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Results 401 - 450 of 815
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Dal-Zotto Silvina - - 2004
RATIONALE: Previous work has shown that a single exposure of rats to a severe stressor (immobilization, IMO) results, days to weeks later, in a reduced response (desensitization) of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to a second exposure to the same stressor. OBJECTIVES: In the present work, we studied the influence of ...
Simon Olivier - - 2004
The bioaccumulation of natural uranium in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was investigated subsequent to the bivalve's experimental waterborne exposures. A first experiment determined the accumulation rate (transfer efficiency, tissular distribution) and subcellular distribution of uranium in organs after over 42 days of uranium exposure (100 microg l(-1); pH 7) ...
Woskie S R - - 2004
As part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), the determinants of isocyanate exposure in auto body repair shops were evaluated. Measurements (n = 380) of hexamethylene diisocyanate-based monomer and polyisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate-based polyisocyanate were collected from 33 auto body shops. The median ...
Gillis Patricia L - - 2004
Concentrations of a metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) in Tubifex tubifex were consistent throughout the various life stages with no significant variation associated with reproductive stage. The mean concentration from cocoon through 10 weeks of age was 2.5 (+/-0.6) nmol MTLP/g. T. tubifex was subjected to a number of potential environmental stressors ...
Macinnis-Ng Catriona M O - - 2004
Tides and freshwater inflow which influence water movement in estuarine areas govern the exposure-regime of pollutants. In this experiment, we examined the in situ impact of double pulses of copper and the herbicide Irgarol 1051 on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni. Despite a 4-day recovery period between the ...
Mäkinen Milja - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to measure the dermal and respiratory exposure levels of hexavalent chromium during electroplating work. METHODS: Potential dermal exposure of the body was measured with patch samples and actual exposure of hands with hand-wash samples. For comparison, personal air samples were also collected. RESULTS: ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2004
Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups ...
Jo Wan-Kuen - - 2004
The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background ...
Kato Kayoko - - 2004
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, ...
Vavra Ashley K - - 2004
Sulfur mustard (2,2'-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) is a chemical warfare vesicant that causes debilitating skin lesions. Although a great deal of work has focused on the direct effects of SM exposure on the epithelium, it is unclear how much the inflammatory response, induced by exposure, contributes to lesion pathogenesis. Keratinocytes exposed to ...
Enander Richard T - - 2004
Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors ...
Budd P - - 2004
Lead concentration and isotope ratio data are presented for the tooth enamel of 77 individuals buried in England and spanning approximately 5000 years from the Neolithic until the 16th century AD. Whereas other tissues may be affected by diagenesis in the burial environment, the Pb concentration of tooth enamel is ...
Ferro Andrea R - - 2004
Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) ...
Adhikari Atin - - 2004
Accurate exposure assessment to airborne fungi in agricultural environments is essential for estimating the associated occupational health hazards of workers. The objective of this pilot study was to compare personal and stationary sampling for assessing farmers' exposure to airborne fungi in 3 different agricultural confinements located in Ohio, USA (hog ...
Lobscheid Agnes B - - 2004
Both laboratory and field studies confirm the importance of vegetation for scavenging semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from the atmosphere and a number of exposure studies have found that the dietary pathway is often a significant contributor to cumulative exposure for these chemicals. However, little information exists on the atmospheric source-to-dietary ...
Karpinski Eva A - - 2003
In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study ...
Boyd Windy A - - 2003
Caenorhabditis elegans, a nonparasitic soil nematode, was used to assess the combined effects of metal exposures and food availability on behavior. Movement was monitored using a computer tracking system after exposures to Cu, Pb, or Cd while feeding was measured as a change in optical density (deltaOD) of bacteria suspensions ...
Steele R - - 2003
This study investigated the amount of physical activity that occurs during normal working hours, highlighting the occupational differences in physical activity by occupational category. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire (Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire [TOQ]), which measures past year Occupational Physical Activity (OPA) and by a ...
Gilsenan M B - - 2003
A key component of a food chemical exposure assessment using probabilistic analysis is the selection of the most appropriate input distribution to represent exposure variables. The study explored the type of parametric distribution that could be used to model variability in food consumption data likely to be included in a ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic area in south west Nigeria has been attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava ...
Perbellini L - - 2003
AIMS: To study the concentration of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and its metabolite, N-methylacetamide (NMA), in urine of workers occupationally exposed to DMA in a factory producing synthetic acrylic fibres. METHODS: During the first phase, 223 workers exposed to low environmental concentrations of DMA provided urine samples at the end of a ...
Arcella D - - 2003
For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic ...
Fedoruk Marion J - - 2003
This study examines benzene emissions from the use of a metal parts washer ("degreaser") supplied with a mineral spirits solvent containing either 9 or 58 ppm benzene. Air samples were obtained during a one-hour session of relatively vigorous parts cleaning activity using a degreaser station equipped with wet brush and ...
Roex Erwin W M - - 2003
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is widely regarded as a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP). However, less is known about the relationship between AChE inhibition and consequences for growth, reproduction and survival on organisms. Acute toxicity tests with fish have shown that high percentages of AChE inhibition are needed ...
von Grote Julia - - 2003
Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TRIC) and perchloroethylene (PERC) in metal degreasing is analyzed by calculating airborne concentrations for a large set of possible exposure scenarios (Scenario-Based Risk Assessment, SceBRA). Different types of degreasing machines ranging from open-top machines used until the 1980s to closed-loop nonvented machines used since the 1990s ...
Loh C-H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: 2-Ethoxy ethyl acetate (2-EEA) is a solvent with broad industrial and commercial applications. It has been reported to cause hematological toxicity, infertility, and teratogenesis. AIMS: To investigate the haematological effects in 2-EEA exposed workers. METHODS: Workers from one silk screening shop (n = 29), using 2-EEA as the major ...
Linnainmaa Markku - - 2003
The study evaluated the effects of triazine use and machine enclosure on workers' exposure to bacteria, endotoxins, and formaldehyde in the use of metalworking fluids (MWF). Concentrations of triazine and bacterial contaminants were monitored in bulk samples of MWF from two machines in one workplace. One of the machines was ...
Ramirez Mark A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although the beach is a high-risk environment for ultraviolet light exposure and subsequent skin damage, little is known about beachgoer tanning habits outside the beach setting. Our purpose was to evaluate indoor tanning and additional, nonbeach sunlight exposure in a beachgoing population. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiologic survey. RESULTS: ...
Dalton Pamela - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Impairment of olfactory function in humans has been associated with occupational exposure to volatile chemicals. To investigate whether exposure to styrene was associated with olfactory impairment, olfactory function was examined in workers with a minimum of 4 years exposure to styrene in the reinforced-plastics industry (current mean exposure: 26 ...
Scheepers P T J - - 2003
A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners ...
Tay Angeline S L - - 2003
The swamp eel Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals and rice fields, where it can burrow within the moist earth during the dry summer season, thus surviving for long periods without water. This study aimed to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against endogenous ammonia toxicity ...
Lee Chun-Ting - - 2003
An exposure system that allows large-scale exposure of animals to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-based polyisocyanates at a stable concentration and aerosol size distribution was developed. The HDI polyisocyanate aerosol is generated by nebulizing a solution of a commercial polyisocyanate product dissolved in acetone. The aerosol is delivered with a constant airflow ...
Shea Katherine M - - 2003
Phthalates are plasticizers that are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products to impart flexibility and durability. They are produced in high volume and generate extensive though poorly defined human exposures and unique childhood exposures. Phthalates are animal carcinogens and can cause fetal death, malformations, and reproductive toxicity in laboratory animals. ...
Carlton Gary N - - 2003
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has announced its intention to replace all total particulate threshold limit values (TLVs) with size-selective TLVs. Because the U.S. Air Force has adopted the TLVs as its occupational exposure limits, the impact of this change is of interest, specifically for hexavalent chromium. This ...
Leclercq Catherine - - 2003
To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and ...
Tossavainen A - - 2003
In Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America and Australia the manufacture and use of asbestos products peaked in the 1970's. The current incidence of mesothelioma ranges from 14 to 35 cases/million/year in eleven industrialized countries which had used asbestos 2.0 to 5.5 kg/capita/year about 25 years earlier. A significant linear correlation ...
Son Busoon - - 2003
To date, personal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exposure and residential indoor and outdoor VOCs levels have not been characterized in Korea. In this study, residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations were measured and compared simultaneously with the personal exposure for each of 30 participants in a medium city, Asan, and ...
Stein Leslie J - - 2003
The influence of exposure and information on sensory evaluation and acceptance of bitter flavor was assessed. Following sensory testing in the laboratory, subjects consumed a commercially-available bittersweet beverage once daily for 7days in a setting of their choosing, then returned to the laboratory for post-exposure tests. Hedonic ratings for the ...
Bono Roberto - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine benzene, toluene, and xylenes air pollution in two cities in Italy (Biella and Torino) having different traffic intesities and to investigate whether new environmental conditions occurred consequent to the changes of gasoline composition in Europe during the last 20 yr. Furthermore, three ...
Gogal Obert M OM - - 2003
The potential risk to wildlife from exposure to explosives, including 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), has been an issue at numerous U.S. military installations where these substances are found in soil and water. Presently, no data describing the effects of RDX exposure in avian species exist. Therefore, an acute lethal dose (ALD) and ...
Kagley A N - - 2003
A selected suite of cytochemical parameters in Mytilus edulis are altered in response to field and laboratory exposure to chemical contaminants. These biomarkers include lysosomal stability, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-ferrihemoprotein reductase activity, liposfuscin deposition, and accumulation of lysosomal and cytoplasmic unsaturated neutral lipid. Normal variations in physiological processes (influenced ...
Järup Lars - - 2003
The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of ...
Alirezazadeh N - - 2003
The programme and results of internal exposure monitoring of four individuals who have worked for 7 to 10 years in a 131I radiopharmaceutical production laboratory are described. The monitoring has been carried out using an in vivo thyroid measurement technique. The maximum and minimum average annual intakes of 131I received ...
Schettgen Thomas - - 2003
Since the formation of acrylamide (AA) in the heating process of starch-containing food could be demonstrated and high contents of this substance were found in commercial food products, there is a great discussion about the possible human health risks connected with this dietary exposure. In order to determine the body ...
Etherington G - - 2003
A study of the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate in two volunteers has been carried out. Low doses (approximately 80 microSv) were achievable because tracers of high isotopic purity were used: 237Pu (measurable by X ray spectrometry) and 244Pu (measurable by accelerator mass spectrometry). Lung retention, amount in blood, uptake ...
Sun Zhongjie - - 2003
The aim of this study was to assess our hypothesis that the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), the renal concentrating response to ADH, or both is decreased by prolonged cold exposure. Six groups (n = 6/group) of rats were used. Three groups were exposed to cold (5 degrees C), whilethe ...
Roth P - - 2003
In most circumstances, measurement of uranium excreted in urine at known times after exposure is potentially the most sensitive method for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems associated with this approach are that natural uranium is always present in urine because of the ingestion of natural ...
Lipsztein J L - - 2003
The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. The control of occupational exposures from these natural sources of radiation imposes a challenge to regulators and radiation protection advisers. A survey pilot programme, which included six mines in Brazil and a ...
Gobba Fabriziomaria - - 2003
The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch ...
Tsuji Joyce S - - 2002
Risk assessment methods of developed countries have prescribed exposure assumptions for calculating health risks that are generally inappropriate for developing countries because of population, cultural, and social differences. For example, populations in developing countries are often subsistence users of natural resources with a more outdoor-oriented lifestyle. Assessments should thus measure ...
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