 2010
Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis). Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the ...
Planqué Robert - - 2010
Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small ...
Roux Olivier - - 2010
In Oecophylla, an ant genus comprising two territorially dominant arboreal species, workers are known to (1) use anal spots to mark their territories, (2) drag their gaster along the substrate to deposit short-range recruitment trails, and (3) drag the extruded rectal gland along the substrate to deposit the trails used ...
Olugbemi B O - - 2010
Recruitment pattern in the termite, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis Sjostedt (Isoptera: Termitidae) was found to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of food. This is reflected in the quantitative recruitment that occurred after food had been detected by the scouting foragers. Results showed that this information was communicated and responded ...
Ramírez Gabriela P - - 2010
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit an extraordinarily tuned division of labor that depends on age polyethism. This adjustment is generally associated with the fact that individuals of different ages display different response thresholds to given stimuli, which determine specific behaviors. For instance, the sucrose-response threshold (SRT) which largely depends on genetic ...
Rasekh Arash - - 2010
In Iran, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a uniparental parasitoid of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), that possesses various highly evolved adaptations for foraging within ant-tended aphid colonies. Direct observations and video recordings were used to analyze the behavior of individual females foraging for ...
Maisonnasse Alban A INRA, UMR 406, Abeilles et Environnement, Laboratoire Biologie et Protection de l'Abeille, Avignon, France. - - 2010
In honey bee colony, the brood is able to manipulate and chemically control the workers in order to sustain their own development. A brood ester pheromone produced primarily by old larvae (4 and 5 days old larvae) was first identified as acting as a contact pheromone with specific effects on ...
Alaux Cédric - - 2010
Global pollinators, like honeybees, are declining in abundance and diversity, which can adversely affect natural ecosystems and agriculture. Therefore, we tested the current hypotheses describing honeybee losses as a multifactorial syndrome, by investigating integrative effects of an infectious organism and an insecticide on honeybee health. We demonstrated that the interaction ...
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