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Results 301 - 350 of 823
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Tittlemier Sheryl A - - 2007
Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem ...
Leavens Teresa L - - 2007
Increased brain manganese (Mn) following inhalation can result from direct transport via olfactory neurons and blood delivery. Human health risk assessments for Mn should consider the relative importance of these pathways. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model describing the olfactory transport and blood delivery of ...
Tovalin-Ahumada Horacio - - 2007
There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy ...
Sadhra Steven S - - 2007
EU legislation requires a multimedia exposure assessment for substances supplied within the EU. Dietary intake is the main source of exposure for the majority of the population hence an essential component of the human risk assessment. This paper describes the available data for dietary copper and its use in estimating ...
Storaas Torgeir - - 2007
AIMS: Rhinitis symptoms frequently occur in bakery-workers. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of the present study was to examine nasal indices of inflammation in relation to occupational dust exposure, occupational rhinitis according to defined criteria, rhinitis symptoms associated to the workplace, and occupational ...
Pradhan Chandan K - - 2007
There are many rice mills and food grain depots where a large number of workers are engaged for processing paddy and rice, storage and distribution. Lifting, carrying and depositing sacs of food grain are the major jobs carried out by these workers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ...
Frelon Sandrine - - 2007
Some beaches in the south of France present high levels of natural radioactivity mainly due to thorium (Th) and uranium (U) present in the sand. Risk assessment after internal exposure of members of the public by either inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue was performed. This evaluation required ...
Jedrychowski Wiesław - - 2007
This study assessed personal exposure of pregnant women to fine particles (PM(25)) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the relationship between pollutant concentrations in ambient and indoor air. In a group of 78 pregnant women, simultaneous 48 h measurements of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM(25) and B[a]P were carried out ...
Paoletti Elena - - 2007
Two Fagus sylvatica L. clones were used to investigate the early responses to acute O3 exposure (150 nL L(-1), i.e., 1.35x ambient hourly peak in rural Italy) and whether xeromorphic adaptations affect gas exchange, membrane, and epicuticular responses. One clone originated in a wet and temperate climate in Central Italy ...
Ragab Fawzy - - 2006
Effect of the fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium sulphate and urea) on molluscicidal activity of the molluscicides (copper sulphate, niclosamide & mollutox) against B. alexandrina and L. natalensis was investigated. The molluscicides were more potant than fertilizers. Snails were exposed for 24 hr to a fertilizers using LC0 (1/10 & LC50) ...
Robison Steven H - - 2006
Methyl eugenol is a naturally occurring material found in a variety of food sources, including spices, oils, and nutritionally important foods such as bananas and oranges. Given its natural occurrence, a broad cross-section of the population is likely exposed. The availability of biomonitoring and toxicology data offers an opportunity to ...
Courtney Theodore K - - 2006
Falls are responsible for a substantial injury burden in the global workplace. Restaurant environments are particularly challenged by slips, trips, and falls. This study explored those factors that could influence workers' self-reports of slipperiness in U.S. fast-food restaurants. One hundred and twenty-six workers employed in 10 fast-food restaurants in the ...
Rickwood Carrie J - - 2006
Assessment of effects of metal mine effluent (MME) on aquatic organisms in lab-based settings predominantly evaluates contaminant transfer through the water only with little emphasis on food-borne exposure. The effects of MME on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) have been reported downstream of metal mine discharges in the Junction Creek ...
Wernli Karen J - - 2006
We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the Shanghai textile industry constructed along three axes: industry sector, textile process, and hazardous agent. We assessed 35 different categories of dust, chemical, and physical agents for 149 textile processes within nine industry sectors: cotton, cotton/synthetic, cotton/other (nonsynthetic), wool, silk, synthetic, mineral, ...
Mickelsen R Leroy - - 2006
Since 1996, industry, labor, and government have partnered to minimize workers' exposure to asphalt fumes using engineering controls. The objective of this study was to determine the use after some years of experience and to benchmark the effectiveness of the engineering controls as compared to the current exposure limits. To ...
Massin N - - 2007
To measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) and aldehydes among cleaning and disinfecting workers in the atmosphere of food industry plants during cleaning and disinfecting operations, and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms-which are indices of pulmonary function-and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to ...
Yaktine Ann L - - 2006
Dioxins and related compounds are undesirable and unintended contaminants in the food supply, and dietary intake is the major route of exposure. Reducing dietary exposure to dioxins among the most vulnerable segments of the population (i.e., pregnant women, infants, and young girls) is an effective strategy for reducing body burdens ...
Sofyan Agus - - 2007
While effects of water-borne metal exposures on freshwater animals have been well documented, the effect of dietary metal exposure is less understood but is gaining importance. However, little attention has been given to the importance of combining both exposure pathways. In this study, we compared effects of aqueous ('water only'), ...
Astrakianakis George - - 2006
The results of a field survey at three Shanghai textile factories were used to compare the performance of the Chinese dust sampler (CDS) with the standard American sampler, vertical elutriator (VE). Side-by-side samples using a CDS and a VE were collected in seven specific manufacturing processes, with additional area and ...
Tsuji Y - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To measure the scatter fraction in cephalometric radiography with and without a grid and to estimate the patient's dose reduction by using a specially fabricated collimator without a grid. METHODS: A 16 cm thick water-equivalent phantom was used to measure the scatter fraction. The projection geometry was the same ...
Bistodeau Travis J - - 2006
The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models ...
Serdar B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and work related factors that predict blood levels of styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) in the fibreglass reinforced plastics (FRP) industry. METHODS: Personal breathing-zone air samples and whole blood samples were collected repeatedly from 328 reinforced plastics workers in the Unuted States between 1996 and 1999. Styrene ...
Wilson Nancy K - - 2007
The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study investigated the potential exposures of 257 preschool children, ages 1 1/2-5 yr, and their primary adult caregivers to more than 50 anthropogenic chemicals. Field sampling took place in selected counties in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio ...
Wormuth Matthias - - 2006
Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Consequently, phthalates are found in human residential and occupational environments in high concentrations, both in air and in dust. Phthalates are also ubiquitous food and environmental contaminants. An increasing number of studies sampling human ...
Massart F - - 2006
Puberty is regulated by the endocrine system. Disruption of that system by exposure to environmental hormone-mimicking substances (i.e. endocrine disruptors) may, therefore, affect this development profoundly. There has been a great secular trend in the earlier timing of puberty such as both puberty onset and menarche age. This is apparently ...
Hines Cynthia J - - 2006
The exposure of custom (or commercial) applicators to the herbicide atrazine was measured in environmental (hand wash and dermal patch) and biological (urine and saliva) samples. Surrogate exposure data, such as amount of atrazine sprayed, were also collected. A systematic sampling design was used that included both spray and nonspray ...
Mathers John C - - 2006
Plants provide the major part of human food intake. Whilst advances in agronomic characteristics (improved yield and better pest and disease resistance) continue to be a very high priority, there is increasing opportunity to enhance the nutritional value of plant based diets by improving the nutritional quality of staple foods. ...
Meeker John D - - 2006
Human exposure to contemporary-use insecticides is widespread, but effects of exposure on human endocrine function have gone largely untested to date. Samples of urine and blood were collected concurrently from 322 adult men between the years 2000 and 2003. Urine samples were analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos ...
Smith Philip N - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to determine if exposure to perchlorate via food items would have effects on mammals similar to those caused by exposure through drinking water at approximately equivalent doses. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were used to assess the potential toxicity ...
Caglieri Andrea - - 2006
Chromium is corrosive, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic for humans and can induce acute and chronic lung tissue toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate Cr levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed to Cr(VI) and to assess their relationship with biochemical changes in the airways by analyzing ...
Bertail Patrice - - 2006
This article proposes statistical tools for quantitative evaluation of the risk due to the presence of some particular contaminants in food. We focus on the estimation of the probability of the exposure to exceed the so-called provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), when both consumption data and contamination data are independently ...
Hyvärinen A - - 2006
Exposure to farming environment in early life has been associated with lower risk for allergic diseases possibly caused by increased exposure to endotoxin. The aims of this study were to compare the reproducibility of different sampling methods for endotoxin, and to determine whether environmental characteristics have different effect on endotoxin ...
Schettler Ted - - 2006
Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning ...
- - 2006
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for styrene to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Styrene was selected for evaluation because of (1) public concern about styrene exposure and (2) recently available ...
Baier-Anderson Cal - - 2006
To develop an enforceable drinking water standard from a health-based reference dose, sources of exposure and relevant exposure factors across the U.S. population must be considered. Human exposures, expressed as an estimated daily exposure, can be used to evaluate the health protectiveness of a range of potential regulatory values, thus ...
Gustafson Paul - - 2006
Many epidemiologic investigations involve some discussion of exposure misclassification, but rarely is there an attempt to adjust for misclassification formally in the statistical analysis. Rather, investigators tend to rely on intuition to comment qualitatively on how misclassification might impact their findings. We point out several ways in which intuition might ...
Lin Y S - - 2006
A putative haematotoxic and leukaemogenic metabolite of benzene, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), reacts rapidly with macromolecules. The authors previously characterized levels of the albumin (Alb) adduct (1,4-BQ-Alb) of this reactive species in populations of workers exposed to benzene. Since high levels of 1,4-BQ-Alb were also measured in unexposed workers from those investigations, ...
Lacey Steven E - - 2006
A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed within a larger ...
Lopez M A - - 2006
Once the EC Directive 96/29 has been implemented into national regulation across Europe, the coordination of dosimetry laboratories for the monitoring of occupational exposures becomes the principal aim to achieve. Within this framework the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS, carried out an Action on 'Harmonisation of Individual Monitoring' (2000-2004) to ...
Vandenhove H - - 2006
The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city ...
Lerman Yehuda - - 2006
We investigated whether metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) values in induced sputum (IS) and pulmonary function tests can serve as a marker of damage and intensity of exposure to hazardous dust. Thirty-nine factory employees (28 workers exposed to metal particles and 11 supposedly nonexposed office workers) underwent IS induction. Samples were processed by ...
Aschner Michael - - 2006
Manganese is an essential mineral that is found at low levels in virtually all diets. Manganese ingestion represents the principal route of human exposure, although inhalation also occurs, predominantly in occupational cohorts. Regardless of intake, animals generally maintain stable tissue manganese levels as a result of homeostatic mechanisms that tightly ...
Bull R K - - 2006
A worker provided a routine faecal sample for plutonium and americium analysis. In the course of this analysis 500 mBq of (228)Th was discovered. There seemed no credible occupational route for intake of thorium. Further investigation revealed that the worker consumed approximately 25 g d(-1) of nuts, including Brazil nuts. ...
Huffling Katie - - 2006
An essential element of a health-promoting lifestyle is eating nutritious, healthy foods. However, food can be a source of exposure to many types of toxins, and current food production methods can have negative effects on the environment and consumers. This article identifies several of the contaminants present in food and ...
Soytas Ugur - - 2006
Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or ...
Hepper Peter G - - 2006
The ability of individuals to learn about chemosensory stimuli in the prenatal, or immediate postnatal, period may be advantageous in acquiring information about "safe" foods after weaning. In this study, we examined the influence of perinatal exposure to aniseed via the mother's diet on a two-choice food test in the ...
Van Oostdam J - - 2005
The objectives of this paper are to: assess the impact of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic on human health; identify the data and knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring; examine how these issues have changed since ...
Carrieri Mariella - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess gasoline filling-station attendants' exposure to benzene and to determine which biological exposure index (BEI), trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) or S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), shows better correlation with environmental exposure. Exposure to benzene was measured using passive samplers (Radiello) attached to the collar of the ...
Godderis L - - 2005
To date the exposure, absorption and respiratory health effects of cast-house workers have not been described since most studies performed in the aluminium industry are focused on exposure and health effects of potroom personnel. In the present study, we assessed the external exposure and the absorbed dose of metals in ...
Arcella D - - 2005
Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. This task is crucial when evaluating substances for which only intake of toxicologically-important amounts can lead to adverse health effects. Ideally, dietary exposure to hazardous substances can be assessed by combining data on concentration in all food ...
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