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De Neve M - - 2010
Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify ...
Kelly Matthew - - 2010
AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy ...
Jordan Kristine C - - 2010
The National Children's Study proposes to investigate biological, chemical, physical, and psychosocial environmental exposures and their role on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. One specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant databases may miss dietary exposures unique to specific ...
D'eon Jessica C - - 2011
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging and have been observed in human sera. We determined pharmacokinetic parameters for the PAP monoesters (monoPAPs) and PAP ...
Foster Hannah R - - 2010
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are among the many pharmaceuticals detected in aquatic ecosystems. Although the acute effects of SSRIs on select organisms have been reported, little is understood about the chronic effects of these drugs on amphibians, which are particularly sensitive to environmental pollutants. Serotonin plays ...
Vikström Anna C - - 2011
For assessment of cancer risk from acrylamide (AA) exposure through food, the relation between intake from food in humans and the in vivo doses (area under the concentration-time curve, AUC) of AA (AUC-AA) and of its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) (AUC-GA) is used as a basis for extrapolation between exposure ...
Rose M - - 2010
Concentrations of 24 elements including metals in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured and dietary exposures estimated. Composite samples for the 20 TDS food groups (bread, fish, fruit, etc.) were collected from 24 UK towns and analysed for their levels of aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, cadmium, ...
Borchers Andrea - - 2010
Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps ...
Dancause Kelsey Needham - - 2010
The health effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure remains a controversial question. Monitoring after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine suggested that chronic low-dose radiation exposure was not linked to cancer mortality among the general population. However, elevated rates of birth defects in contaminated compared to uncontaminated regions suggest that ...
Nauta Maarten - - 2011
In quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), the consumer phase model (CPM) describes the part of the food chain between purchase of the food product at retail and exposure. Construction of a CPM is complicated by the large variation in consumer food handling practices and a limited availability of data. Therefore, ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2010
Thujone is a natural substance found in plants commonly used in foods and beverages, such as wormwood and sage, as well as in herbal medicines. The current limits for thujone in food products are based on short-term animal studies from the 1960s, which provided evidence for a threshold-based mechanism, yet ...
Undeman Emma - - 2010
Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems ...
Zhong Jian-Feng - - 2010
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been shown to effect physiological alterations in several animals, frequently leading to an improvement in survival in otherwise lethal conditions. In the present paper, a volatility bioassay system was developed to evaluate the survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster adults exposed to H(2)S gas that emanated from a ...
Bergkvist C - - 2010
Lead is a well-known neurotoxic metal and one of the most toxic chemicals in a child's environment. The aim of this study was to assess early-life lead exposure in a pristine rural area of Bangladesh. The exposure was expected to be very low because of the absence of vehicle traffic ...
Kestens Yan - - 2010
Researchers are increasingly interested in understanding how food environments influence eating behavior and weight-related health outcomes. Little is known about the dose-response relationship between foodscapes and behavior or weight, with measures of food exposure having mainly focused on fixed anchor points including residential neighborhoods, schools, or workplaces. Recent calls have ...
Powell Lisa M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in food advertising seen by American children and adolescents. DESIGN: Trend analysis of children's and adolescents' exposure to food advertising in 2003, 2005, and 2007, including separate analyses by race. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 2 to 5 years and 6 to 11 years and adolescents aged ...
Huang An-Tsun - - 2010
Trihalomethanes (THMs, namely, CHCl(3), CHCl(2)Br, CHClBr(2) and CHBr(3)) are disinfection by-products that are present in drinking water. These toxic chemicals are also present in meat, dairy products, vegetables, baked goods, beverages and other foods, although information regarding their concentrations and origin is very limited. This study investigates sorption of THMs ...
- - 2010
The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods assessed the importance of food as a source of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects primarily the small intestine of all ruminants. The significance of MAP as a human pathogen ...
Taylor Steve L - - 2010
Cross-contamination presents a risk of unknown magnitude for food allergic consumers. Published cases likely represent the tip of a rather large iceberg. Cross-contamination can occur in homes, restaurants, food manufacturing plants, and on farms. The frequency of cross-contamination as the cause of accidental exposures to allergenic foods is unknown. Food ...
Huber David R - - 2011
Human biomonitoring data show that exposure to perchlorate is widespread in the United States. The predominant source of intake is food, whereas drinking water is a less frequent and far smaller contributor. We used spot urine samples for over 2700 subjects and estimated 24 h intake using new creatinine adjustment ...
Kim Seung-Hyun - - 2010
(14)C has long been used as a tracer for quantifying the in vivo human metabolism of food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Minute amounts (< or =1 x 10 (-18) mol) of (14)C can be measured with high-throughput (14)C-accelerator mass spectrometry (HT (14)C-AMS) in isolated chemical extracts of biological, biomedical, and ...
Boberg Julie - - 2010
Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers and provides an overview of studies on toxicokinetics. ...
Zhu Xiaoshan - - 2010
The rapid development of nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) in commercial products have led to concerns about the health risks and environmental impacts of such nanosized materials. One of the most significant and currently not well-understood risks is their potential transfer and magnification ...
Crispim S P - - 2010
This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings--raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine--was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety limits, the need for more detailed assessment using less aggregated data ...
Wong Waiky W K - - 2010
A total of 256 individual food samples were collected in Hong Kong for aluminium testing. Most of food samples were analysed in ready-to-eat form. High aluminium levels were found in steamed bread/bun/cake (mean: 100-320 mg kg(-1)), some bakery products such as muffin, pancake/waffle, coconut tart and cake (mean: 250, 160, ...
Nevarez Laurent - - 2010
Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms often associated with spoilage and biodeterioration of a large variety of foods and feedstuffs. Their growth may be influenced by temporary changes in intrinsic or environmental factors such as temperature, water activity, pH, preservatives, atmosphere composition, all of which may represent potential sources of stress. Molecular-based ...
Roosens Laurence - - 2010
Human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) varies widely throughout the world as it depends on country-related usage, production and legislation of these chemicals. US and UK exposure assessments show very diverse levels and patterns which in turn, are likely to differ from those in background exposed countries such as ...
Xue Jianping - - 2010
Dietary exposure from food to toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the general U.S. population has not been well studied. The goal of this research was to quantify dietary As exposure and analyze the major contributors to total As (tAs) and iAs. Another objective was to compare model predictions with observed ...
Geyskens Kelly - - 2010
Prior research has provided conflicting evidence on the question of whether exposure to food temptations directs attention towards or away from food cues. In this study, the effects of exposure to food temptations on attention processing were investigated using an exogenous cueing paradigm. The results show that exposure to food ...
Egeghy Peter P - - 2011
To better understand human exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), a model that assesses exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its precursors from both an intake and a body burden perspective and combines the two with a simple pharmacokinetic (PK) model is demonstrated. Exposure pathways were modeled under "typical" and "contaminated" ...
Oostindjer Marije - - 2010
Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period ...
Liu Ya-Ting - - 2010
Furan has been demonstrated to be formed in a variety of heat processed foods. The presence of furan is of potential health concern because it has been classified as 'possibly carcinogenic to humans' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). To assess the associate risks from possible exposures ...
von Goetz Natalie - - 2010
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that is found in human urine throughout industrial societies around the globe. Consumer exposure pathways to BPA include packaged food, household dust, air, and dental fillings. To date, information on the relative contribution of the different pathways to total consumer exposure is ...
Zarbl Helmut - - 2010
The concept of the vanishing zero, which was first discussed 50 years ago in relation to pesticide residues in foods and food crops, focused on the unintended regulatory consequences created by ever-increasing sensitivity and selectivity of analytical methods, in conjunction with the ambiguous wording of legislation meant to protect public ...
Sun Shuqiu - - 2010
The origin of Keshan disease (KD), an endemic cardiomyopathy particularly affected children and young women in China, has been a controversial and difficult problem in academics over the past decades. We hypothesize that mycotoxins likely citreoviridin may initiate KD mainly through oxidative stress mechanism by long-term consumption of mouldy cereals ...
Hall Laura M - - 2010
Cutaneous cholecalciferol synthesis has not been considered in making recommendations for vitamin D intake. Our objective was to model the effects of sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and skin reflectance (pigmentation) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults with a wide range of skin reflectance and sun exposure. Four ...
Arandelović Mirjana - - 2010
The aim of our study was (1) to test the possibilities of standardized questionnaires for burnout, quality of life, and work ability in Serbia by investigating interactions of these phenomena in food manufacturing workers in Serbia; and (2) to determine possible preventive measures. The study enrolled 489 food manufacturing workers ...
Gorini Alessandra - - 2010
Many researchers and clinicians have proposed using virtual reality (VR) in adjunct to in vivo exposure therapy to provide an innovative form of exposure to patients suffering from different psychological disorders. The rationale behind the 'virtual approach' is that real and virtual exposures elicit a comparable emotional reaction in subjects, ...
Williams Gary - - 2010
1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) is formed in foods under a variety of conditions. It was positive in a variety of in vitro genotoxicity tests, but was negative in two in vivo studies. DCP produced neoplasms at several sites in rats. Kidney tumours in male rats were selected as the critical tumour type. ...
Kuo Chung-Yih - - 2010
For the past few years, a large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand have shuttled back and forth every day on the main route (Tai-16 and Tai-21 highways) from Shuili to Shinyi in Nantou County, Taiwan, in support of a river-dredging project. Five stations along Tai-16 and three ...
Trumbo Paula R - - 2010
Perchlorate inhibits the uptake of iodide into the thyroid gland, thereby possibly affecting the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Pregnant women and their fetuses and newborns have the greatest potential for risk of adverse health effects following exposure to perchlorate. Perchlorate is present in some foods and in drinking water in ...
Benford Diane - - 2010
This paper presents the work of an expert group established by the International Life Sciences Institute - European branch (ILSI Europe) to follow up the recommendations of an international conference on "Risk Assessment of Compounds that are both Genotoxic and Carcinogenic: New Approaches". Twelve genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals that can ...
Mishra K P - - 2010
High altitude may be defined as elevations as low as 1500 meters to those as high as 8800 meters. Very few studies have been conducted so far at high altitude for the specific purpose of monitoring different immune parameters in humans. Military personnel and mountaineers may be required to perform ...
Koumi Andriani - - 2010
Achalasia is characterised by the loss of peristaltic movement in the distal oesophagus and failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, which results in impaired oesophageal emptying. We report a case of a 92-year-old frail woman with a history of achalasia, who presented with acute oesophageal obstruction due to impaction ...
Dong Qingfang - - 2010
The presence of the mycotoxin patulin in processed apple juice and cider presents a continual challenge to the food industry as both consumer health and product quality issues. Although several methods for control and/or elimination of patulin have been proposed, no unifying method has been commercially successful for reducing patulin ...
Robbins Wendie A - - 2010
Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary ...
Stewart Ian - - 2010
Temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) is one of the more common forms of chronic epilepsy. Its aetiology is unknown, though an early developmental insult is thought by some to be an important trigger. There is not a strong genetic predisposition; gene-environment interactions are more significant considerations. Environmental risk ...
Slob Wout - - 2010
Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a population may, however, show all sorts of correlations which ...
Renwick Andrew - - 2010
The chlorinated impurities of 1-methylcyclopropene possess weak mutagenicity and are carcinogenic in rodent bioassays. Dose-response modelling of the data for 1-chloro-2-methylpropene gave a BMDL10 for nasal carcinomas in male rats of 11 mg/kg-bw/day (after correction for the 5 days/week dosage schedule). No human exposure data are available and theoretical estimates ...
Renwick Andrew - - 2010
Leucomalachite green (LMG) is mutagenic and produces DNA-adducts in vivo, and is carcinogenic in rodent bioassays. Dose-response modelling of the data for hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in female mice gave a BMDL10 of 20 mg/kg-bw/day. Limited data are available on the concentrations present in fish for human consumption. Human exposure ...
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