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Results 601 - 650 of 819
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Bogen K T - - 1997
Uncertainty and interindividual variability were assessed in estimated doses for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island would be treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to ...
Turner K J - - 1997
Three years ago it was hypothesized that the reported adverse changes in male reproductive health could be explained by exposure to compounds with oestrogenic (or other hormone disruptive) activity. Although this issue has been highly publicized, there has been little progress towards a realistic assessment of whether environmental oestrogens pose ...
Shouche S - - 1997
Adult male Swiss albino mice when exposed to a chlorinated insecticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH or BHC) at 100 mg/mouse/ once oral and i.p. both for acute exposures and 500 ppm and 10 ppm in food for 100 and 400 days respectively for intermediate and chronic exposures. Haematological observations revealed HCH-induced anaemia.
Wasserkort R - - 1997
The suitability of Drosophila melanogaster for biological screening of the toxic effects of volatile organic compounds was investigated. Adult flies were exposed to vapours of some organic solvents and gasoline under saturating conditions in the sublethal range. In some cases the dose-response relationship was studied. As a measure of the ...
Sulotto F - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between asbestos body identification and the number of sputum specimens obtained from each subject. METHODS: The presence of asbestos bodies in sputum was studied in 142 asbestos workers with former low-exposure levels; the number of specimens collected during 1-3 weeks varied from 2 to ...
Frumkin H - - 1997
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese compound recently approved for use in the United States as a gasoline additive. MMT use is expected to increase. This Commentary analyzes the impact of MMT use on population exposure to manganese, the health effects associated with manganese exposure, and the possibility ...
Tomerlin J R - - 1997
The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and on residue data from ...
Berry M R - - 1997
The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Exposure Research Laboratory's (USEPA-NERL) dietary exposure research program investigates the role of diet, including drinking water, as a potential pathway of human exposure to environmental contaminants. A primary program goal is to establish measurement methods for ingestion that are consistent with approaches used by ...
Leavens T L - - 1996
Butadiene and styrene are a mixture of hazardous air pollutants found in the workplace of industries producing polymers such as styrene-butadiene rubber. Both butadiene and styrene require metabolic activation to exert their genotoxic effect; therefore metabolic interactions may influence their genotoxicity. Our objective was to quantitate potential metabolic interactions in ...
Wallace L - - 1996
During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. In general, the new studies have confirmed the earlier findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies and other large-scale studies in ...
Malkin R - - 1996
An environmental and medical survey was conducted at the coal-handling area of a coke oven, where workers came in contact with coal-tar sludge. The purpose of the study was to determine if skin contact with coal-tar sludge was an important route of exposure to pyrene because workers were observed to ...
Goyer R A - - 1996
The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposure to lead are reduction of lead from gasoline, ...
Saglio P - - 1996
The effects of concentration (1, 10, 100 microg/L) and duration (4, 8, 12 h) of exposure to carbofuran were assessed on the swimming activity, social interactions, and behavioral responses of goldfish to a flow (0.1 L/min) of water, with or without chironomids. Observations were also made on the behavioral responses ...
Cadby P - - 1996
Estimating exposure to chemically-defined flavouring substances raises special problems which are not encountered with food additives. These substances are extremely numerous and are used interchangeably and intermittently inside the many complex mixtures which are used to flavour foods and beverages. Furthermore, unlike food additives whose distributions of use levels tend ...
Henneberger P K - - 1996
In a previous study of new miners from the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP), researchers examined changes in spirometry values associated with coal mine dust exposure (Br J Ind Med 1993; 50:929-937). An unusual pattern of dust-related effects was observed: initial sharp decrements in FVC and FEV1 were ...
Sigler L - - 1996
Airborne fungi in honeybee overwintering and equipment cleaning facilities were enumerated and identified to determine worker exposure during cleaning and routine beekeeping operations. Testing was prompted by observations of extensive mold growth on dead bees and associated material and by results of a preliminary study at one Alberta beekeeping facility ...
MacIntosh D L - - 1996
Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. ...
Jackson J - - 1996
Failure of high-level disinfection of bronchoscopes has caused several outbreaks of nosocomial infection or pseudoinfection involving mycobacteria. Inocula (10(5) colony-forming units/ml and 10(8) colony-forming units/ml) of a clinical Mycobacterium gordonae isolate were used to contaminate bronchoscopes. Glutaraldehyde, iodophor, and peracetic acid disinfectants were evaluated in manual and automated disinfection procedures ...
Ghittori S - - 1996
In order to investigate a role of acetone in urine (AcU, mg/l) as an indicator of occupational exposure to isopropyl alcohol (IPA, ppm), AcU was measured in 80 male workers exposed to this substance in a plastic factory. The exposure concentration of solvent was also monitored personal diffusive sampling in ...
Abdollahzadeh S - - 1996
In studies investigating adverse reproductive outcomes associated with video display terminal (VDT) usage, amounts of time spent in front of a VDT or magnetic field (MF) levels in front of the VDT are used as surrogate measures of subject's MF exposure. However, the relevance of such surrogates to actual exposures ...
Pohland A E - - 1996
Over the past several years a great deal of interest has been shown in assessing human exposure to the fumonisins. This interest, of course, arises as a result of the finding of fumonisins in foods and the expanding data base on toxicological effects, both acute and sub-acute. The basis for ...
Urbain B - - 1996
A new experimental setup was developed to expose pigs to dust and airborne endotoxins in an environmental chamber, at levels liable to be encountered in pig farm buildings. The following parameters were evaluated in a chamber containing two pigs of 10 kg body-weight: inhalable and respirable dust gravimetric concentrations were ...
Nishiyama K - - 1996
Eight healthy subjects were exposed to three 1/3 octave-band vibrations (63, 200, and 500 Hz) by hand clasping a vibrated handle in a soundproof and thermoregulated room. The vibratory sensation threshold at 125 Hz was measured before and after the vibration exposure at an exposed fingertip. According to a preceding ...
Dewailly E - - 1996
In view of the levels of human exposure to priority contaminants assessed in previous surveys in Nunavik, a series of risk reduction scenarios were produced to modelize the effects of different potential health advisories on limiting exposure of women of reproductive age to these contaminants, as well as on maximizing ...
Williams V - - 1995
A series of 206 necropsies in Western Australia (WA) have had routine counts made of asbestos bodies in samples of lung tissue using conventional light microscopy. Thirty-two cases had worked in the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, WA and (log) counts of asbestos bodies in their lung tissue correlated well with ...
Thomas R D - - 1995
Environmental exposures in children may occur through many routes, including diet, air, and the ingestion of various nonfood items such as medications and household materials. This article focuses on dietary exposure, but it does highlight the importance of considering other routes of exposure when assessing exposure in children. It presents ...
Hendricks J D - - 1995
Eighteen-mo feeding trials of rainbow trout were used to test the carcinogenicity of 5 chemicals in this species. A single exposure level was used for each substance. The doses and chemicals tested were 1,556 ppm 2,6-dimethylnitrosomorpholine (DMNM), 500 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 2,000 ppm 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), 2,000 ppm 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and ...
Seifert B - - 1995
The validity of any exposure assessment is an essential step in risk assessment. Following definitions of the various types of measurement validity, such as content, criterion and construct validity, and study validity, some shortcomings of actual exposure measurements are discussed. Both direct and indirect ways of measuring exposures to air, ...
Peterson P J PJ GEMS Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre, London, - - 1995
The main questions on the validity of the studies and routine monitoring (e.g., in the scope of the WHO/UNEP GEMS programme) assessing exposure to chemicals through water and food (i.e., through digestion) relate to the following. (a) variations due to sampling strategy and approach usually exceed analytical errors. (b) quality ...
Nieuwenhuijsen M J - - 1995
As part of a longitudinal study to explore the exposure-response relationship between flour dust exposure and work-related symptoms and skin sensitivity the authors formed exposure groups and estimated various components of variability. This paper describes the between-exposure group, the between-worker and the within-worker variation of personal flour dust exposure in ...
Lickly T D - - 1995
An approach has been developed to estimate the exposure of consumers to styrene from polystyrene food-contact articles which incorporates published literature on the diffusion of styrene through polymeric materials and industry survey data on uses of polystyrene in food-contact applications. The approach has been shown to be quite practical and ...
Spencer J R - - 1995
A dermal monitoring study of peach harvesters exposed to azinphos-methyl (AM) residues was conducted in Sutter County, California. Harvesters were paid by piecework, which allowed characterization of the relationship between dermal exposure (DE) and time or production. Workers wore 2 long-sleeved knit T-shirts for each monitoring interval and also provided ...
Liu Y Y - - 1995
Two studies were carried out in a trinitrotoluene (TNT) plant using TNT haemoglobin (TNT-Hb) adduct as a biomarker to study dose-adduct and adduct-response relationships. In the first study, TNT-Hb adduct levels were determined in 117 TNT-exposed workers in different working sites with different exposure conditions. External exposure was calculated from ...
Reilly M J - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS: Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an ocular examination with a slit lamp ...
Budtz P E - - 1995
Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, ...
Hunt K A - - 1995
Exposure to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran was detected using brain cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation techniques in heron carcasses collected from a potential pesticide exposure incident. Great egrets (Nycticorax nycticorax), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and black-crowned night herons (Casmerodius albus) were exposed to carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) either by dermal exposure while ...
Liu D - - 1995
Metal fume concentrations inside the welding helmet and in the personal breathing zone in 23 experimental welding exposures were studied to explore whether welding helmet use substantially attenuates exposure to airborne metal fume. Observations produced a mean ratio of inside to outside metal fume concentrations of 0.9 +/- S.D. 0.2 ...
Kohlmeier L - - 1995
Nutritional epidemiology depends on valid assessment of exposure of individuals to food-borne factors. The tools being applied are generally blunt instruments that are simple for the scientist to administer and analyze. The burden of aggregating foods, combining amounts, drawing on episodic or generic memory, and interpreting the questions is placed ...
Loranger S - - 1995
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the ...
Bignami G - - 1994
Only a few studies have attempted to assess in laboratory rodents the maternal toxicity and behavioral changes in offspring caused by prenatal exposure to ozone (O3). In particular, no data are available concerning the behavioral development of mouse offspring after maternal exposure, despite the fact that increasing use is made ...
Ismail A - - 1994
A study of heavy metal contents in freshwater snails from rice fields have been made. The results indicate that the levels of heavy metals, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd, are low and within the permissible limit of Malaysian Food Regulations. The results can serve as background data for further reference.
McKone T E - - 1994
This paper presents a general model for exposure to homegrown foods that is used with a Monte Carlo analysis to determine the relative contributions of variability (Type A uncertainty) and true uncertainty (Type B uncertainty) to the overall variance in prediction of the dose-to-concentration ratio. Although classification of exposure inputs ...
Frantík E - - 1994
Effect-air concentration regressions of 48 common solvents (aromatic, aliphatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, acetates) were determined for 4-hr inhalation exposures in male rats and for 2-hr exposures in female mice. Inhibition of propagation and maintenance of the electrically evoked seizure discharge was used as a criterion of the acute ...
Vil-Viliams I F - - 1994
Eight +Gz regimens on the SAC varying in their values (within 0.8 to 1.6 G), exposures, schedules, etc. were analyzed. Some regimens were combined with water-salt supplements (WSS) or veloergometer training (VE). Weightlessness was simulated by 3- to 28-day water immersion. +3 Gz loads on the centrifuge with the radius ...
Lauwerys R - - 1994
Cobalt is an essential oligoelement which enters in the composition of vitamin B12. For the general population, food and beverages represent the main source of cobalt exposure. Traces of cobalt are also present in cement and various household products. In industry, the potential for exposure to cobalt is particularly important ...
Ong C N - - 1994
A field study was conducted on 39 male workers exposed to styrene at concentrations below 40 ppm (time weighted average, TWA). Analyses were carried out on environmental air, exhaled air, blood, urine, and two major urinary metabolites of styrene: mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglycoxylic acid (PGA). Head space gas chromatography ...
Lynch D A - - 1994
Activated glutaraldehyde (2%) is the recommended agent for disinfection of endoscopic equipment. Exposure to the disinfectant is associated with side-effects and guidelines have been set to avoid these complications. Endoscope washing machines are used to provide automated high level disinfection of endoscopes as well as reduce exposure to the irritant ...
Cambelová M - - 1994
The distribution of length and diameter and the aspect ratio of crocidolite asbestos, a mineral substitute for asbestos (wollastonite), a manmade mineral fibre (glass wool), and synthetic fibres (polypropylene and polyacrylonitrite) were determined by light microscopy with phase contrast and, for crocidolite, also with transmission electron microscopy. The synthetic organic ...
Kiilunen M - - 1994
Two large data bases, one with the results of analyses on total dust, nickel, total and hexavalent chromium, and the other, with concentrations of chromium and nickel in workers' urine, have been accumulated in the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Data were analysed to assess occupational exposure to chromium and ...
Lindstrom A B - - 1994
In a private residence using gasoline-contaminated ground water (approximately 300 micrograms/l benzene), a series of experiments were performed to assess the potential benzene exposures that may occur in the shower stall, bathroom, master bedroom, and living room as a result of a single 20-min, shower. Integrated fixed site SUMMA TM-polished ...
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