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Results 351 - 400 of 791
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Belden Jason B - - 2005
The potential of TNT to accumulate in aquatic organisms was assessed by determining bioconcentration factors for TNT and TNT biotransformation products using two benthic invertebrates (Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus), and by determining the bioaccumulation factor of TNT and TNT biotransformation products due to TNT exposure via feeding for channel ...
Chillrud Steven N - - 2005
The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 reflected increasing concern about potential effects of low-level airborne metal exposure on a wide array of illnesses. Here we summarize results demonstrating that the New York City (NYC) subway system provides an important microenvironment for metal exposures for NYC commuters and ...
Curwin Brian D - - 2005
Green tobacco sickness is an illness associated with nicotine exposures among tobacco harvesters. Agricultural workers manually harvest tobacco and thus have the potential for skin exposure to nicotine, particularly on the hands. Often gloves are not worn as it hinders the harvesters' ability to harvest the tobacco leaves. The purposes ...
Boon Polly E - - 2005
In this paper we calculated the usual and acute exposure to acrylamide (AA) in the Dutch population and young children (1-6 years). For this AA levels of different food groups were used as collected by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the European Commission's Directorate General Joint ...
Nguyen Duc Hai - - 2005
An exposure chamber was designed to study the effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) on oestrous cycles, hormonal profile during gestation, pineal function, quantity and quality of milk production, feed intake, and central nervous system of dairy cattle. The chamber was 15 x 10 x 3 m; and the ...
Fan Ming - - 2005
A probabilistic approach was applied in an ecological risk assessment (ERA) to characterize risk and address uncertainty employing Monte Carlo simulations for assessing parameter and risk probabilistic distributions. This simulation tool (ERA) includes a Window's based interface, an interactive and modifiable database management system (DBMS) that addresses a food web ...
Thomson, Barbara Mary
This thesis aims to assess the human health impact of exposure to estrogenic compounds from the diet. A multi-disciplinary approach is taken to address various aspects of this issue. An introduction to xenoestrogens, including international research priorities, wildlife and human health effects, mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and additivity ...
Bernstein David - - 2005
Chrysotile asbestos, a serpentine mineral, has been shown to be notably different from amphibole asbestos such as amosite, crocidolite, and tremolite in that chrysotile once inhaled is rapidly removed from the lung while the amphiboles persist. This has been demonstrated for three different chrysotile samples from Canada, the United States, ...
Morley N J - - 2005
The effects of cadmium and zinc mixtures on tail loss of the free-living cercarial stage of the parasitic fluke Diplostomum spathaceum were investigated at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10,000 microg/L. Cercariae were exposed to metal mixtures of equal concentrations, metal mixtures of unequal concentrations, and a low-dose pretreatment followed ...
Mirabelli Dario - - 2005
To update estimates of the prevalence of occupational exposures to carcinogens in Italy, the 85 CAREX agents were re-assessed. The original exposure estimates in the CAREX database were updated, taking into account changes in exposure patterns and in numbers of employees by industrial class. The 21.8 million employees in Italy, ...
Thomson B M - - 2005
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from the consumption of canned and bottled food has been determined for New Zealand adults. Eighty different canned foods purchased from retail outlets in Christchurch, New Zealand, between November 2003 and February 2004 were analysed for BPA concentration by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. BPA was detected ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2005
This study describes associations among caries experience and meal, snack and daily total exposures to beverages and foods in children. Subjects (n = 634) were members of the Iowa Fluoride Study. Beverage and food exposures were abstracted from 3-day diaries at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and calculated ...
Alegría Natalia - - 2005
Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into ...
Xu Xu - - 2005
Inhalation is an important exposure route for volatile water contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs). A controlled human study was conducted on six subjects to determine the respiratory uptake of haloketones (HKs) and chloroform, a reference compound, during showering. Breath and air concentrations of the DBPs were measured using gas chromatography ...
Toppila E - - 2005
From 1953 to 1995 the usage rate of hearing protective devices (HPD) was tracked at a paper mill, a shipyard, and in selected areas of forestry work. For each work period, observations were made of HPD use among workers. In the paper mill, the usage rate increased steadily from 1965. ...
Aschner Michael - - 2005
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found at low levels in food, water, and the air. Under certain high-dose exposure conditions, elevations in tissue manganese levels can occur. Excessive manganese accumulation can result in adverse neurological, reproductive, and respiratory effects in both laboratory animals and humans. In humans, ...
Luckenbach Till - - 2005
Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, ...
Pennington Jean - - 2004
The initial steps in estimating dietary exposure to contaminants include gathering the necessary expertise, clarifying the intent and purpose of the work, selecting a dietary exposure model, and gathering available pertinent information. Expertise is generally needed in chemistry, agriculture, toxicology, statistics, nutritional epidemiology, and computer software development. The goal might ...
Senyigit Abdurrahman - - 2004
In this study, the authors examined the concentrations and mineralogical analyses of asbestos, and investigated mesothelioma risk in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. They used a gravimetric dust sampler to collect samples from 2 villages and 2 asbestos mines (1 active). Samples were then evaluated by an X-ray diffractometer and an electron ...
Nordstrom J L - - 2004
Interest in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) increased in the United States following Vp-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in 1997 and 1998 involving the West Coast and other areas. The present study evaluated multiple aspects of Vp ecology in the Pacific Northwest with three objectives: (i) to determine the effect of low-tide exposure on ...
Larson Timothy - - 2004
As part of a large exposure assessment and health-effects panel study, 33 trace elements and light-absorbing carbon were measured on 24-hr fixed-site filter samples for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm (PM2.5) collected between September 26, 2000, and May 25, 2001, at a central outdoor site, immediately outside ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endemic ataxic polyneuropathy, a neurological syndrome that was thought to be benign, has been shown to persist in some communities in south-western Nigeria, where it was first described in the 1950s. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare mortality of cases and controls, and to determine if mortality is ...
Lee Kiyoung - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of personal exposure to inorganic and organic dust during manual harvest operations of California citrus and table grapes. Personal exposures to inhalable dust and respirable dust were measured five times over a 4-month period of harvesting season. We analyzed components of ...
Nuyttens D - - 2004
The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and the Agricultural Research Center (CLO-DVL) joined forces in a project to stimulate the safe use of pesticides in southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimized a method using mineral chelates as tracers on collectors. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits was used to compare ...
Ross Andrew S - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate personal exposure to metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosols in very small machine shops (1-8 machinists per shop) and to investigate workplace factors associated with exposures. A total of 20 willing machine shops in Vancouver, Canada (from 46 eligible shops, 43%) and 88 machinists ...
Ballal Seifeddin G - - 2004
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected factory producing Portland cement in eastern Saudi Arabia to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases and chest x-ray changes consistent with pneumoconiosis in the employees. A sample of 150 exposed and 355 unexposed employees was selected. A questionnaire about ...
Feldman Steven R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Investigations into tanners' reasons for tanning have focused primarily on the perception of improved appearance. Reported relaxing effects of tanning suggest the possibility of a physiologic effect of UV that drives tanning behavior. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if there is a physiologic reinforcing effect of UV exposure, separate ...
Dal-Zotto Silvina - - 2004
RATIONALE: Previous work has shown that a single exposure of rats to a severe stressor (immobilization, IMO) results, days to weeks later, in a reduced response (desensitization) of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to a second exposure to the same stressor. OBJECTIVES: In the present work, we studied the influence of ...
Simon Olivier - - 2004
The bioaccumulation of natural uranium in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was investigated subsequent to the bivalve's experimental waterborne exposures. A first experiment determined the accumulation rate (transfer efficiency, tissular distribution) and subcellular distribution of uranium in organs after over 42 days of uranium exposure (100 microg l(-1); pH 7) ...
Woskie S R - - 2004
As part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), the determinants of isocyanate exposure in auto body repair shops were evaluated. Measurements (n = 380) of hexamethylene diisocyanate-based monomer and polyisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate-based polyisocyanate were collected from 33 auto body shops. The median ...
Gillis Patricia L - - 2004
Concentrations of a metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) in Tubifex tubifex were consistent throughout the various life stages with no significant variation associated with reproductive stage. The mean concentration from cocoon through 10 weeks of age was 2.5 (+/-0.6) nmol MTLP/g. T. tubifex was subjected to a number of potential environmental stressors ...
Macinnis-Ng Catriona M O - - 2004
Tides and freshwater inflow which influence water movement in estuarine areas govern the exposure-regime of pollutants. In this experiment, we examined the in situ impact of double pulses of copper and the herbicide Irgarol 1051 on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni. Despite a 4-day recovery period between the ...
Mäkinen Milja - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to measure the dermal and respiratory exposure levels of hexavalent chromium during electroplating work. METHODS: Potential dermal exposure of the body was measured with patch samples and actual exposure of hands with hand-wash samples. For comparison, personal air samples were also collected. RESULTS: ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2004
Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups ...
Jo Wan-Kuen - - 2004
The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background ...
Kato Kayoko - - 2004
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, ...
Vavra Ashley K - - 2004
Sulfur mustard (2,2'-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) is a chemical warfare vesicant that causes debilitating skin lesions. Although a great deal of work has focused on the direct effects of SM exposure on the epithelium, it is unclear how much the inflammatory response, induced by exposure, contributes to lesion pathogenesis. Keratinocytes exposed to ...
Enander Richard T - - 2004
Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors ...
Budd P - - 2004
Lead concentration and isotope ratio data are presented for the tooth enamel of 77 individuals buried in England and spanning approximately 5000 years from the Neolithic until the 16th century AD. Whereas other tissues may be affected by diagenesis in the burial environment, the Pb concentration of tooth enamel is ...
Ferro Andrea R - - 2004
Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) ...
Adhikari Atin - - 2004
Accurate exposure assessment to airborne fungi in agricultural environments is essential for estimating the associated occupational health hazards of workers. The objective of this pilot study was to compare personal and stationary sampling for assessing farmers' exposure to airborne fungi in 3 different agricultural confinements located in Ohio, USA (hog ...
Lobscheid Agnes B - - 2004
Both laboratory and field studies confirm the importance of vegetation for scavenging semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from the atmosphere and a number of exposure studies have found that the dietary pathway is often a significant contributor to cumulative exposure for these chemicals. However, little information exists on the atmospheric source-to-dietary ...
Karpinski Eva A - - 2003
In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study ...
Boyd Windy A - - 2003
Caenorhabditis elegans, a nonparasitic soil nematode, was used to assess the combined effects of metal exposures and food availability on behavior. Movement was monitored using a computer tracking system after exposures to Cu, Pb, or Cd while feeding was measured as a change in optical density (deltaOD) of bacteria suspensions ...
Steele R - - 2003
This study investigated the amount of physical activity that occurs during normal working hours, highlighting the occupational differences in physical activity by occupational category. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire (Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire [TOQ]), which measures past year Occupational Physical Activity (OPA) and by a ...
Gilsenan M B - - 2003
A key component of a food chemical exposure assessment using probabilistic analysis is the selection of the most appropriate input distribution to represent exposure variables. The study explored the type of parametric distribution that could be used to model variability in food consumption data likely to be included in a ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic area in south west Nigeria has been attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava ...
Perbellini L - - 2003
AIMS: To study the concentration of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and its metabolite, N-methylacetamide (NMA), in urine of workers occupationally exposed to DMA in a factory producing synthetic acrylic fibres. METHODS: During the first phase, 223 workers exposed to low environmental concentrations of DMA provided urine samples at the end of a ...
Arcella D - - 2003
For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic ...
Fedoruk Marion J - - 2003
This study examines benzene emissions from the use of a metal parts washer ("degreaser") supplied with a mineral spirits solvent containing either 9 or 58 ppm benzene. Air samples were obtained during a one-hour session of relatively vigorous parts cleaning activity using a degreaser station equipped with wet brush and ...
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