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Results 251 - 300 of 794
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Thomson Barbara M - - 2008
The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from ...
Balcaen Lieve I L - - 2008
In order to study the effect of anthropogenic substances on freshwater and marine ecosystems and to develop methods to derive water-quality criteria, ecotoxicological testing is required. While toxicity assessments are traditionally based on dissolved metal concentrations, assuming that toxicity is caused by waterborne metal only, it was recently pointed out ...
Shephard G S - - 2007
The investigation of adverse health effects associated with fungal mycotoxins requires the measurement of human exposure. Most frequently, this exposure is estimated from contamination levels of raw foodstuffs, which are the primary source of toxin exposure, and data on food consumption patterns. However, variations in food preparation methods, food intake, ...
Oztan M Dartar - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exposure to 6 chemical agents on the permeability of latex gloves by dye permeability test and to qualitatively evaluate the microscopic changes in the ultrastructure of the gloves. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The middle fingers of 35 medium-sized, nonsterile latex gloves were used. The chemical ...
Goldoni M - - 2008
Me-Hg and PCB153 are known neurotoxic contaminants which tend to accumulate in food, particularly in fish. Aim of this study was to perform asynchronous and combined exposure to Me-Hg and PCB153 in a neuronal rat cell line (PC12) to better characterise the antagonism observed at some combination concentrations. PC12 cells ...
Robbins Wendie A - - 2008
Several epidemiologic investigations have shown shifts in sex ratios at birth toward females in populations with relatively high boron exposure. To investigate the paternal origin of these shifts, we assayed sperm Y:X ratio in men exposed to a range of environmental and workplace boron. Participants included 63 workers in boron ...
Ibelings Bas W - - 2007
This review summarizes and discusses the current understanding of human exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in "seafood" collected from freshwater and coastal areas. The review consists of three parts: (a) the existing literature on concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins in seafood is reviewed, and the likelihood of bioaccumulation discussed; (b) we derive ...
Lee Eungyoung - - 2007
The impact of a worker's location, orientation, and activity was studied in an experimental room (2.86 m x 2.35 m x 2.86 m) at known flow rates of 5.5 m(3)/min and 3.3 m(3)/min. A person in the room, wearing a full-facepiece, air-supplied respirator represented a worker. Propylene tracer gas was ...
Holem Ryan R - - 2008
Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100mg/kg (p=0.079) and ...
Autier Philippe - - 2007
Sunscreen use is often proposed for sun protection because of their ability to block UV-induced sunburns (the sun protection factor--SPF). Among suntan seekers, however, risk of cutaneous melanoma may be increased because of extended sun exposure duration. We made a systematic review of the evidence linking sunscreen use to sun ...
DeForest David K - - 2007
Bioaccumulation potential in aquatic biota is typically expressed using ratios of chemical concentrations in organism tissue (typically whole body) relative to chemical exposure concentrations, such as bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Past reviews of metal BCFs for aquatic biota, which account for water-only exposures, have shown that BCFs are often highly variable ...
Glorennec Philippe - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Emissions of lead into the environment (and thus its environmental concentrations) have decreased in recent years. We sought to estimate the overall lead exposure of children aged 6 months to 6 years (the population group most exposed and most sensitive to lead) in France through the various media (air, ...
Shelnutt Susan R - - 2007
Hexavalent chromium causes two types of dermatological toxicities: allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and skin ulcers. This report reviews the etiology, prevalence, pathology, dose-response, and prognosis of both of these reactions. Reports in the literature indicate that repeated exposure to hexavalent chromium in concentrations of 4-25 ppm can both induce sensitization ...
Bianchi Claudio - - 2007
Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The highest annual crude incidence rates (about 30 cases per million) are observed in Australia, Belgium, and Great Britain. A lot of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos. The hot areas for mesothelioma exactly correspond to the sites of ...
van Rooy Frits G B G J - - 2007
RATIONALE: Workers in microwave popcorn plants are at risk of developing bronchiolitis obliterans associated with exposure to butter flavoring volatiles, including diacetyl. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans for chemical workers producing diacetyl, with exposure to less complex mixtures of chemicals. METHODS: We interviewed and conducted spirometry on ...
Dubuisson Carine - - 2007
Chlordecone is an organochlorine insecticide used until 1993 in the banana plantations of the French Antilles. Recent surveys revealed its wide presence in the environment. This current paper focuses on the impact of different management options on the Martinican population's food exposure, taking into account that an appreciable part of ...
Stanko Jason P - - 2007
In this study, we investigated the capacity of androstenedione to masculinize female mosquitofish. Previous studies have identified androstenedione in the water and sediment of the Fenholloway River, a Florida, USA, coastal river that receives paper mill effluent and contains masculinized eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Females of the closely related western ...
McNary John E - - 2007
Formaldehyde, a natural component of all mammalian cells, is metabolized to carbon dioxide. It is a colorless gas used as a preservative and a reactant in chemical processes in a wide variety of commercial and consumer products. Toluene is an organic solvent also used in a wide variety of commercial ...
Ramoliya Jignesh - - 2007
In the present study, a small fresh water aquatic ecosystem was created into a small test tank to evaluate the movement and bioaccumulation of Cr (VI) through water, sediment, a macrophyte Hydrilla, small fish guppy, and few key organs of magur, Clarias batrachus. The Cr (VI) intoxication was imposed of ...
- - 2007
Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department ...
Egan Sara Kathleen - - 2007
The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) has been conducted continuously since the early 1960s to measures levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods and to estimate the dietary exposures to these compounds. Both the TDS food list and the consumption amounts used ...
Heaton Kristin J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In March 1991, a munitions storage complex at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed, potentially exposing more than 100,000 US troops to low levels of the organophosphate nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. Little is known about the neurophysiological effects of low-dose exposure to sarin/cyclosarin in humans, although some research has indicated ...
Tittlemier Sheryl A - - 2007
Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem ...
Leavens Teresa L - - 2007
Increased brain manganese (Mn) following inhalation can result from direct transport via olfactory neurons and blood delivery. Human health risk assessments for Mn should consider the relative importance of these pathways. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model describing the olfactory transport and blood delivery of ...
Tovalin-Ahumada Horacio - - 2007
There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy ...
Sadhra Steven S - - 2007
EU legislation requires a multimedia exposure assessment for substances supplied within the EU. Dietary intake is the main source of exposure for the majority of the population hence an essential component of the human risk assessment. This paper describes the available data for dietary copper and its use in estimating ...
Storaas Torgeir - - 2007
AIMS: Rhinitis symptoms frequently occur in bakery-workers. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of the present study was to examine nasal indices of inflammation in relation to occupational dust exposure, occupational rhinitis according to defined criteria, rhinitis symptoms associated to the workplace, and occupational ...
Pradhan Chandan K - - 2007
There are many rice mills and food grain depots where a large number of workers are engaged for processing paddy and rice, storage and distribution. Lifting, carrying and depositing sacs of food grain are the major jobs carried out by these workers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ...
Frelon Sandrine - - 2007
Some beaches in the south of France present high levels of natural radioactivity mainly due to thorium (Th) and uranium (U) present in the sand. Risk assessment after internal exposure of members of the public by either inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue was performed. This evaluation required ...
Jedrychowski Wiesław - - 2007
This study assessed personal exposure of pregnant women to fine particles (PM(25)) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the relationship between pollutant concentrations in ambient and indoor air. In a group of 78 pregnant women, simultaneous 48 h measurements of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM(25) and B[a]P were carried out ...
Paoletti Elena - - 2007
Two Fagus sylvatica L. clones were used to investigate the early responses to acute O3 exposure (150 nL L(-1), i.e., 1.35x ambient hourly peak in rural Italy) and whether xeromorphic adaptations affect gas exchange, membrane, and epicuticular responses. One clone originated in a wet and temperate climate in Central Italy ...
Ragab Fawzy - - 2006
Effect of the fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium sulphate and urea) on molluscicidal activity of the molluscicides (copper sulphate, niclosamide & mollutox) against B. alexandrina and L. natalensis was investigated. The molluscicides were more potant than fertilizers. Snails were exposed for 24 hr to a fertilizers using LC0 (1/10 & LC50) ...
Robison Steven H - - 2006
Methyl eugenol is a naturally occurring material found in a variety of food sources, including spices, oils, and nutritionally important foods such as bananas and oranges. Given its natural occurrence, a broad cross-section of the population is likely exposed. The availability of biomonitoring and toxicology data offers an opportunity to ...
Courtney Theodore K - - 2006
Falls are responsible for a substantial injury burden in the global workplace. Restaurant environments are particularly challenged by slips, trips, and falls. This study explored those factors that could influence workers' self-reports of slipperiness in U.S. fast-food restaurants. One hundred and twenty-six workers employed in 10 fast-food restaurants in the ...
Rickwood Carrie J - - 2006
Assessment of effects of metal mine effluent (MME) on aquatic organisms in lab-based settings predominantly evaluates contaminant transfer through the water only with little emphasis on food-borne exposure. The effects of MME on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) have been reported downstream of metal mine discharges in the Junction Creek ...
Wernli Karen J - - 2006
We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the Shanghai textile industry constructed along three axes: industry sector, textile process, and hazardous agent. We assessed 35 different categories of dust, chemical, and physical agents for 149 textile processes within nine industry sectors: cotton, cotton/synthetic, cotton/other (nonsynthetic), wool, silk, synthetic, mineral, ...
Mickelsen R Leroy - - 2006
Since 1996, industry, labor, and government have partnered to minimize workers' exposure to asphalt fumes using engineering controls. The objective of this study was to determine the use after some years of experience and to benchmark the effectiveness of the engineering controls as compared to the current exposure limits. To ...
Massin N - - 2007
To measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) and aldehydes among cleaning and disinfecting workers in the atmosphere of food industry plants during cleaning and disinfecting operations, and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms-which are indices of pulmonary function-and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to ...
Yaktine Ann L - - 2006
Dioxins and related compounds are undesirable and unintended contaminants in the food supply, and dietary intake is the major route of exposure. Reducing dietary exposure to dioxins among the most vulnerable segments of the population (i.e., pregnant women, infants, and young girls) is an effective strategy for reducing body burdens ...
Sofyan Agus - - 2007
While effects of water-borne metal exposures on freshwater animals have been well documented, the effect of dietary metal exposure is less understood but is gaining importance. However, little attention has been given to the importance of combining both exposure pathways. In this study, we compared effects of aqueous ('water only'), ...
Astrakianakis George - - 2006
The results of a field survey at three Shanghai textile factories were used to compare the performance of the Chinese dust sampler (CDS) with the standard American sampler, vertical elutriator (VE). Side-by-side samples using a CDS and a VE were collected in seven specific manufacturing processes, with additional area and ...
Tsuji Y - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To measure the scatter fraction in cephalometric radiography with and without a grid and to estimate the patient's dose reduction by using a specially fabricated collimator without a grid. METHODS: A 16 cm thick water-equivalent phantom was used to measure the scatter fraction. The projection geometry was the same ...
Bistodeau Travis J - - 2006
The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models ...
Serdar B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and work related factors that predict blood levels of styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) in the fibreglass reinforced plastics (FRP) industry. METHODS: Personal breathing-zone air samples and whole blood samples were collected repeatedly from 328 reinforced plastics workers in the Unuted States between 1996 and 1999. Styrene ...
Wilson Nancy K - - 2007
The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study investigated the potential exposures of 257 preschool children, ages 1 1/2-5 yr, and their primary adult caregivers to more than 50 anthropogenic chemicals. Field sampling took place in selected counties in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio ...
Wormuth Matthias - - 2006
Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Consequently, phthalates are found in human residential and occupational environments in high concentrations, both in air and in dust. Phthalates are also ubiquitous food and environmental contaminants. An increasing number of studies sampling human ...
Massart F - - 2006
Puberty is regulated by the endocrine system. Disruption of that system by exposure to environmental hormone-mimicking substances (i.e. endocrine disruptors) may, therefore, affect this development profoundly. There has been a great secular trend in the earlier timing of puberty such as both puberty onset and menarche age. This is apparently ...
Hines Cynthia J - - 2006
The exposure of custom (or commercial) applicators to the herbicide atrazine was measured in environmental (hand wash and dermal patch) and biological (urine and saliva) samples. Surrogate exposure data, such as amount of atrazine sprayed, were also collected. A systematic sampling design was used that included both spray and nonspray ...
Mathers John C - - 2006
Plants provide the major part of human food intake. Whilst advances in agronomic characteristics (improved yield and better pest and disease resistance) continue to be a very high priority, there is increasing opportunity to enhance the nutritional value of plant based diets by improving the nutritional quality of staple foods. ...
Meeker John D - - 2006
Human exposure to contemporary-use insecticides is widespread, but effects of exposure on human endocrine function have gone largely untested to date. Samples of urine and blood were collected concurrently from 322 adult men between the years 2000 and 2003. Urine samples were analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos ...
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