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Results 601 - 650 of 794
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Williams V - - 1995
A series of 206 necropsies in Western Australia (WA) have had routine counts made of asbestos bodies in samples of lung tissue using conventional light microscopy. Thirty-two cases had worked in the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, WA and (log) counts of asbestos bodies in their lung tissue correlated well with ...
Thomas R D - - 1995
Environmental exposures in children may occur through many routes, including diet, air, and the ingestion of various nonfood items such as medications and household materials. This article focuses on dietary exposure, but it does highlight the importance of considering other routes of exposure when assessing exposure in children. It presents ...
Hendricks J D - - 1995
Eighteen-mo feeding trials of rainbow trout were used to test the carcinogenicity of 5 chemicals in this species. A single exposure level was used for each substance. The doses and chemicals tested were 1,556 ppm 2,6-dimethylnitrosomorpholine (DMNM), 500 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 2,000 ppm 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), 2,000 ppm 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and ...
Seifert B - - 1995
The validity of any exposure assessment is an essential step in risk assessment. Following definitions of the various types of measurement validity, such as content, criterion and construct validity, and study validity, some shortcomings of actual exposure measurements are discussed. Both direct and indirect ways of measuring exposures to air, ...
Peterson P J - - 1995
The main questions on the validity of the studies and routine monitoring (e.g., in the scope of the WHO/UNEP GEMS programme) assessing exposure to chemicals through water and food (i.e., through digestion) relate to the following. (a) Sampling: variations due to sampling strategy and approach usually exceed analytical errors. (b) ...
Nieuwenhuijsen M J - - 1995
As part of a longitudinal study to explore the exposure-response relationship between flour dust exposure and work-related symptoms and skin sensitivity the authors formed exposure groups and estimated various components of variability. This paper describes the between-exposure group, the between-worker and the within-worker variation of personal flour dust exposure in ...
Lickly T D - - 1995
An approach has been developed to estimate the exposure of consumers to styrene from polystyrene food-contact articles which incorporates published literature on the diffusion of styrene through polymeric materials and industry survey data on uses of polystyrene in food-contact applications. The approach has been shown to be quite practical and ...
Spencer J R - - 1995
A dermal monitoring study of peach harvesters exposed to azinphos-methyl (AM) residues was conducted in Sutter County, California. Harvesters were paid by piecework, which allowed characterization of the relationship between dermal exposure (DE) and time or production. Workers wore 2 long-sleeved knit T-shirts for each monitoring interval and also provided ...
Liu Y Y - - 1995
Two studies were carried out in a trinitrotoluene (TNT) plant using TNT haemoglobin (TNT-Hb) adduct as a biomarker to study dose-adduct and adduct-response relationships. In the first study, TNT-Hb adduct levels were determined in 117 TNT-exposed workers in different working sites with different exposure conditions. External exposure was calculated from ...
Reilly M J - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS: Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an ocular examination with a slit lamp ...
Budtz P E - - 1995
Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, ...
Hunt K A - - 1995
Exposure to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran was detected using brain cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation techniques in heron carcasses collected from a potential pesticide exposure incident. Great egrets (Nycticorax nycticorax), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and black-crowned night herons (Casmerodius albus) were exposed to carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) either by dermal exposure while ...
Liu D - - 1995
Metal fume concentrations inside the welding helmet and in the personal breathing zone in 23 experimental welding exposures were studied to explore whether welding helmet use substantially attenuates exposure to airborne metal fume. Observations produced a mean ratio of inside to outside metal fume concentrations of 0.9 +/- S.D. 0.2 ...
Kohlmeier L - - 1995
Nutritional epidemiology depends on valid assessment of exposure of individuals to food-borne factors. The tools being applied are generally blunt instruments that are simple for the scientist to administer and analyze. The burden of aggregating foods, combining amounts, drawing on episodic or generic memory, and interpreting the questions is placed ...
Loranger S - - 1995
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the ...
Bignami G - - 1994
Only a few studies have attempted to assess in laboratory rodents the maternal toxicity and behavioral changes in offspring caused by prenatal exposure to ozone (O3). In particular, no data are available concerning the behavioral development of mouse offspring after maternal exposure, despite the fact that increasing use is made ...
Ismail A - - 1994
A study of heavy metal contents in freshwater snails from rice fields have been made. The results indicate that the levels of heavy metals, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd, are low and within the permissible limit of Malaysian Food Regulations. The results can serve as background data for further reference.
McKone T E - - 1994
This paper presents a general model for exposure to homegrown foods that is used with a Monte Carlo analysis to determine the relative contributions of variability (Type A uncertainty) and true uncertainty (Type B uncertainty) to the overall variance in prediction of the dose-to-concentration ratio. Although classification of exposure inputs ...
Frantík E - - 1994
Effect-air concentration regressions of 48 common solvents (aromatic, aliphatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, acetates) were determined for 4-hr inhalation exposures in male rats and for 2-hr exposures in female mice. Inhibition of propagation and maintenance of the electrically evoked seizure discharge was used as a criterion of the acute ...
Vil-Viliams I F - - 1994
Eight +Gz regimens on the SAC varying in their values (within 0.8 to 1.6 G), exposures, schedules, etc. were analyzed. Some regimens were combined with water-salt supplements (WSS) or veloergometer training (VE). Weightlessness was simulated by 3- to 28-day water immersion. +3 Gz loads on the centrifuge with the radius ...
Lauwerys R - - 1994
Cobalt is an essential oligoelement which enters in the composition of vitamin B12. For the general population, food and beverages represent the main source of cobalt exposure. Traces of cobalt are also present in cement and various household products. In industry, the potential for exposure to cobalt is particularly important ...
Ong C N - - 1994
A field study was conducted on 39 male workers exposed to styrene at concentrations below 40 ppm (time weighted average, TWA). Analyses were carried out on environmental air, exhaled air, blood, urine, and two major urinary metabolites of styrene: mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglycoxylic acid (PGA). Head space gas chromatography ...
Lynch D A - - 1994
Activated glutaraldehyde (2%) is the recommended agent for disinfection of endoscopic equipment. Exposure to the disinfectant is associated with side-effects and guidelines have been set to avoid these complications. Endoscope washing machines are used to provide automated high level disinfection of endoscopes as well as reduce exposure to the irritant ...
Cambelová M - - 1994
The distribution of length and diameter and the aspect ratio of crocidolite asbestos, a mineral substitute for asbestos (wollastonite), a manmade mineral fibre (glass wool), and synthetic fibres (polypropylene and polyacrylonitrite) were determined by light microscopy with phase contrast and, for crocidolite, also with transmission electron microscopy. The synthetic organic ...
Kiilunen M - - 1994
Two large data bases, one with the results of analyses on total dust, nickel, total and hexavalent chromium, and the other, with concentrations of chromium and nickel in workers' urine, have been accumulated in the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Data were analysed to assess occupational exposure to chromium and ...
Lindstrom A B - - 1994
In a private residence using gasoline-contaminated ground water (approximately 300 micrograms/l benzene), a series of experiments were performed to assess the potential benzene exposures that may occur in the shower stall, bathroom, master bedroom, and living room as a result of a single 20-min, shower. Integrated fixed site SUMMA TM-polished ...
Imbriani M - - 1994
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to enflurane (ethrane) can be achieved by measuring concentrations of inorganic fluorides in the blood and urine and of enflurane in alveolar air and venous blood. Measurement of these concentrations, however, has limitations. Another method for monitoring exposure to enflurane is to measure its concentration ...
Whiteman D C - - 1994
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and determinants of sun-protection practices in a sample of the non-Aboriginal population at the outdoor weekend markets in subequatorial Darwin, Northern Territory, at a time of intense sun exposure, between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. from August to October 1992. All non-Aboriginal ...
Rogaczewska T - - 1994
Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were ...
Zuskin E - - 1994
A group of 57 female workers employed in the processing of poultry food and 51 nonexposed control workers were studied to determine the possible relation between respiratory and immunological findings in poultry food workers. The prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in exposed than in control workers ...
Miller R R - - 1994
Styrene is an extremely important commodity chemical used extensively in the manufacture of numerous polymers and copolymers, including polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), styrene-butadiene latex, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Styrene is a component of cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust, and it may occur naturally at low levels in various types of ...
Aprea C - - 1994
Biological monitoring was carried out by assaying urinary dimethylated alkylphosphates [dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), dimethylthio-phosphate (DMTP), and dimethylphosphate (DMP)] in 11 workers exposed to chlorpyrifos-methyl and azinphosmethyl during operations in a previously sprayed peach orchard. The subjects were divided into groups on the basis of the protective clothing worn. The results were ...
Whitemore R W - - 1994
The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhalation exposures. Two sites--Jacksonville, Florida (USA) and Springfield/Chicopee, Massachusetts (USA)--were studied during three seasons: ...
Kiesswetter E - - 1994
Eight workers occupationally exposed to acetone and eight nonexposed controls were investigated on nine shift days both during work and leisure. The mean exposure to acetone was near 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3). Acetone in urine was moderately correlated to acetone in the air. Ratings on scales of well-being and acute ...
Petersen B J - - 1994
Several steps must be taken in estimating intake of (or exposure to) dietary nonnutrients such as additives, drug residues, pesticide residues, toxicants, and natural nontoxicant chemicals. The first step involves consideration of relevant characteristics of the nonnutrient, including biological activity, physical/geographical sources, distribution in the food supply, typical concentrations, and ...
Dolin P J - - 1995
In this paper an assessment is made of the evidence that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is causally associated with cataract. The evidence is reviewed separately for cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract. The assessment examines the consistency and magnitude of an association, the dose-response relationship, supporting ecological data, and ...
Singh S B - - 1993
Healthy albino male rats were exposed to a simulated high altitude (HA) equivalent to 25,000 ft (7620 m) for 6 h daily, continuously for 21 days to study the feeding behaviour. The 24-h food and water intake and body weight once in 3 days were recorded. Blood samples were drawn ...
Bihl D E - - 1993
A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of ...
Bechtold W E - - 1993
S-sulfonate levels were measured in the nasal lavage (NAL) fluid of humans exposed to sulfur dioxide as a potential biological marker of exposure. These levels were determined by treating NAL fluid protein with cyanide to cleave the S-S linkage and release the sulfite. The cyanolytically released sulfite was measured by ...
Sterner R T - - 1993
Separate inhalation-chamber studies were conducted to assess acute/subacute food intake (g), water intake (ml), and body weight (g) effects of four whole-body phosphoric-acids-aerosol exposures in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); subacute effects of two exposures were studied in rock doves (Columba livia). A 95% red phosphorus/5% butyl rubber (RP/BR) mixture ...
Siegel M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for bar and restaurant employees compared with office employees and with nonsmokers exposed in the home (part 1) and to determine whether this exposure is contributing to an elevated lung cancer risk in these employees (part 2). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE ...
Butler J P - - 1993
The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and ...
Gobba F - - 1993
The urinary excretion of styrene represents a promising indicator of exposure to this solvent. Nevertheless extensive research under field conditions is scant. In this investigation 214 styrene-exposed workers from 10 fiberglass-reinforced plastics factories were studied. Environmental monitoring was performed by personal passive sampling. Blood styrene and the urinary excretion of ...
Davis J M - - 1993
Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated ...
Snider R L - - 1993
BACKGROUND: We observed four patients with mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) that was either precipitated or aggravated by UV light (UVL) exposure or was primarily confined to areas of UVL exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to report four cases of MDE occurring after significant UVL exposure and to demonstrate why we suspect ...
Edmonds M A - - 1993
The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements ...
Kangas J - - 1993
The exposure of sprayers and plant handlers to mevinphos, a toxic organophosphate insecticide, was evaluated in eight flower-growing greenhouses. The purpose was to assess an appropriate re-entry interval for mevinphos after its application in greenhouses. Inhalational and dermal exposure was measured during two days after application by measuring mevinphos in ...
Agrawal V - - 1993
Acetone has been considered a quick, effective and less expensive chemical sterilising agent and continues to be used by ophthalmic surgeons, at least in developing countries. Its utility however has been questioned recently. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of acetone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus ...
Churg A - - 1993
There is considerable experimental evidence that asbestos fibres are taken up by epithelial cells, and that uptake of fibres is associated with various deleterious, particularly mutagenic, effects. It is not known, however, if asbestos fibres are taken up by human bronchial epithelial cells in vivo. To investigate this question, the ...
Skender L - - 1993
Human exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PER) through air, food and drinking water was assessed by biological monitoring. By stratified sampling 39 subjects with no known solvent exposure were selected from the residents of the city of Zagreb (the capital of the Republic of Croatia). TRI and PER ...
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