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Arcella D - - 2005
Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. This task is crucial when evaluating substances for which only intake of toxicologically-important amounts can lead to adverse health effects. Ideally, dietary exposure to hazardous substances can be assessed by combining data on concentration in all food ...
Lippmann Morton - - 2005
Daily rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are have been associated with daily variations in fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm, PM2.5), but little is known about the influences of the individual source-related PM2.5 categories or the temporal lags for the effects. We investigated heart rate ...
Georgopoulos Panos G - - 2006
Copper is an essential trace element and adverse health effects can potentially be associated with both very low and very high intakes. Accurate estimates of inhalation and ingestion (food and drinking water) exposures are therefore needed in order to realistically assess any effects of the distribution of copper intakes within ...
Antonini James M - - 2006
Welding fumes are a complex mixture composed of different metals. Most welding fumes contain a small percentage of manganese. There is an emerging concern among occupational health officials about the potential neurological effects associated with the exposure to manganese in welding fumes. Little is known about the fate of manganese ...
Cherrie John W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of ...
Kubwabo Cariton - - 2005
A series of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been recently measured in a variety of environmental samples and biological matrices. In order to better understand the human exposure routes of these chemicals, levels of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and ...
Wilford Bryony H - - 2005
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in plastics, soft furnishings, electrical and electronic equipment, and insulation in the indoor environment, and may be released indoors via volatilization or as dusts. The penta-and octa-brominated mixes are now banned in most parts of Europe, and phasing out ...
Sinha Sukesh Narayan - - 2006
Exposure to benzene and toluene from the combustion of solid biomass fuels is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study, we assessed the exposure of cooks to benzene and toluene from biomass fuel combustion in 55 rural homes. The GC-MS was used ...
Satsukawa Hidetada - - 2005
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the performance of two laboratory light polymerization systems used to polymerize an indirect composite (Sinfony). A two-step polymerization system (Visio-Alfa and Beta) and a halogen-metal halide unit (Twinkle MIII) were assessed. The composite was polymerized either with the Visio units or ...
Pieters Barry J - - 2005
Laboratory ecotoxicity tests may not adequately evaluate the effects of pesticides, because they often do not include more environmentally relevant conditions, such as pulsed toxicant exposures and low food conditions. Therefore, we tested the effects of a pulse of the pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate (FV) on the life history and population ...
Liu Youcheng - - 2005
The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500 microg/m(3). As part of a larger occupational epidemiologic study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures ...
Surh J - - 2005
4-Hydroxy-2-alkenals are cytotoxic aldehydes generated from the oxidation of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The compounds have shown various biological effects via Schiff base adducts or Michael addition adducts at levels higher than physiological ones. To assess human exposure to 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals in the diet, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals in vegetable oils, fish ...
Breysse Patrick N - - 2005
This article presents results of asbestos air sampling conducted to assess the exposure to truck drivers working at the World Trade Center site. Sampling consisted of a combination of area and personal monitoring of 49 truck drivers and included optical and electron microscopic analyses. Three sampling periods were conducted: October ...
Porrovecchio Joseph - - 2005
Avoidance of downwind radioactive fallout exposure within the first few hours after a nuclear or radiological dispersal device detonation can save lives and minimize radiation exposure. First responders with awareness training can help to avoid prompt fatalities and excessive contamination or exposure following such a detonation. This paper outlines some ...
Aschner Judy L - - 2005
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral. It is present in virtually all diets at low concentrations. The principal route of intake for Mn is via food consumption, but in occupational cohorts, inhalation exposure may also occur (this subject will not be dealt with in this review). Humans maintain stable tissue ...
Dave Sudhir K - - 2005
BACKGROUND: India imports nearly 100,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and small-scale asbestos (chrysotile and tremolite) mining and milling contributes nearly 5%-10% of the total national usage. The industry is relatively young, having started in the 1950s and 1960s. METHODS: Surveys of asbestos-exposed workers have identified significant occupational exposures, ...
Sennbro Carl Johan - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of 2,4-toluenediamine, 2,6-toluenediamine, 1,5-naphthtalenediamine and 4,4'-methylenediphenyldianiline in hydrolyzed urine and plasma for occupationally unexposed workers and to calculate upper reference limits (URLs). These analytes are biomarkers of exposure to 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI), 1,5-naphtalene diisocyanate ...
Xu Xu - - 2005
Dermal contact with some organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated drinking water has been established to be an important exposure route. We evaluated dermal absorption of two haloketones (1,1-dichloropropanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone) and chloroform while bathing, by collecting and analyzing time profiles of expired breath samples of six ...
Pauluhn Jürgen - - 2005
The vast majority of toxicity studies and risk evaluations deal with single chemicals. Due to the growing interest in potential human health risks originating from exposure to environmental pollutants or lifestyle-related complex chemical mixtures, well thought-out tailor-made mechanistic inhalation toxicity studies have been performed. In contrast to the complex mixtures ...
Sullivan John T - - 2005
Continuous exposure of Biomphalaria glabrata snails to 0.1% colchicine resulted in a significant increase, relative to non-exposed snails, in the number of arrested mitotic figures in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) as soon as 4 h, with peak numbers after 12 h of exposure. The number of circulating hemocytes was significantly ...
Gutiérrez Manuel - - 2005
This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor ...
Scarlett Alan - - 2005
The acute toxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 reported in the literature is highly variable. No peer-reviewed data exist for Superdispersant-25 (SD-25). This study compares the toxicity of the two dispersants to a range of marine species representing different phyla occupying a wide range of niches: The marine sediment-dwelling ...
Christensen Birthe Thordahl - - 2005
Microcosm and mesocosm studies evidence that pyrethroid insecticides may have a severe effect on zooplankton populations. The effect may cascade to phytoplankton communities and thus worsen the impact of eutrophication and algal blooms. In natural freshwater systems, pyrethroids are usually only detectable during the first 24 h after application to ...
Glorennec P - - 2005
The Angers municipal solid waste incineration plant, in operation since 1974, was upgraded in 2000 to comply with new European standards. This article discusses the risks associated with past and present emissions from the incinerator and its nearby furnace. Emissions of SO(2), HCl, particulate matter, lead, mercury, cadmium and dioxins ...
Rappaport Stephen M - - 2005
We used cysteinyl adducts of serum albumin (Alb) to investigate the production of two reactive benzene metabolites, namely, benzene oxide (BO) and 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) in workers exposed to benzene. Adducts were measured in 160 benzene-exposed workers who did not use respiratory protection (based upon individual geometric mean benzene exposure levels: ...
Subramanian V - - 2005
Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. ...
Allen Martin - - 2005
Personal erythemal UV monitoring badges, which were developed to monitor the UV exposure of school children, were used to measure UV exposures received by one of the authors (MA) at the Mt Hutt ski-field, in New Zealand. These were then compared with measurements taken at the same times from a ...
Mukherjee Ashit K - - 2005
Assessment of respirable dust, personal exposures of miners and free silica contents in dust were undertaken to find out the associated risk of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in 9 coal mines of Eastern India during 1988-91. Mine Research Establishment (MRE), 113A Gravimetric Dust Sampler (GDS) and personal samplers (AFC 123), Cassella, ...
Calafat Antonia M - - 2005
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in ...
Angus Robert A - - 2005
Juvenile male western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to different concentrations of 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol (EE2) in the diet during the period of sexual maturation. A clear inhibiting influence of EE2 on sexual development was apparent. The proportion of males in each treatment group that failed to complete gonopodial development during ...
Dybing E - - 2005
This review provides a framework contributing to the risk assessment of acrylamide in food. It is based on the outcome of the ILSI Europe FOSIE process, a risk assessment framework for chemicals in foods and adds to the overall framework by focusing especially on exposure assessment and internal dose assessment ...
Engenheiro Elizabeth L - - 2005
Locomotor behavior in terrestrial organisms is crucial for burrowing, avoiding predators, food seeking, migration, and reproduction; therefore, it is a parameter with ecological relevance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a nervous system enzyme inhibited by several compounds and widely used as an exposure biomarker in several organisms. Moreover, changes in energy reserves ...
Belden Jason B - - 2005
The potential of TNT to accumulate in aquatic organisms was assessed by determining bioconcentration factors for TNT and TNT biotransformation products using two benthic invertebrates (Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus), and by determining the bioaccumulation factor of TNT and TNT biotransformation products due to TNT exposure via feeding for channel ...
Chillrud Steven N SN Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Rt 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA. - - 2005
The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 reflected increasing concern about potential effects of low-level airborne metal exposure on a wide array of illnesses. Here we summarize results demonstrating that the New York City (NYC) subway system provides an important microenvironment for metal exposures for NYC commuters and ...
Curwin Brian D - - 2005
Green tobacco sickness is an illness associated with nicotine exposures among tobacco harvesters. Agricultural workers manually harvest tobacco and thus have the potential for skin exposure to nicotine, particularly on the hands. Often gloves are not worn as it hinders the harvesters' ability to harvest the tobacco leaves. The purposes ...
Boon Polly E - - 2005
In this paper we calculated the usual and acute exposure to acrylamide (AA) in the Dutch population and young children (1-6 years). For this AA levels of different food groups were used as collected by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the European Commission's Directorate General Joint ...
Nguyen Duc Hai - - 2005
An exposure chamber was designed to study the effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) on oestrous cycles, hormonal profile during gestation, pineal function, quantity and quality of milk production, feed intake, and central nervous system of dairy cattle. The chamber was 15 x 10 x 3 m; and the ...
Fan Ming - - 2005
A probabilistic approach was applied in an ecological risk assessment (ERA) to characterize risk and address uncertainty employing Monte Carlo simulations for assessing parameter and risk probabilistic distributions. This simulation tool (ERA) includes a Window's based interface, an interactive and modifiable database management system (DBMS) that addresses a food web ...
Thomson, Barbara Mary
This thesis aims to assess the human health impact of exposure to estrogenic compounds from the diet. A multi-disciplinary approach is taken to address various aspects of this issue. An introduction to xenoestrogens, including international research priorities, wildlife and human health effects, mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and additivity ...
Bernstein David - - 2005
Chrysotile asbestos, a serpentine mineral, has been shown to be notably different from amphibole asbestos such as amosite, crocidolite, and tremolite in that chrysotile once inhaled is rapidly removed from the lung while the amphiboles persist. This has been demonstrated for three different chrysotile samples from Canada, the United States, ...
Morley N J - - 2005
The effects of cadmium and zinc mixtures on tail loss of the free-living cercarial stage of the parasitic fluke Diplostomum spathaceum were investigated at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10,000 microg/L. Cercariae were exposed to metal mixtures of equal concentrations, metal mixtures of unequal concentrations, and a low-dose pretreatment followed ...
Mirabelli Dario - - 2005
To update estimates of the prevalence of occupational exposures to carcinogens in Italy, the 85 CAREX agents were re-assessed. The original exposure estimates in the CAREX database were updated, taking into account changes in exposure patterns and in numbers of employees by industrial class. The 21.8 million employees in Italy, ...
Thomson B M - - 2005
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from the consumption of canned and bottled food has been determined for New Zealand adults. Eighty different canned foods purchased from retail outlets in Christchurch, New Zealand, between November 2003 and February 2004 were analysed for BPA concentration by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. BPA was detected ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2005
This study describes associations among caries experience and meal, snack and daily total exposures to beverages and foods in children. Subjects (n = 634) were members of the Iowa Fluoride Study. Beverage and food exposures were abstracted from 3-day diaries at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and calculated ...
Alegría Natalia - - 2005
Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into ...
Xu Xu - - 2005
Inhalation is an important exposure route for volatile water contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs). A controlled human study was conducted on six subjects to determine the respiratory uptake of haloketones (HKs) and chloroform, a reference compound, during showering. Breath and air concentrations of the DBPs were measured using gas chromatography ...
Toppila E - - 2005
From 1953 to 1995 the usage rate of hearing protective devices (HPD) was tracked at a paper mill, a shipyard, and in selected areas of forestry work. For each work period, observations were made of HPD use among workers. In the paper mill, the usage rate increased steadily from 1965. ...
Aschner Michael - - 2005
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found at low levels in food, water, and the air. Under certain high-dose exposure conditions, elevations in tissue manganese levels can occur. Excessive manganese accumulation can result in adverse neurological, reproductive, and respiratory effects in both laboratory animals and humans. In humans, ...
Luckenbach Till - - 2005
Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, ...
Pennington Jean - - 2004
The initial steps in estimating dietary exposure to contaminants include gathering the necessary expertise, clarifying the intent and purpose of the work, selecting a dietary exposure model, and gathering available pertinent information. Expertise is generally needed in chemistry, agriculture, toxicology, statistics, nutritional epidemiology, and computer software development. The goal might ...
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