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Results 451 - 500 of 744
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Durier Virginie - - 2003
Insects are thought to pinpoint a place by using memorized "snapshots," i.e., two-dimensional retinotopic views of the surrounding landmarks recorded when at the place (reviewed in ). Insects then reach the place by moving until their current view matches their snapshot. To determine when snapshots are recalled, and how differences ...
P. D’adamo
Local enhancement has been shown to occur in the social wasp Vespula germanica (F.), a species that feeds on live insects as well as on dead animals. Some studies suggest local enhancement is based on sight, whereas others suggest that odors emanating from wasp bodies are more important in attracting ...
Leaver Lisa A. - - 2003
Variations in predation risk affect the costs of foraging and may therefore warrant different foraging decisions. One class of models ("higher requisite profit") predicts that foragers should become more selective when predation risk increases, as low-profitability items that do not cover the increased costs are dropped from the diet. An ...
Hrncir M - - 2003
Foragers of a stingless bee, Melipona seminigra, are able to use the optic flow experienced en route to estimate flight distance. After training the bees to collect food inside a flight tunnel with black-and-white stripes covering the side walls and the floor, their search behavior was observed in tunnels lacking ...
Mailleux Anne-Catherine - - 2003
We investigate the behavioural rule used by ant societies to adjust their foraging response to the honeydew productivity of aphids. When a scout finds a single food source, the decision to lay a recruitment trail is an all-or-none response based on the opportunity for this scout to ingest a desired ...
Ono Masato - - 2003
Up to 74 people die each year in Japan after being stung by Hymenopteran insects, with hornets (Vespa spp.) being among the worst offenders. Here we identify a volatile, multi-component alarm pheromone in the venom of the world's largest hornet, V. mandarinia, and use field bioassays to show that 2-pentanol ...
Shreeves Gavin - - 2003
Recent explanations for the evolution of eusociality, focusing more on costs and benefits than relatedness, are largely untested. We validate one such model by showing that helpers in foundress groups of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus benefit from an insurance-based mechanism known as Assured Fitness Returns (AFRs). Experimental helper removals ...
Bicca-Marques Júlio César - - 2003
Several species of tamarins form stable mixed-species troops in which groups of each species feed, forage, rest, and travel together during much of the year. Although the precise set of factors that facilitate this ecological relationship remains unclear, predator detection and foraging benefits are presumed to play a critical role ...
Barbani, Laura Elise
Foraging activity and food preferences of odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile (SAY)) were investigated in both the field and laboratory. Foraging activity was examined in the field from April to September 2001 by attracting T. sessile to feeding stations containing a 20% sucrose solution. Ant foraging activity was recorded over ...
Price Mary V - - 2003
Most models of resource competition assume that coexistence of consumers depends on tradeoffs in their abilities to exploit shared resources along dimensions of environmental heterogeneity generated by factors external to the consumers. However, consumers may create heterogeneity themselves by modifying resources that they do not immediately consume; such "resource processing" ...
Heithaus Michael R - - 2003
Many air-breathing aquatic foragers may be killed by aerial or subsurface predators while recovering oxygen at the surface; yet the influence of predation risk on time allocation during dive cycles is little known in spite of numerous studies on optimal diving. We modeled diving behavior under the risk of predation ...
Olson D M - - 2003
Parasitoids exploit numerous chemical cues to locate hosts and food. Whether they detect and learn chemicals foreign to their natural history has not been explored. We show that the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes can associate, with food or hosts, widely different chemicals outside their natural foraging encounters. When learned chemicals are ...
Krijgsveld K L - - 2003
We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degrees C and one group to 24 degrees C during foraging throughout the developmental ...
Gadau J - - 2003
The genus Pogonomyrmex is one of three ant genera with an effective mating frequency (me) > 2.0. We developed microsatellites to determine me for P. rugosus because mating frequency of P. rugosus was known only from observational data which do not allow an estimate of me. We genotyped 474 workers ...
Thom Corinna - - 2003
The tremble dance of honey bee nectar foragers is part of the communication system that regulates a colony's foraging efficiency. A forager that returns to the hive with nectar, but then experiences a long unloading delay because she has difficulty finding a nectar receiver bee, will perform a tremble dance ...
Chittka Lars - - 2003
Bees returning from a feeder placed in a narrow tunnel that is lined with a chequered pattern will strongly overestimate travel distance. This finding supports the view that their distance estimation is based on integrating optic flow experienced during flight. Here, we use chequered tunnels with various colour combinations as ...
Emery Nathan J - - 2004
Food caching birds hide food and recover the caches when supplies are less abundant. There is, however, a risk to this strategy because the caches are susceptible to pilfering by others. Corvids use a number of different strategies to reduce possible cache theft. Scrub-jays with previous experience of pilfering other's ...
Sernland Emma - - 2003
Individuals may join groups for several reasons, one of which is the possibility of sharing information about the quality of a foraging area. Sharing information in a patch-foraging scenario gives each group member an opportunity to make a more accurate estimate of the quality of the patch. In this paper ...
Fritz Hervé - - 2003
Foraging animals are expected to adjust their path according to the hierarchical spatial distribution of food resources and environmental factors. Studying such behaviour requires methods that allow for the detection of changes in pathways' characteristics across scales, i.e. a definition of scale boundaries and techniques to continuously monitor the precise ...
Venslauskas Mindaugas S - - 2003
Irregular oscillations in a colony of marine hydroids Podocoryne carnea were investigated. Quantitative characteristics were obtained as a result of long term (10-12 h) monitoring of oscillations at arbitrary sites. The sliding window spectra as well as the pulse-to-pulse dynamics argue the transient chaotic behavior of hydroid colony. The significant ...
Gil M - - 2003
Previous evidence indicates that the recognition of the nectar delivered by forager honeybees within the colony may have been a primitive method of communication on food resources. Thus, the association between scent and reward that nectar foragers establish while they collect on a given flower species should be retrieved during ...
Bono J M - - 2003
The literature on sex ratio evolution in ant colonies is dominated by inclusive fitness arguments. In general, genetic theory makes good predictions about sexual investment in ant populations, but understanding colony-level variance in sex investment ratios has proven more difficult. Recently, however, more studies have addressed ecological factors that influence ...
Lanctot Richard B - - 2003
We evaluated the use of corticosterone to gauge forage availability and predict reproductive performance in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in Alaska during 1999 and 2000. We modeled the relationship between baseline levels of corticosterone and a suite of individual and temporal characteristics of the sampled birds. We also provided ...
Tommasi Luca - - 2003
Domestic chicks bilaterally or unilaterally lesioned to the hippocampus were trained to search for food hidden beneath sawdust by ground-scratching in the centre of a large enclosure, the correct position of food being indicated by a local landmark in the absence of any extra-enclosure visual cues. At test, the landmark ...
Paul J - - 2003
This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which ...
Day Diane E - - 2003
Two strategies that have evolved to help animals meet energy demands are increases in body fat and in hoarded food. Reliance on each varies, but both are characterized by energy stored in excess of current demands for future use. Fasted Siberian hamsters decrease their lipid stores and, upon refeeding, food ...
Gunter Bruns,Peter Mossinger,Daniel Polani,Ralf ...
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Fitzgerald T D - - 2003
Although caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocamnpa may mark their pathways with silk, this study shows that the material is essential to neither the elicitation nor maintenance of trail-following or processionary behavior. Trail following is dependent upon a pheromone the caterpillars deposit by brushing the ventral surfaces of the tips of their ...
Arcis V - - 2003
According to the optimal foraging theory, an animal is expected to enter into a given activity depending on associated costs and benefits. In line with this assumption, numerous studies have suggested that energetic reward is balanced by predation risk in foraging decisions. Therefore, the use of information about indirect cues ...
Goodell Karen - - 2003
Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging ...
De Marco R J - - 2003
Trophallaxis among adult worker honeybees is the transfer of liquid food by mouth from one individual to another. Within the colony, nectar foragers perform offering contacts (as food-donors) to transfer the contents of their crops to recipient nest-mates and, in addition, they also perform begging contacts (as food-receivers). The biological ...
Hiscock, Peter
Chronological change in the coastal environment of Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, is documentd by archaeological sites. Molluscs gathered by prehistoric people for food between 1,400 ad about 900 years ago reveal that humans were foraging along largely open beaches. The dense and continuous mangrove forests found in the harbour today ...
Kitaysky A S - - 2003
Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive ...
Schekkerman Hans - - 2003
We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold climate. Growth rate of knot chicks was very high ...
Dornhaus A - - 2003
Foragers of Bombus terrestris are able to alert their nestmates to the presence of food sources. It has been supposed that this happens at least partially through the distribution of a pheromone inside the nest. We substantiate this claim using a behavioral test in which an alerting signal is transmitted ...
Yi Chen
Camponotus vicinus (Mayr) is a common ant species found in the Pacific Northwest. It is an important predator of many forest insect pests, a potential biological control agent, and is also a serious structural pest. However, little knowledge is currently available about its nest location and distribution. The study is ...
Ollason J G - - 2002
This paper describes the development of the general dynamical model of foraging developed by Ollason (1980, Theoret. Popul. Biol. 18, 44-65) to predict foraging for particulate food in three different types of environment. In an environment containing particles of different types of food, the model predicts the selection of an ...
Vander Meer R K - - 2002
The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren, has evolved sophisticated chemical communication systems that regulate the activities of the colony. Among these are recruitment pheromones that effectively attract and stimulate workers to follow a trail to food or alternative nesting sites. Alarm pheromones alert, activate, and attract workers to ...
Dall Sasha R X - - 2002
In an uncertain world, animals face both unexpected opportunities and danger. Such outcomes can select for two potential strategies: collecting information to reduce uncertainty, or insuring against it. We investigate the relative value of information and insurance (energy reserves) under starvation risk by offering model foragers a choice between constant ...
Patla Aftab E AE Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada. - - 2003
Spatial-temporal gaze behaviour patterns were analysed as normal participants wearing a mobile eye tracker were required to step on 17 footprints, regularly or irregularly spaced over a 10-m distance, placed in their travel path. We examined the characteristics of two types of gaze fixation with respect to the participants' stepping ...
Vollrath Fritz - - 2002
Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found ...
Sherman Gavin - - 2002
The honeybee dance language, in which foragers perform dances containing information about the distance and direction to food sources, is the quintessential example of symbolic communication in non-primates. The dance language has been the subject of controversy, and of extensive research into the mechanisms of acquiring, decoding and evaluating the ...
Horiuchi Shiro - - 2002
We constructed a mathematical model to explain from which instars soldiers should be produced to maximize the growth rate of a termite colony. The model is based on the demography of the lower termite's colony: many of them feed inside the nest. The model predicts the following: (1) When the ...
Wei C A - - 2002
Upon discovering new sources of food, honeybees and other insects perform learning flights to memorize visual landmarks that can guide their return. Learning flights are longest following initial visits to the food and subsequently decline in duration, which suggests that the investment in learning results from an active decision modulated ...
CANDACE L. ELCHUK
Foraging site selection by birds may be related to foraging efficiency, food availability and abundance, and predation risk. We identified selectively used foraging habitat within home ranges of 29 adult radio-tagged Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus) in British Columbia during the nestling period. We compared habitat characteristics of flicker foraging locations ...
Olsson Mats - - 2002
Negative relationships between growth rate and survival have been demonstrated in many organisms, often reflecting risks associated with increased foraging rates. More puzzling, however, are recent reports that rapid growth early in life may lower survival rates much later in life, presumably because fast-growing animals allocate resources among different body ...
Bell Kenneth E - - 2002
The ideal free distribution theory (Fretwell & Lucas, 1970) predicts that the ratio of foragers at two patches will equal the ratio of food resources obtained at the two patches. The theory assumes that foragers have "perfect knowledge" of patch profitability and that patch choice maximizes fitness. How foragers assess ...
Panger Melissa A - - 2002
Researchers have identified a variety of cross-site differences in the foraging behavior of free-ranging great apes, most notably among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and more recently orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), that are not due to obvious genetic or ecological differences. These differences are often referred to as "traditions." What is not known ...
Drapier M - - 2002
It is possible that non-specialised cues transmitted by conspecifics guide animals' food search provided they have the cognitive abilities needed to read these cues. Macaques often check the mouth of their group-mates by olfactory and/or visual inspection. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques ( Macaca tonkeana) can find the location of ...
Mehdiabadi Natasha J - - 2002
The red imported fire ant is becoming a global ecological problem, having invaded the United States, Puerto Rico, New Zealand and, most recently, Australia. In its established areas, this pest is devastating natural biodiversity. Early attempts to halt fire ant expansion with pesticides actually enhanced its spread. Phorid fly parasitoids ...
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