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Results 201 - 250 of 791
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Coulon Frédéric - - 2009
Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated ...
Doerge Daniel R - - 2008
The discovery of acrylamide (AA) in many common cooked starchy foods has presented significant challenges to toxicologists, food scientists, and national regulatory and public health organizations because of the potential for producing neurotoxicity and cancer. This paper reviews some of the underlying experimental bases for AA toxicity and earlier risk ...
Mills Craig - - 2008
Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods, there have been many calculations of dietary exposure. Total diet studies have been commonly used to estimate consumer exposure of acrylamide; however, these often fall short in evaluating true exposure levels because of limitations in small occurrence data sets. Dietary exposure to acrylamide ...
Rhind S M - - 2008
Pollutants of many chemical classes, derived primarily from anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous in the environment, persistent, biologically available and can exert adverse effects on the reproductive and other, indirectly related, physiological systems. Food is generally considered to be the major route of animal exposure in vertebrate species but the relative ...
Huff James - - 2008
Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to ...
Fruijtier-Pölloth Claudia - - 2009
Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. ...
Fromme Hermann - - 2009
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can currently be detected in many environmental media and biota, as well as in humans. Because of their persistence and their potential to accumulate they are of toxicological concern. The present review presents the current knowledge of PFC monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure. ...
Frederiksen Marie - - 2009
This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic compounds, PBDEs accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Consequently, ...
Williams Keith E - - 2008
Previous research has found that 10-15 exposures to a novel food found can increase liking and consumption. This research has been, however, largely limited cross-sectional studies in which participants are offered only one or a few novel foods. The goal of the current study uses a small clinical sample to ...
Buczaj Agnieszka - - 2008
Studies of the level of exposure to dust among farmers on private farms covered the measurements of dustiness while they performed work activities from the aspect of farmer's exposure to individual fractions of the dust inhaled and potentially deposited in individual sections of the airways. The measurements were carried out ...
Sanchez Charles A - - 2009
The Colorado River shows low levels of perchlorate derived from aerospace- and defense-related fuel industries once located near the Las Vegas Wash. At sufficiently high dosages perchlorate can disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting uptake of iodide. The Colorado River is the primary source of irrigation water for most food crops ...
Dybing E - - 2008
The process of risk assessment of dietary exposures to genotoxic carcinogens is summarised. Exposures to six genotoxic carcinogens in food (acrylamide, aflatoxin B1, benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, ethyl carbamate, PhIP) have been used to illustrate the process. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach is seen as a useful method to be used ...
Reddy S - - 2010
Brucella spp is an uncommon class 3 pathogen isolated in laboratories serving non-endemic areas. This is a report of four recent cases of brucellosis diagnosed at five different London laboratories, and it highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for brucellosis in patients with a history of ...
Stapleton Heather M - - 2008
Estimates of exposure to the flame-retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust are very poor due to limited knowledge about dust ingestion. This study was undertaken to determine if PBDEs could be measured on hand wipes, and if so, to determine the distribution of levels present on the skin surface ...
Langlois Eddy - - 2008
Passive sampling is an approved and accurate method for the assessment of organic compound exposure over long sampling time. This method could be very convenient for the short-time exposure assessment, but passive samplers have to be validated for this use. In this article, the behaviour of two commercial passive samplers ...
Stamyr Kristin - - 2008
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may ...
Jemec Anita - - 2008
The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2, anatase, 15 nm) on terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod ...
Trudel David - - 2008
Perfluorinated compounds have been used for more than 50 years as process aids, surfactants, and for surface protection. This study is a comprehensive assessment of consumer exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from a variety of environmental and product-related sources. To identify relevant pathways leading to consumer ...
Koukouzika N - - 2008
By using cellular biomarkers, such as the formation of the micronucleus, the morphometric alterations of lipids and the morphometric changes in the lysosomal system, we investigated effects of experimental exposure to phenanthrene, Cu, Cd, and Hg for 15 days in mussels. Concerning micronuclei, the evaluation of the total nuclear abnormalities, ...
Morehouse Kim M - - 2008
Furan is a suspected human carcinogen that is formed in some processed foods at low ng per g levels. Recent improvements in analytical methodology and scientific instrumentation have made it possible to accurately measure the amount of furan in a wide variety of foods. Results from analysis of more than ...
Yaktine Ann L - - 2008
When making food choices, consumers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling differences between health benefits and exposure to potential toxins. Analyses to estimate likely intake and exposure outcomes for young children and women of child-bearing age shows that seafood, chicken, and beef, while approximately equivalent in protein, vary in ...
Zukowska J - - 2008
Exposure to environmental pollutants is an important problem of environmental toxicology. Heavy metals are regarded as toxic to living organisms because of their tendency to accumulate in selected tissues. Moreover, their presence is a causative agent of various sorts of disorders, including neuro-, nephro-, carcino-, terato-, and immunological. Exposures of ...
Xing Xiaoru - - 2008
The purpose of this work was to identify an accurate, noninvasive biomarker of boron exposure that could be used in worker populations. Occupational exposure to boron is of concern due to high numbers of workers exposed, animal toxicity data suggesting reproductive effects, and lack of human studies. Total daily boron ...
Castoldi Anna F - - 2008
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental and food toxicant which has long been known to affect neurodevelopment in both humans and experimental animals. Risk assessment for MeHg is mainly based on human data coming from the massive episodes of poisoning in Japan and Iraq, as well as from large scale ...
Shu Xuewen - - 2008
We present a novel apodisation scheme for photo-induced waveguide gratings. The apodisation is implemented with double exposures that have reversely varying duty cycles. We have successfully applied the proposed scheme to remove the sidelobes of long period gratings (LPGs). We also observed for the first time super strong sidelobes in ...
Macovei Lilia - - 2008
It was shown previously that houseflies in fast-food restaurants commonly carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci. In this study, the potential of field-collected houseflies to contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) food with enterococci was assessed by laboratory bioassays. Houseflies were collected with a sweep net in a cattle feedlot and exposed in ...
Abdallah Mohamed Abou-Elwafa - - 2008
alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs) were measured in house dust from Birmingham, U.K. (n=31, median concentration=730 ng sigmaHBCDs g(-1)); Amarillo/Austin, TX (n=13, 390 ng g(-1)); and Toronto, Canada (n=8, 640 ng g(-1)). Concentrations in dust (n=6, 650 ng g(-1)) from U.K. offices were within the range for UK homes. ...
Krystek Petra - - 2009
From the year 2003 to 2005 around 1700 Dutch soldiers made a part of the international stabilisation force in Iraq. An incident happened as a group of four Dutch soldiers found a 30mm bullet identified as containing depleted uranium (DU). The main pathway of the acute exposure is via inhalation ...
Rosengren Leigh B - - 2008
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, ...
Kaddar Nisrin - - 2008
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with weak estrogenic activity, used in epoxy resin and polycarbonate plastic. Human exposure may occur by contamination from food or food-contact material and by occupational scenarios. Occupational health hazards may be associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to BPA exposure. Most ACD ...
Croteau Maxine C - - 2008
While adverse effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and environmental pollutants on amphibians have been documented, few studies examined the effects of interactions between environmental stressors on amphibian health. Here the impacts of chronic exposure to UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on ...
Patlewicz G - - 2008
Risk assessment for most human health effects is based on the threshold of a toxicological effect, usually derived from animal experiments. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a concept that refers to the establishment of a level of exposure for all chemicals below which there would be no appreciable ...
Miller G - - 2008
Internal dose caused by exposure to (239)Pu/(240)Pu is calculated for a group of 210 former Los Alamos workers who participated in the urine bioassay programme during the years 1944-45. An iterative Bayesian procedure is employed, where the distribution of intake amounts resulting from an initial calculation is used to define ...
Froom S R - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the filtration performance of five commonly used paediatric breathing system filters following exposure to desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. It has been suggested that oil may degrade the performance of filter material. Volatile anaesthetic vapours are organic and hence may affect the filtration ...
Lança L - - 2008
Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in ...
Basketter David A - - 2008
Preservatives are an unfortunately common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Often, this is in association with exposure to cosmetics or medicaments. Recently, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) approach to the quantitation of safe exposure levels for sensitizers has been promulgated as a more effective tool for the identification of ...
Smoyer-Tomic Karen E - - 2008
This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fast food proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fast food outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and ...
The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens ...
Bednarska Agnieszka J - - 2008
In natural ecosystems it is not unusual for an organism to be exposed both to chemical and physical stressful factors at the same time. Herein we present results of the study on nickel toxicity to the carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, and effect of Ni and temperature on the beetles respiration ...
Wittassek Matthias - - 2008
In human metabolism studies we found that after oral application of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), at least 74, 44 and 34%, respectively, are excreted via urine. In contrast to the short chain phthalates, their oxidized products, not the simple monoesters, were found to be ...
Wang R Y - - 2007
Food is a source of exposure to many environmental chemicals found in human milk and other biological specimens. Ingestion of foods containing high amounts of animal fat is the main route of human exposure to lipophilic chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants, which tend to bioaccumulate in the lipid compartment. ...
Sahni Vanita - - 2007
Manganese is a trace element, essential for physiologic functioning but neurotoxic at high doses. Common exposure sources include dietary intake as well as drinking water in some regions; toxicity is most often associated with inhalation exposures in occupational settings. In this article we describe the investigation of a pediatric case ...
Ramakrishnan Siddharth - - 2008
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen and monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in the production of food and beverage containers. It leaches into our food and drink at concentrations shown to have biological consequences. Here we show that exposure to low levels of ...
Fromme Hermann - - 2007
Because dietary intake is supposed to be an important route of human exposure we quantified the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) using 214 duplicate diet samples. The study was carried out with a study population of 15 female ...
Rickwood Carrie J - - 2008
The Junction Creek watershed, located in Sudbury, ON, Canada receives effluent from three metal mine wastewater treatment plants, as well as a municipal wastewater (MWW) discharge. Effects on fish have been documented within the creek (decreased egg size and increased metal body burdens). It has been difficult to identify the ...
Murphy M W - - 2007
During the past 50 years, it has become common practice in the U.S. to add antibiotics to livestock feed to reduce disease and promote growth. Use of antibiotics in this manner has become the source of increasing controversy because overuse of antibiotics is suspected of leading to resistance in bacteria ...
Kuwabara Yu - - 2007
The RD(50) (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R(2)) between RD(50)s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). The main ...
Thomson Barbara M - - 2008
The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from ...
Balcaen Lieve I L - - 2008
In order to study the effect of anthropogenic substances on freshwater and marine ecosystems and to develop methods to derive water-quality criteria, ecotoxicological testing is required. While toxicity assessments are traditionally based on dissolved metal concentrations, assuming that toxicity is caused by waterborne metal only, it was recently pointed out ...
Shephard G S - - 2007
The investigation of adverse health effects associated with fungal mycotoxins requires the measurement of human exposure. Most frequently, this exposure is estimated from contamination levels of raw foodstuffs, which are the primary source of toxin exposure, and data on food consumption patterns. However, variations in food preparation methods, food intake, ...
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