Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 832
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Thomson B M - - 2005
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from the consumption of canned and bottled food has been determined for New Zealand adults. Eighty different canned foods purchased from retail outlets in Christchurch, New Zealand, between November 2003 and February 2004 were analysed for BPA concentration by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. BPA was detected ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2005
This study describes associations among caries experience and meal, snack and daily total exposures to beverages and foods in children. Subjects (n = 634) were members of the Iowa Fluoride Study. Beverage and food exposures were abstracted from 3-day diaries at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and calculated ...
Alegría Natalia - - 2005
Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into ...
Xu Xu - - 2005
Inhalation is an important exposure route for volatile water contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs). A controlled human study was conducted on six subjects to determine the respiratory uptake of haloketones (HKs) and chloroform, a reference compound, during showering. Breath and air concentrations of the DBPs were measured using gas chromatography ...
Toppila E - - 2005
From 1953 to 1995 the usage rate of hearing protective devices (HPD) was tracked at a paper mill, a shipyard, and in selected areas of forestry work. For each work period, observations were made of HPD use among workers. In the paper mill, the usage rate increased steadily from 1965. ...
Aschner Michael - - 2005
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found at low levels in food, water, and the air. Under certain high-dose exposure conditions, elevations in tissue manganese levels can occur. Excessive manganese accumulation can result in adverse neurological, reproductive, and respiratory effects in both laboratory animals and humans. In humans, ...
Luckenbach Till - - 2005
Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, ...
Pennington Jean - - 2004
The initial steps in estimating dietary exposure to contaminants include gathering the necessary expertise, clarifying the intent and purpose of the work, selecting a dietary exposure model, and gathering available pertinent information. Expertise is generally needed in chemistry, agriculture, toxicology, statistics, nutritional epidemiology, and computer software development. The goal might ...
Senyigit Abdurrahman - - 2004
In this study, the authors examined the concentrations and mineralogical analyses of asbestos, and investigated mesothelioma risk in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. They used a gravimetric dust sampler to collect samples from 2 villages and 2 asbestos mines (1 active). Samples were then evaluated by an X-ray diffractometer and an electron ...
Nordstrom J L - - 2004
Interest in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) increased in the United States following Vp-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in 1997 and 1998 involving the West Coast and other areas. The present study evaluated multiple aspects of Vp ecology in the Pacific Northwest with three objectives: (i) to determine the effect of low-tide exposure on ...
Larson Timothy - - 2004
As part of a large exposure assessment and health-effects panel study, 33 trace elements and light-absorbing carbon were measured on 24-hr fixed-site filter samples for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm (PM2.5) collected between September 26, 2000, and May 25, 2001, at a central outdoor site, immediately outside ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endemic ataxic polyneuropathy, a neurological syndrome that was thought to be benign, has been shown to persist in some communities in south-western Nigeria, where it was first described in the 1950s. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare mortality of cases and controls, and to determine if mortality is ...
Lee Kiyoung - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of personal exposure to inorganic and organic dust during manual harvest operations of California citrus and table grapes. Personal exposures to inhalable dust and respirable dust were measured five times over a 4-month period of harvesting season. We analyzed components of ...
Nuyttens D - - 2004
The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and the Agricultural Research Center (CLO-DVL) joined forces in a project to stimulate the safe use of pesticides in southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimized a method using mineral chelates as tracers on collectors. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits was used to compare ...
Ross Andrew S - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate personal exposure to metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosols in very small machine shops (1-8 machinists per shop) and to investigate workplace factors associated with exposures. A total of 20 willing machine shops in Vancouver, Canada (from 46 eligible shops, 43%) and 88 machinists ...
Ballal Seifeddin G - - 2004
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected factory producing Portland cement in eastern Saudi Arabia to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases and chest x-ray changes consistent with pneumoconiosis in the employees. A sample of 150 exposed and 355 unexposed employees was selected. A questionnaire about ...
Feldman Steven R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Investigations into tanners' reasons for tanning have focused primarily on the perception of improved appearance. Reported relaxing effects of tanning suggest the possibility of a physiologic effect of UV that drives tanning behavior. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if there is a physiologic reinforcing effect of UV exposure, separate ...
Dal-Zotto Silvina - - 2004
RATIONALE: Previous work has shown that a single exposure of rats to a severe stressor (immobilization, IMO) results, days to weeks later, in a reduced response (desensitization) of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to a second exposure to the same stressor. OBJECTIVES: In the present work, we studied the influence of ...
Simon Olivier - - 2004
The bioaccumulation of natural uranium in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was investigated subsequent to the bivalve's experimental waterborne exposures. A first experiment determined the accumulation rate (transfer efficiency, tissular distribution) and subcellular distribution of uranium in organs after over 42 days of uranium exposure (100 microg l(-1); pH 7) ...
Woskie S R - - 2004
As part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), the determinants of isocyanate exposure in auto body repair shops were evaluated. Measurements (n = 380) of hexamethylene diisocyanate-based monomer and polyisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate-based polyisocyanate were collected from 33 auto body shops. The median ...
Gillis Patricia L - - 2004
Concentrations of a metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) in Tubifex tubifex were consistent throughout the various life stages with no significant variation associated with reproductive stage. The mean concentration from cocoon through 10 weeks of age was 2.5 (+/-0.6) nmol MTLP/g. T. tubifex was subjected to a number of potential environmental stressors ...
Macinnis-Ng Catriona M O - - 2004
Tides and freshwater inflow which influence water movement in estuarine areas govern the exposure-regime of pollutants. In this experiment, we examined the in situ impact of double pulses of copper and the herbicide Irgarol 1051 on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni. Despite a 4-day recovery period between the ...
Mäkinen Milja - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to measure the dermal and respiratory exposure levels of hexavalent chromium during electroplating work. METHODS: Potential dermal exposure of the body was measured with patch samples and actual exposure of hands with hand-wash samples. For comparison, personal air samples were also collected. RESULTS: ...
Mennella Julie A JA Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2004
Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups ...
Jo Wan-Kuen - - 2004
The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background ...
Kato Kayoko - - 2004
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, ...
Vavra Ashley K - - 2004
Sulfur mustard (2,2'-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) is a chemical warfare vesicant that causes debilitating skin lesions. Although a great deal of work has focused on the direct effects of SM exposure on the epithelium, it is unclear how much the inflammatory response, induced by exposure, contributes to lesion pathogenesis. Keratinocytes exposed to ...
Enander Richard T - - 2004
Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors ...
Budd P - - 2004
Lead concentration and isotope ratio data are presented for the tooth enamel of 77 individuals buried in England and spanning approximately 5000 years from the Neolithic until the 16th century AD. Whereas other tissues may be affected by diagenesis in the burial environment, the Pb concentration of tooth enamel is ...
Ferro Andrea R - - 2004
Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) ...
Adhikari Atin - - 2004
Accurate exposure assessment to airborne fungi in agricultural environments is essential for estimating the associated occupational health hazards of workers. The objective of this pilot study was to compare personal and stationary sampling for assessing farmers' exposure to airborne fungi in 3 different agricultural confinements located in Ohio, USA (hog ...
Lobscheid Agnes B - - 2004
Both laboratory and field studies confirm the importance of vegetation for scavenging semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from the atmosphere and a number of exposure studies have found that the dietary pathway is often a significant contributor to cumulative exposure for these chemicals. However, little information exists on the atmospheric source-to-dietary ...
Karpinski Eva A - - 2003
In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study ...
Boyd Windy A - - 2003
Caenorhabditis elegans, a nonparasitic soil nematode, was used to assess the combined effects of metal exposures and food availability on behavior. Movement was monitored using a computer tracking system after exposures to Cu, Pb, or Cd while feeding was measured as a change in optical density (deltaOD) of bacteria suspensions ...
Steele R - - 2003
This study investigated the amount of physical activity that occurs during normal working hours, highlighting the occupational differences in physical activity by occupational category. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire (Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire [TOQ]), which measures past year Occupational Physical Activity (OPA) and by a ...
Gilsenan M B - - 2003
A key component of a food chemical exposure assessment using probabilistic analysis is the selection of the most appropriate input distribution to represent exposure variables. The study explored the type of parametric distribution that could be used to model variability in food consumption data likely to be included in a ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic area in south west Nigeria has been attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava ...
Perbellini L - - 2003
AIMS: To study the concentration of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and its metabolite, N-methylacetamide (NMA), in urine of workers occupationally exposed to DMA in a factory producing synthetic acrylic fibres. METHODS: During the first phase, 223 workers exposed to low environmental concentrations of DMA provided urine samples at the end of a ...
Arcella D - - 2003
For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic ...
Fedoruk Marion J - - 2003
This study examines benzene emissions from the use of a metal parts washer ("degreaser") supplied with a mineral spirits solvent containing either 9 or 58 ppm benzene. Air samples were obtained during a one-hour session of relatively vigorous parts cleaning activity using a degreaser station equipped with wet brush and ...
Roex Erwin W M - - 2003
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is widely regarded as a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP). However, less is known about the relationship between AChE inhibition and consequences for growth, reproduction and survival on organisms. Acute toxicity tests with fish have shown that high percentages of AChE inhibition are needed ...
von Grote Julia - - 2003
Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TRIC) and perchloroethylene (PERC) in metal degreasing is analyzed by calculating airborne concentrations for a large set of possible exposure scenarios (Scenario-Based Risk Assessment, SceBRA). Different types of degreasing machines ranging from open-top machines used until the 1980s to closed-loop nonvented machines used since the 1990s ...
Loh C-H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: 2-Ethoxy ethyl acetate (2-EEA) is a solvent with broad industrial and commercial applications. It has been reported to cause hematological toxicity, infertility, and teratogenesis. AIMS: To investigate the haematological effects in 2-EEA exposed workers. METHODS: Workers from one silk screening shop (n = 29), using 2-EEA as the major ...
Linnainmaa Markku - - 2003
The study evaluated the effects of triazine use and machine enclosure on workers' exposure to bacteria, endotoxins, and formaldehyde in the use of metalworking fluids (MWF). Concentrations of triazine and bacterial contaminants were monitored in bulk samples of MWF from two machines in one workplace. One of the machines was ...
Ramirez Mark A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although the beach is a high-risk environment for ultraviolet light exposure and subsequent skin damage, little is known about beachgoer tanning habits outside the beach setting. Our purpose was to evaluate indoor tanning and additional, nonbeach sunlight exposure in a beachgoing population. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiologic survey. RESULTS: ...
Dalton Pamela - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Impairment of olfactory function in humans has been associated with occupational exposure to volatile chemicals. To investigate whether exposure to styrene was associated with olfactory impairment, olfactory function was examined in workers with a minimum of 4 years exposure to styrene in the reinforced-plastics industry (current mean exposure: 26 ...
Scheepers P T J - - 2003
A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners ...
Tay Angeline S L - - 2003
The swamp eel Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals and rice fields, where it can burrow within the moist earth during the dry summer season, thus surviving for long periods without water. This study aimed to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against endogenous ammonia toxicity ...
Lee Chun-Ting - - 2003
An exposure system that allows large-scale exposure of animals to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-based polyisocyanates at a stable concentration and aerosol size distribution was developed. The HDI polyisocyanate aerosol is generated by nebulizing a solution of a commercial polyisocyanate product dissolved in acetone. The aerosol is delivered with a constant airflow ...
Shea Katherine M - - 2003
Phthalates are plasticizers that are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products to impart flexibility and durability. They are produced in high volume and generate extensive though poorly defined human exposures and unique childhood exposures. Phthalates are animal carcinogens and can cause fetal death, malformations, and reproductive toxicity in laboratory animals. ...
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