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Results 251 - 300 of 815
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Krystek Petra - - 2009
From the year 2003 to 2005 around 1700 Dutch soldiers made a part of the international stabilisation force in Iraq. An incident happened as a group of four Dutch soldiers found a 30mm bullet identified as containing depleted uranium (DU). The main pathway of the acute exposure is via inhalation ...
Rosengren Leigh B - - 2008
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, ...
Kaddar Nisrin - - 2008
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with weak estrogenic activity, used in epoxy resin and polycarbonate plastic. Human exposure may occur by contamination from food or food-contact material and by occupational scenarios. Occupational health hazards may be associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to BPA exposure. Most ACD ...
Croteau Maxine C - - 2008
While adverse effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and environmental pollutants on amphibians have been documented, few studies examined the effects of interactions between environmental stressors on amphibian health. Here the impacts of chronic exposure to UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on ...
Patlewicz G - - 2008
Risk assessment for most human health effects is based on the threshold of a toxicological effect, usually derived from animal experiments. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a concept that refers to the establishment of a level of exposure for all chemicals below which there would be no appreciable ...
Miller G - - 2008
Internal dose caused by exposure to (239)Pu/(240)Pu is calculated for a group of 210 former Los Alamos workers who participated in the urine bioassay programme during the years 1944-45. An iterative Bayesian procedure is employed, where the distribution of intake amounts resulting from an initial calculation is used to define ...
Froom S R - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the filtration performance of five commonly used paediatric breathing system filters following exposure to desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. It has been suggested that oil may degrade the performance of filter material. Volatile anaesthetic vapours are organic and hence may affect the filtration ...
Lança L - - 2008
Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in ...
Basketter David A - - 2008
Preservatives are an unfortunately common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Often, this is in association with exposure to cosmetics or medicaments. Recently, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) approach to the quantitation of safe exposure levels for sensitizers has been promulgated as a more effective tool for the identification of ...
Smoyer-Tomic Karen E - - 2008
This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fast food proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fast food outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and ...
The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens ...
Bednarska Agnieszka J - - 2008
In natural ecosystems it is not unusual for an organism to be exposed both to chemical and physical stressful factors at the same time. Herein we present results of the study on nickel toxicity to the carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, and effect of Ni and temperature on the beetles respiration ...
Wittassek Matthias - - 2008
In human metabolism studies we found that after oral application of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), at least 74, 44 and 34%, respectively, are excreted via urine. In contrast to the short chain phthalates, their oxidized products, not the simple monoesters, were found to be ...
Wang R Y - - 2007
Food is a source of exposure to many environmental chemicals found in human milk and other biological specimens. Ingestion of foods containing high amounts of animal fat is the main route of human exposure to lipophilic chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants, which tend to bioaccumulate in the lipid compartment. ...
Sahni Vanita - - 2007
Manganese is a trace element, essential for physiologic functioning but neurotoxic at high doses. Common exposure sources include dietary intake as well as drinking water in some regions; toxicity is most often associated with inhalation exposures in occupational settings. In this article we describe the investigation of a pediatric case ...
Ramakrishnan Siddharth - - 2008
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen and monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in the production of food and beverage containers. It leaches into our food and drink at concentrations shown to have biological consequences. Here we show that exposure to low levels of ...
Fromme Hermann - - 2007
Because dietary intake is supposed to be an important route of human exposure we quantified the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) using 214 duplicate diet samples. The study was carried out with a study population of 15 female ...
Rickwood Carrie J - - 2008
The Junction Creek watershed, located in Sudbury, ON, Canada receives effluent from three metal mine wastewater treatment plants, as well as a municipal wastewater (MWW) discharge. Effects on fish have been documented within the creek (decreased egg size and increased metal body burdens). It has been difficult to identify the ...
Murphy M W - - 2007
During the past 50 years, it has become common practice in the U.S. to add antibiotics to livestock feed to reduce disease and promote growth. Use of antibiotics in this manner has become the source of increasing controversy because overuse of antibiotics is suspected of leading to resistance in bacteria ...
Kuwabara Yu - - 2007
The RD(50) (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R(2)) between RD(50)s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). The main ...
Thomson Barbara M - - 2008
The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from ...
Balcaen Lieve I L - - 2008
In order to study the effect of anthropogenic substances on freshwater and marine ecosystems and to develop methods to derive water-quality criteria, ecotoxicological testing is required. While toxicity assessments are traditionally based on dissolved metal concentrations, assuming that toxicity is caused by waterborne metal only, it was recently pointed out ...
Shephard G S - - 2007
The investigation of adverse health effects associated with fungal mycotoxins requires the measurement of human exposure. Most frequently, this exposure is estimated from contamination levels of raw foodstuffs, which are the primary source of toxin exposure, and data on food consumption patterns. However, variations in food preparation methods, food intake, ...
Oztan M Dartar - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exposure to 6 chemical agents on the permeability of latex gloves by dye permeability test and to qualitatively evaluate the microscopic changes in the ultrastructure of the gloves. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The middle fingers of 35 medium-sized, nonsterile latex gloves were used. The chemical ...
Goldoni M - - 2008
Me-Hg and PCB153 are known neurotoxic contaminants which tend to accumulate in food, particularly in fish. Aim of this study was to perform asynchronous and combined exposure to Me-Hg and PCB153 in a neuronal rat cell line (PC12) to better characterise the antagonism observed at some combination concentrations. PC12 cells ...
Robbins Wendie A - - 2008
Several epidemiologic investigations have shown shifts in sex ratios at birth toward females in populations with relatively high boron exposure. To investigate the paternal origin of these shifts, we assayed sperm Y:X ratio in men exposed to a range of environmental and workplace boron. Participants included 63 workers in boron ...
Ibelings Bas W - - 2007
This review summarizes and discusses the current understanding of human exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in "seafood" collected from freshwater and coastal areas. The review consists of three parts: (a) the existing literature on concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins in seafood is reviewed, and the likelihood of bioaccumulation discussed; (b) we derive ...
Lee Eungyoung - - 2007
The impact of a worker's location, orientation, and activity was studied in an experimental room (2.86 m x 2.35 m x 2.86 m) at known flow rates of 5.5 m(3)/min and 3.3 m(3)/min. A person in the room, wearing a full-facepiece, air-supplied respirator represented a worker. Propylene tracer gas was ...
Holem Ryan R - - 2008
Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100mg/kg (p=0.079) and ...
Autier Philippe - - 2007
Sunscreen use is often proposed for sun protection because of their ability to block UV-induced sunburns (the sun protection factor--SPF). Among suntan seekers, however, risk of cutaneous melanoma may be increased because of extended sun exposure duration. We made a systematic review of the evidence linking sunscreen use to sun ...
DeForest David K - - 2007
Bioaccumulation potential in aquatic biota is typically expressed using ratios of chemical concentrations in organism tissue (typically whole body) relative to chemical exposure concentrations, such as bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Past reviews of metal BCFs for aquatic biota, which account for water-only exposures, have shown that BCFs are often highly variable ...
Glorennec Philippe - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Emissions of lead into the environment (and thus its environmental concentrations) have decreased in recent years. We sought to estimate the overall lead exposure of children aged 6 months to 6 years (the population group most exposed and most sensitive to lead) in France through the various media (air, ...
Shelnutt Susan R - - 2007
Hexavalent chromium causes two types of dermatological toxicities: allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and skin ulcers. This report reviews the etiology, prevalence, pathology, dose-response, and prognosis of both of these reactions. Reports in the literature indicate that repeated exposure to hexavalent chromium in concentrations of 4-25 ppm can both induce sensitization ...
Bianchi Claudio - - 2007
Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The highest annual crude incidence rates (about 30 cases per million) are observed in Australia, Belgium, and Great Britain. A lot of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos. The hot areas for mesothelioma exactly correspond to the sites of ...
van Rooy Frits G B G J - - 2007
RATIONALE: Workers in microwave popcorn plants are at risk of developing bronchiolitis obliterans associated with exposure to butter flavoring volatiles, including diacetyl. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans for chemical workers producing diacetyl, with exposure to less complex mixtures of chemicals. METHODS: We interviewed and conducted spirometry on ...
Dubuisson Carine - - 2007
Chlordecone is an organochlorine insecticide used until 1993 in the banana plantations of the French Antilles. Recent surveys revealed its wide presence in the environment. This current paper focuses on the impact of different management options on the Martinican population's food exposure, taking into account that an appreciable part of ...
Stanko Jason P - - 2007
In this study, we investigated the capacity of androstenedione to masculinize female mosquitofish. Previous studies have identified androstenedione in the water and sediment of the Fenholloway River, a Florida, USA, coastal river that receives paper mill effluent and contains masculinized eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Females of the closely related western ...
McNary John E - - 2007
Formaldehyde, a natural component of all mammalian cells, is metabolized to carbon dioxide. It is a colorless gas used as a preservative and a reactant in chemical processes in a wide variety of commercial and consumer products. Toluene is an organic solvent also used in a wide variety of commercial ...
Ramoliya Jignesh - - 2007
In the present study, a small fresh water aquatic ecosystem was created into a small test tank to evaluate the movement and bioaccumulation of Cr (VI) through water, sediment, a macrophyte Hydrilla, small fish guppy, and few key organs of magur, Clarias batrachus. The Cr (VI) intoxication was imposed of ...
- - 2007
Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department ...
Egan Sara Kathleen - - 2007
The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) has been conducted continuously since the early 1960s to measures levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods and to estimate the dietary exposures to these compounds. Both the TDS food list and the consumption amounts used ...
Heaton Kristin J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In March 1991, a munitions storage complex at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed, potentially exposing more than 100,000 US troops to low levels of the organophosphate nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. Little is known about the neurophysiological effects of low-dose exposure to sarin/cyclosarin in humans, although some research has indicated ...
Tittlemier Sheryl A - - 2007
Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem ...
Leavens Teresa L - - 2007
Increased brain manganese (Mn) following inhalation can result from direct transport via olfactory neurons and blood delivery. Human health risk assessments for Mn should consider the relative importance of these pathways. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model describing the olfactory transport and blood delivery of ...
Tovalin-Ahumada Horacio - - 2007
There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy ...
Sadhra Steven S - - 2007
EU legislation requires a multimedia exposure assessment for substances supplied within the EU. Dietary intake is the main source of exposure for the majority of the population hence an essential component of the human risk assessment. This paper describes the available data for dietary copper and its use in estimating ...
Storaas Torgeir - - 2007
AIMS: Rhinitis symptoms frequently occur in bakery-workers. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of the present study was to examine nasal indices of inflammation in relation to occupational dust exposure, occupational rhinitis according to defined criteria, rhinitis symptoms associated to the workplace, and occupational ...
Pradhan Chandan K - - 2007
There are many rice mills and food grain depots where a large number of workers are engaged for processing paddy and rice, storage and distribution. Lifting, carrying and depositing sacs of food grain are the major jobs carried out by these workers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ...
Frelon Sandrine - - 2007
Some beaches in the south of France present high levels of natural radioactivity mainly due to thorium (Th) and uranium (U) present in the sand. Risk assessment after internal exposure of members of the public by either inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue was performed. This evaluation required ...
Jedrychowski Wiesław - - 2007
This study assessed personal exposure of pregnant women to fine particles (PM(25)) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the relationship between pollutant concentrations in ambient and indoor air. In a group of 78 pregnant women, simultaneous 48 h measurements of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM(25) and B[a]P were carried out ...
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