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Nassiri P - - 1999
A factory survey was conducted in a paint industry in Tehran-Iran. The time-weighted average of toluene and xylene concentration in breathing zone and environmental air were monitored by charcoal tube samplers and GC-FID. The results showed that the tank cleaners had the highest exposure to toluene and xylene (1.5-5.4 times ...
Pérez H L - - 1999
Hemoglobin adducts have been used to assess exposure to carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke. However, because of background levels in nonsmokers, most adducts that have been studied are not useful for monitoring low-level exposure. Bergmark [(1997) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10, 78-84] showed that the level of adducts of acrylonitrile (AN) ...
Lee S H - - 1999
Chrysotile, which is an industrial carcinogen, has been shown to induce a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in vitro. Authors designed this study to examine the increase of SCEs frequency in the workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile. Heparinized whole blood samples from 45 chrysotile-exposed and ...
Whittaker L S - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to assess diesel exhaust exposures in the electric utility industry and to compare these findings with worker exposures reported in other industries and to proposed and established occupational exposure limits. Two sampling approaches were used: particulates were analyzed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) ...
O'Rourke M K - - 1999
NHEXAS AZ is a multimedia, multipathway exposure assessment survey designed to evaluate metals and other analytes. This paper reports the analyte-specific concentration distributions in each of the media examined (air, soil, house dust, food, beverage, and water), for various methodologies used (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and hydride generation-atomic absorption ...
Clayton C A - - 1999
The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 provides extensive exposure data on approximately 250 study participants selected via probability sampling. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained to aid in the understanding of relationships of the ...
Cronmiller J R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Adequate disinfection of endoscopes is essential to prevent environmental and patient-to-patient transmission of infectious agents, but data from controlled studies are limited. Moreover, there is controversy regarding current guidelines for disinfection. We compared the antimicrobial efficacy of several endoscopic disinfection procedures controlling for multiple factors that affect reprocessing. METHODS: ...
Davies H W - - 1999
We measured inhalable, thoracic, and so-called "total" wood dust exposure in British Columbia lumber mill workers. Particle-size selective sampling was conducted using the GSP and Seven hole inhalable samplers, the PEM thoracic sampler and the 37-mm closed-face cassette "total" sampler. All measurements were full-shift personal samples, obtained from randomly selected ...
Eduljee G - - 1999
This study discusses the potential exposure of occupational workers and general consumers in the European Union (EU) to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) caused by exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its derivatives. A synthesis of reported exposure data relating exposure to PCP and its derivatives in an occupational ...
Hibbert R - - 1999
This paper reports findings from a screening study conducted to examine potential lead (Pb) exposures in residents of a Mexican village where Pb oxide continues to be used in ceramic pottery production. Extremely high Pb concentrations were measured in personal and indoor air samples, household surface dust samples, and household ...
Wolt J D - - 1999
Current USEPA Office of Pesticide Program approaches to acute dietary risk assessment do not adequately address uncertainty in the distributional analysis of exposure. This is especially true with respect to regulatory decision points (bright lines) located at the far extreme of the cumulative output distribution. Use of the 99.9th centile ...
Teschke K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: We analyzed 1,632 measurements of airborne wood dust reported to OSHA's Integrated Management Information System in the period 1979 to 1997. METHODS: The relationships between wood dust concentrations and various factors documented in the OSHA database were examined in a multiple regression model. RESULTS: Exposures ranged from less than ...
Kreienbrock L - - 1999
The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in ...
Lynam D R - - 1999
Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since the 1970s in the U.S. as a gasoline octane enhancer Extensive testing of the effects of MMT on regulated gaseous emissions carried out on a wide variety of automobiles showed that use of MMT resulted in significantly lower NOx emissions Tests showed ...
Miller C S - - 1999
'Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance' (or TILT) describes a two-step disease process in which (1) certain chemical exposures, e.g., indoor air contaminants, chemical spills, or pesticide applications, cause certain susceptible persons to lose their prior natural tolerance for common chemicals, foods, and drugs (initiation); (2) subsequently, previously tolerated exposures trigger symptoms. ...
Newland M C - - 1999
Manganese's neurotoxicity continues to present a puzzling array of differences across individuals and across published reports in the profile of effects seen in humans and nonhuman species, but some of the sources of individual variability are becoming clear from studies of animals. The kinetics of manganese is a critical component ...
Zayed J - - 1999
This study aims to assess the atmospheric concentrations of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), respirable manganese (MNR) and total manganese (MnT) in certain specific microenvironments and to provide an estimation of human exposure to MnR. Sampling was carried out in five microenvironments: a gas station, an underground car park, downtown Montreal, ...
Adeniyi F A - - 1999
Lead is a toxic trace metal but useful in a number of industries and occupations. In view of its wide usage appropriate attention to precautionary measures against excessive exposure is desirable. The study was carried out in two phases; one based in Southwest Nigeria involving 137 subjects comprising 86 occupationally ...
Linnett P J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Chloroplatinates are potent allergens but other soluble platinum compounds such as tetraammine platinum dichloride (TPC) do not provoke reactions in subjects who are sensitive to chloroplatinates. TPC has been used in the manufacture of autocatalysts for 20 years. This study analyses 20 year data on exposure to soluble platinum ...
Sussell A - - 1999
We evaluated worker lead exposures and cleaning effectiveness during initial cleanup of 19th-century buildings with highly deteriorated lead-based paint. Eighteen rooms of similar size and condition in two university-owned buildings were selected for a pilot project to compare three methods for removing loose paint, paint chips, and dust. The methods ...
Vainiotalo S - - 1999
We studied customer exposure during refueling by collecting air samples from customers' breathing zone. The measurements were carried out during 4 days in summer 1996 at two Finnish self-service gasoline stations with "stage I" vapor recovery systems. The 95-RON (research octane number) gasoline contained approximately 2.7% methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ...
Moneim I A - - 1999
An expanded follow-up assessment of the autoantibody response to neuronal and astroglial autoantigens (NF68; NF160; NF200; MBP; GFAP) as early markers of neurotoxicity was performed in male workers exposed to lead (Pb) of a battery factory (n=50) and a matched reference group (R) of workers at a food packing plant ...
Nieuwenhuijsen M J - - 1999
AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to ...
Tchernitchin A N - - 1999
Since the early reports linking the development of clear cell cervicovaginal adenocarcinoma in young women with diethylstilbestrol treatment of their mothers during pregnancy, it became clear that perinatal exposure to several substances may induce irreversible alterations, that can be detected later in life. Current evidence suggests that these substances induce, ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
Nickel is an essential element for at least several animal species. These animal studies associate nickel deprivation with depressed growth, reduced reproductive rates, and alterations of serum lipids and glucose. Although there is substantial evidence of an essential status for nickel in animals, a deficiency state in humans has not ...
Dutkiewicz T - - 1999
Exposure to toxic chemicals in the work, natural and home environments is recognised as combined exposure. The system of integral evaluation of human exposure should take account of all toxic substances occurring in all environmental media (air, water, soil and food), and all routes through which they enter the human ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
Manganese is a very hard, brittle metal, which is used to increase the strength of steel alloys. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract occurs in the divalent and tetravalent forms. Permanganates, which are strong oxidizing agents, have a +7 valence. The principal organomanganese compound is the anti-knock additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. ...
Balonov M I - - 1999
The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and ...
Stern A H - - 1998
Several previous studies of exposure to chromium waste in New Jersey have shown that Cr levels are elevated in household dust in homes adjacent to waste sites and that Cr levels in the urine of residents near sites are also elevated compared to control populations. It has not been possible ...
Bang B E - - 1998
In this study we have measured exposure levels to quartz in different parts of the slate industry in Alta, Northern Norway. Full shift personal samples were collected from the breathing zones of outdoor and indoor workers in the slate quarries and a slate factory. The quartz content of respirable dust ...
Myers W R - - 1998
Ambient and in-facepiece samples to evaluate the protection provided by negative-pressure, half-facepiece respirators were collected on workers in different areas of a steel mill including a sinter plant and a basic oxygen process shop. Protection was assessed by workplace protection factors (WPF). All the in-facepiece concentrations were dramatically less than ...
Apostoli P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the excretion of styrene metabolites (mandelic acid, MA, and phenylglyoxylic acid, PGA) in workers employed in plastic manufacturing to verify the possible influence of coexposure to acetone on styrene metabolism. METHODS: This study was carried out on 50 workers employed in 3 factories producing polyester buttons. The ...
Victorin K - - 1998
A description is given of the principles used for toxicological risk assessment of food additives and environmental contaminants. The terminology is not generally accepted. Hazard identification is to identify whether a substance may cause toxic effects in man. Dose-response assessment is to understand the relationship between exposure and various toxic ...
Ho S F - - 1998
This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects ...
Makarananda K - - 1998
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between exposure to AFB1 and an increased incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This association has led to a need for accurate techniques relating AF exposure to an individual's risk of developing disease. With the understanding of the progressive processes of carcinogenesis, opportunities ...
Wu M T - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation of individual occupational exposure to total particulates benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of ambient air with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations among coke oven workers in Taiwan. METHODS: 80 coke oven workers and 50 referents were monitored individually for the BSF of breathing zone air over three ...
Ragas A M - - 1998
Environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for surface water, soil, air, drinking water, and food products are often derived independently. This may result in incoherent EQOs. A set of EQOs is called incoherent if simultaneous exposure to all media which are polluted up to their EQO results in the acceptable or tolerable ...
Deacon S P - - 1998
A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most ...
Pinsky P F - - 1998
Data from several studies suggest that concentrations of dioxins rose in the environment from the 1930s to about the 1960s/70s and have been declining over the last decade or two. The most direct evidence of this trend comes from lake core sediments, which can be used to estimate past atmospheric ...
Berti P R - - 1998
There has been long-standing concern with exposure to radioactivity through the consumption of caribou, particularly in indigenous populations in the western Northwest Territories, Canada, who are traditionally high consumers. We conducted a dietary survey in this region in 1994 to estimate population exposure levels. Dietary information was collected from 1012 ...
Chan H M - - 1998
The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food has become a concern among northern communities because of the presence of environmental contaminants in the Arctic ecosystem. Exposure assessments are needed but they require comprehensive dietary information and contaminant data. Over the last 10 years, there has been considerable ...
Berti P R - - 1998
Environmental contaminants such as organochlorines and heavy metals have been reported to bioaccumulate in Arctic and subarctic wildlife. The Indigenous Peoples in northern and Arctic Canada rely on local wildlife as an important food source, and it is thus hypothesized that they may have high intakes of these contaminants. Herein, ...
Swan J R - - 1998
There is substantial evidence that workers handling grain develop allergic respiratory symptoms. Microbiological contaminants are likely to be a significant contributing factor. Worker's exposure to microorganisms contaminating grain dust in the UK was therefore examined. Aerobiological studies were made when grain was being handled on farms and also during bulk ...
Imbriani M - - 1998
The biological monitoring of inhalation anaesthetics. Occupational exposure to inhalation anaesthetics is an undesired consequence of the work in the operating theatre. Anaesthesia is currently practised using nitrous oxide associated with one or more potent anaesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane). In the present study we evaluated the occupational exposure to inhalation ...
Korsak Z - - 1998
Neurotoxic and sensory respiratory irritation effects of 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene (durene) in male rats and male Balb/C mice were investigated in the condition of acute inhalation exposure. Rotarod performance and pain sensitivity behaviour were tested in rats exposed to durene at concentrations of 880, 1100 and 1280 mg/m3 immediately after termination of ...
Perbellini L - - 1998
This study reports the results obtained with the environmental and biological monitoring of 34 workers exposed to acrylonitrile (ACN). Occupational exposure was monitored during 8-h work shifts with both active and diffusive personal samplers which yielded comparable results. The median exposure was 78 micrograms/m3. The ACN concentration in urine collected ...
Wheatley B - - 1998
An initial overall analysis of the Canadian First Nations and Inuit data on methylmercury (MeHg) levels in 38,571 Canadian Aboriginal people has been completed. Patterns of exposure and their relationship to socio-cultural issues and traditional lifestyles are now being further analyzed, especially in the light of the continuing concern regarding ...
Richold M - - 1998
For a natural substance that is mined and for which the world total production is in excess of 3 million tons, it would not be surprising to discover there is considerable exposure to boron (B) and its salts. Human exposure can arise from a variety of natural sources, such as ...
Werley M S - - 1997
Medical reports linking asthma and occupational exposure to airborne powder produced during the manufacture of konjac flour have been reported in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate whether exposure to food grade konjac flour, which is the end product of the manufacturing process, could produce respiratory hypersensitivity using ...
Paustenbach D J - - 1997
Public concern has mounted recently about environmental exposures to chromium in soil, tap water, and ambient air. In response, agencies charged with protecting public health have attempted to study exposure by monitoring urinary chromium levels among potentially exposed populations. While urinary biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers has been successfully used ...
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