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Results 201 - 250 of 820
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Katayama Keisho - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of duration of intermittent hypoxia per day on ventilatory chemosensitivity. Subjects were assigned to three different groups according to the duration of exposure to intermittent hypoxia (12.3 +/- 0.2% O(2)): a first group (H-1, n = 6) was exposed to ...
Ingelido Anna Maria - - 2009
Because of its persistence and toxicological profile, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) has been proposed for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the use of technical HCH, which is the primary source of beta-HCH in the environment, has been banned in the EU in 1978 and progressively at ...
Bechtel Daniel G - - 2009
To determine if oil- and gas-facility emissions prospectively measured as airborne sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were associated with immunomodulation in neonatal beef calves, veterinarians collected samples from 325 calves from 60 western Canadian herds in the spring of 2002. Researchers assessed immune system effects by enumerating B-lymphocytes ...
Kim Tae-Kyu - - 2009
The aim of this study was to monitor and assess the risk associated with the presence of furan in various food products consumed in Korea. An optimized analytical method was used for the analysis of furan levels. The optimized solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber exposure conditions as follows for temperature, time, ...
Mariscal-Arcas M - - 2009
Bisphenol-A (BPA), material for polycarbonate and epoxy resin synthesis, has been detected in canned food, among other food containers. In mammal studies, BPA transferred from mother to fetus, caused abnormality of reproductive organs, and advanced female puberty. BPA from canned food and microwave containers was analyzed using high performance liquid ...
Hertsgaard Louise A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies with adult smokers have shown an association between number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and levels of biomarkers of exposure to the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). This study compared carcinogen and nicotine exposure in adolescent and adult smokers across categories of CPD. METHOD: Baseline smoking ...
Mc Donnell Patricia E - - 2008
Agricultural workers have higher rates of long-term sick leave associated with respiratory disease than any other worker groups. There is currently no published data on the extent to which Irish agricultural workers are exposed to occupational respiratory hazards. This investigation focused on Irish swine farm workers in concentrated animal feeding ...
Sobus Jon R - - 2008
Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled chamber experiment wherein human volunteer subjects were exposed to approximately 100 microg/m3 ...
Jensen Allan Astrup - - 2009
BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Glass wools are man-made vitreous fibres, which consist principally of sodium, calcium and magnesium silicates, but may contain smaller amounts of other elements, including boron. The boron contents originate from the use of borates in the glass melting process as a glass former and a flux ...
Fett Anne-Kathrin - - 2009
Effects of cue exposure to high and low-caloric food on body image satisfaction and the moderating role of body mass index (BMI) and restraint were investigated in 77 lean unrestrained, lean restrained and overweight restrained females. Body (BS) and weight satisfaction (WS) were assessed before and after the cue exposure. ...
Richardson G Mark - - 2009
There are four published reference exposure levels (RELs) for Hg(0), ranging from 0.09microg/m(3) to 1microg/m(3). All RELs were derived from the same toxicological database, predominantly of male chloralkali workers. Some key factors are apparent which make the use of that database questionable for REL derivation. Occupational studies of chloralkali workers ...
Martyny J W - - 2008
Recently, worker exposures to diacetyl, a chemical used in the production of butter popcorn, has been linked to bronchiolitis obliterans, a severe lung disease. This chemical is also used in the flavor industry to confer a buttery flavor to many food products, with more than 228,000 pounds used in 2005. ...
Ruf??an-Henares J A - - 2008
Estimation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) exposure of the Spanish population from heat-processed food was performed. HMF levels in Spanish foods were obtained from the data previously published in peer-reviewed papers; in addition, it was identified which food categories contributed significantly to HMF exposure. The potential HMF exposure was calculated for three ...
Lin Tzeng Jih - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The nationwide epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide (OP) poisoning has never been reported in detail for Taiwan. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed all human OP exposures reported to Taiwan's Poison Control Centers (PCCs) from July 1985 through December 2006. RESULTS: There were 4799 OP exposures. Most OP exposures were acute ...
del Pozo Jose L - - 2009
The activity of electrical current against planktonic bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The short-term exposure of the bacteria in biofilms to electrical current in the absence of antimicrobials has been shown to have no substantial effect; however, longer-term exposure has not been studied. A previously described in vitro model was ...
Wright Chris - - 2009
Incoming legislation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemical substances places responsibility on the chemical industry, including downstream users of chemicals, to provide appropriate safety information with which to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties ...
Beketov Mikhail A - - 2008
For flowing water bodies no information is available about patterns of contaminant distribution in flowing water compared to macrophyte-dominated structures. The aim of the study was to examine temporal dynamic and spatial cross-channel variability of pulse exposure of the insecticide thiacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms. Two distinct cross-channel sections have ...
Loh Ching-Hui - - 2008
Data about hepatic effects of ethylene glycol ethers had been limited and inconsistent. In this study, we determined whether ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) was a hepatotoxin in exposed workers. Workers from one silk-screening shop (n=29), using EGEEA as the major cleaning solvent, were recruited as high exposure group. ...
Salvatore Alicia L AL Center for Children's Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7380, - - 2008
We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Farmworkers' behaviors were assessed via self-report and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) ...
Sanchez Brian C - - 2008
The detection of harmful chemicals and biological agents in real time is a critical need for protecting freshwater ecosystems. We studied the real-time effects of five environmental contaminants with differing modes of action (atrazine, cadmium chloride, pentachlorophenol, malathion, and potassium cyanide) on respiratory oxygen consumption in 2-day postfertilization fathead minnow ...
Fustinoni S - - 2008
This study deals with pesticide exposure profile in some European countries with a specific focus on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). In all, 55 Bulgarian greenhouse workers, 51 Finnish potato farmers, 48 Italian vineyard workers, 42 Dutch floriculture farmers, and 52 Bulgarian zineb producers entered the study. Each group was matched with a ...
Cockell Kevin A - - 2008
Copper is an essential nutrient that is toxic in excess. Copper intakes from a balanced diet appear to meet the needs of most healthy individuals, because overt deficiency and toxicity are rare. Some uncertainty, however, persists because of limitations in currently available biomarkers used to assess copper status and the ...
- - 2008
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol ...
Jemec Anita - - 2008
The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2; anatase, 15 nm) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3-d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod endpoints, ...
Swaen Gmh - - 2008
This epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EDBC) and allergy. The study was conducted in four countries in the European Union: The Netherlands, Finland, Italy and Bulgaria. A total of 248 workers exposed to EDBC and 231 non-occupationally exposed subjects entered ...
Gray Jennifer N JN Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0205, - - 2008
Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. ...
Rice Deborah C - - 2008
It has been known for decades that methylmercury is a potent neurotoxicant, and that the developing brain is more susceptible to impairment as a result of methylmercury exposure than is the adult. Exposure to methylmercury is exclusively through consumption of fish and marine mammals. In recent years, the potential for ...
Rust M K - - 2008
The insecticidial and biological activity of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoid acetamiprid was determined against the western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Acetamiprid was very active against termites in topical applications, with an LD50 = 0.02 ng per termite. Even though acetamiprid was extremely toxic in topical applications, deposits > ...
Coulon Frédéric - - 2009
Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated ...
Doerge Daniel R - - 2008
The discovery of acrylamide (AA) in many common cooked starchy foods has presented significant challenges to toxicologists, food scientists, and national regulatory and public health organizations because of the potential for producing neurotoxicity and cancer. This paper reviews some of the underlying experimental bases for AA toxicity and earlier risk ...
Mills Craig - - 2008
Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods, there have been many calculations of dietary exposure. Total diet studies have been commonly used to estimate consumer exposure of acrylamide; however, these often fall short in evaluating true exposure levels because of limitations in small occurrence data sets. Dietary exposure to acrylamide ...
Rhind S M - - 2008
Pollutants of many chemical classes, derived primarily from anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous in the environment, persistent, biologically available and can exert adverse effects on the reproductive and other, indirectly related, physiological systems. Food is generally considered to be the major route of animal exposure in vertebrate species but the relative ...
Huff James - - 2008
Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to ...
Fruijtier-Pölloth Claudia - - 2009
Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. ...
Fromme Hermann - - 2009
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can currently be detected in many environmental media and biota, as well as in humans. Because of their persistence and their potential to accumulate they are of toxicological concern. The present review presents the current knowledge of PFC monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure. ...
Frederiksen Marie - - 2009
This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic compounds, PBDEs accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Consequently, ...
Williams Keith E - - 2008
Previous research has found that 10-15 exposures to a novel food found can increase liking and consumption. This research has been, however, largely limited cross-sectional studies in which participants are offered only one or a few novel foods. The goal of the current study uses a small clinical sample to ...
Buczaj Agnieszka - - 2008
Studies of the level of exposure to dust among farmers on private farms covered the measurements of dustiness while they performed work activities from the aspect of farmer's exposure to individual fractions of the dust inhaled and potentially deposited in individual sections of the airways. The measurements were carried out ...
Sanchez Charles A - - 2009
The Colorado River shows low levels of perchlorate derived from aerospace- and defense-related fuel industries once located near the Las Vegas Wash. At sufficiently high dosages perchlorate can disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting uptake of iodide. The Colorado River is the primary source of irrigation water for most food crops ...
Dybing E - - 2008
The process of risk assessment of dietary exposures to genotoxic carcinogens is summarised. Exposures to six genotoxic carcinogens in food (acrylamide, aflatoxin B1, benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, ethyl carbamate, PhIP) have been used to illustrate the process. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach is seen as a useful method to be used ...
Reddy S - - 2010
Brucella spp is an uncommon class 3 pathogen isolated in laboratories serving non-endemic areas. This is a report of four recent cases of brucellosis diagnosed at five different London laboratories, and it highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for brucellosis in patients with a history of ...
Stapleton Heather M - - 2008
Estimates of exposure to the flame-retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust are very poor due to limited knowledge about dust ingestion. This study was undertaken to determine if PBDEs could be measured on hand wipes, and if so, to determine the distribution of levels present on the skin surface ...
Langlois Eddy - - 2008
Passive sampling is an approved and accurate method for the assessment of organic compound exposure over long sampling time. This method could be very convenient for the short-time exposure assessment, but passive samplers have to be validated for this use. In this article, the behaviour of two commercial passive samplers ...
Stamyr Kristin - - 2008
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may ...
Jemec Anita - - 2008
The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2, anatase, 15 nm) on terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod ...
Trudel David - - 2008
Perfluorinated compounds have been used for more than 50 years as process aids, surfactants, and for surface protection. This study is a comprehensive assessment of consumer exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from a variety of environmental and product-related sources. To identify relevant pathways leading to consumer ...
Koukouzika N - - 2008
By using cellular biomarkers, such as the formation of the micronucleus, the morphometric alterations of lipids and the morphometric changes in the lysosomal system, we investigated effects of experimental exposure to phenanthrene, Cu, Cd, and Hg for 15 days in mussels. Concerning micronuclei, the evaluation of the total nuclear abnormalities, ...
Morehouse Kim M - - 2008
Furan is a suspected human carcinogen that is formed in some processed foods at low ng per g levels. Recent improvements in analytical methodology and scientific instrumentation have made it possible to accurately measure the amount of furan in a wide variety of foods. Results from analysis of more than ...
Yaktine Ann L - - 2008
When making food choices, consumers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling differences between health benefits and exposure to potential toxins. Analyses to estimate likely intake and exposure outcomes for young children and women of child-bearing age shows that seafood, chicken, and beef, while approximately equivalent in protein, vary in ...
Zukowska J - - 2008
Exposure to environmental pollutants is an important problem of environmental toxicology. Heavy metals are regarded as toxic to living organisms because of their tendency to accumulate in selected tissues. Moreover, their presence is a causative agent of various sorts of disorders, including neuro-, nephro-, carcino-, terato-, and immunological. Exposures of ...
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