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Results 501 - 550 of 791
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Bolstad-Johnson D M - - 2000
Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the ...
Denovan L A - - 2000
A field study was conducted in which saliva samples were collected from a cohort of herbicide applicators during the pre-emergent spray season in Ohio in 1996. Atrazine concentrations were detected in human saliva samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Trend due to atrazine exposure and subsequent elimination in ...
Grimsrud T K - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was, on the basis of new information on nickel species and exposure levels, to generate a specific exposure matrix for epidemiologic analyses in a cohort of Norwegian nickel-refinery workers with a known excess of respiratory cancer. METHODS: A department-time-exposure matrix was constructed with average ...
Kirby C - - 2000
Factors concerning NO2 uptake by the absorbent triethanolamine (TEA) in NO2 diffusion tubes are examined. Although the nominal freezing point of TEA is 17.9-21.2 degrees C, we show that, for a range of aqueous TEA solutions (0-20%, H2O), no freezing occurs even at -10 degrees C. Therefore NO2 collection efficiency ...
Budzynski C A - - 2000
The ability of animals to learn to use the sun for orientation has been explored in numerous species. In birds, there is conflicting evidence about the experience needed for sun compass orientation to develop. The prevailing hypothesis is that birds need entire daytime exposure to the arc of the sun ...
Paustenbach D J - - 2000
Each of us encounters hundreds of toxic agents everyday, without exposure and subsequent absorption (uptake) however, there is no risk of injury. Thus, exposure assessment is one of the three legs of the stool (along with toxicity assessment and dose-response assessment) upon which the practice of risk assessment rests. The ...
Weaver V M - - 2000
The benzene metabolite, trans,trans-muconic acid (MA), has been shown to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for ambient benzene exposure levels as low as approximately 0.5 ppm. However, at lower exposure levels, the use of MA as a benzene biomarker is complicated by the fact that it is also a ...
Howard-Reed C - - 2000
In population exposure studies, personal exposure to PM is typically measured as a 12- to 24-hr integrated mass concentration. To better understand short-term variation in personal PM exposure, continuous (1-min averaging time) nephelometers were worn by 15 participants as part of two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) longitudinal PM exposure ...
Stefaniak A B - - 2000
Personal and area samples from three copy centres were collected in thermal desorption tubes and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Real-time personal total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured using a data-logging photoionization detector. Fifty-four different VOCs were detected in the area samples. The maximum concentration measured was 1132.0 ppb ...
Carlton G N - - 2000
Jet fuel and benzene vapor exposures were measured during aircraft fuel tank entry and repair at twelve U.S. Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected on the fuel workers who performed the repair. In addition, instantaneous samples were taken at various points during the procedures with SUMMA canisters and ...
Nilsson R - - 2000
Recently, considerable attention has been focused on certain environmental contaminants--"endocrine disruptors"--of industrial origin that may mimic the action of sex hormones. Natural compounds and their effects on other types of hormonal activity (eg, on adrenal or thyroid function) have for some reason not provoked similar attention. As exemplified by tributyltin ...
Johanson G - - 2000
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and its acetate ester (EGMEA) are highly flammable, colorless, moderately volatile liquids with very good solubility properties. They are used in paints, lacquers, stains, inks and surface coatings, silk-screen printing, photographic and photo lithographic processes, for example, in the semiconductor industry, textile and leather finishing, ...
Tang W - - 2000
In the present studies, human exposure to styrene and to ethylbenzene (EB) is assessed on the basis of literature data. Total styrene and total EB exposure result from inhalation and from food intake. Styrene and EB inhaled represent the greatest proportion of the total intake. Styrene and EB content in ...
Wester R C - - 2000
Skin is one of several exposure routes whereby benzene, a widely distributed environmental contaminant that causes leukemia, enters the body, so accurate predictions of its percutaneous absorption are important for risk assessment. Determining benzene's skin-exposure dose and subsequent absorption is difficult because it has a low boiling point and exists ...
Cajaraville M P - - 2000
Within the frame of the 2nd Iberian Congress of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (University of the Basque Country, Leioa, June 1998) a workshop was held about the use of biomarkers in marine pollution monitoring. Among others, the following biomarkers received special attention: metallothionein induction, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, cytochrome P450 system induction, ...
Seifert B - - 2000
The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale population study which has repeatedly been carried out in Germany. GerES I was conducted in 1985/1986 followed by GerES IIa in 1990/1991 (West Germany) and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 (East Germany). GerES III is currently run in both parts of Germany. The ...
Pointon A M - - 2000
A systematic quantification of foodborne hazards in abnormal and normal tissues of pig carcases was undertaken to provide a risk-based assessment of the effectiveness of traditional organoleptic meat inspection. A total of 36,059 pigs, representing all major pig-producing areas and systems in Australia, were inspected on a seasonal basis at ...
Schwartz M S - - 1999
OBJECT: Use of orbital rim and orbitozygomatic osteotomy has been extensively reported to increase exposure in neurosurgical procedures. However, there have been few attempts to quantify the extent of additional exposure gained by these maneuvers. Using a novel laboratory technique, the authors have attempted to measure the increase in the ...
Frampton M W - - 1999
We hypothesized that exposure of healthy humans to ozone at concentrations found in ambient air causes both ozonation and peroxidation of lipids in lung epithelial lining fluid. Smokers (12) and nonsmokers (15) were exposed once to air and twice to 0.22 ppm ozone for four hours with exercise in an ...
Craig P H - - 1999
Commercial tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is a heterogeneous mixture of isomers and aryl phosphate congeners, known for many years to induce delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in humans and experimental animals. In the past the isomer tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) was thought to be the component primarily responsible for OPIDN. It is now clear ...
Nassiri P - - 1999
A factory survey was conducted in a paint industry in Tehran-Iran. The time-weighted average of toluene and xylene concentration in breathing zone and environmental air were monitored by charcoal tube samplers and GC-FID. The results showed that the tank cleaners had the highest exposure to toluene and xylene (1.5-5.4 times ...
Pérez H L - - 1999
Hemoglobin adducts have been used to assess exposure to carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke. However, because of background levels in nonsmokers, most adducts that have been studied are not useful for monitoring low-level exposure. Bergmark [(1997) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10, 78-84] showed that the level of adducts of acrylonitrile (AN) ...
Lee S H - - 1999
Chrysotile, which is an industrial carcinogen, has been shown to induce a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in vitro. Authors designed this study to examine the increase of SCEs frequency in the workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile. Heparinized whole blood samples from 45 chrysotile-exposed and ...
Whittaker L S - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to assess diesel exhaust exposures in the electric utility industry and to compare these findings with worker exposures reported in other industries and to proposed and established occupational exposure limits. Two sampling approaches were used: particulates were analyzed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) ...
O'Rourke M K - - 1999
NHEXAS AZ is a multimedia, multipathway exposure assessment survey designed to evaluate metals and other analytes. This paper reports the analyte-specific concentration distributions in each of the media examined (air, soil, house dust, food, beverage, and water), for various methodologies used (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and hydride generation-atomic absorption ...
Clayton C A - - 1999
The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 provides extensive exposure data on approximately 250 study participants selected via probability sampling. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained to aid in the understanding of relationships of the ...
Cronmiller J R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Adequate disinfection of endoscopes is essential to prevent environmental and patient-to-patient transmission of infectious agents, but data from controlled studies are limited. Moreover, there is controversy regarding current guidelines for disinfection. We compared the antimicrobial efficacy of several endoscopic disinfection procedures controlling for multiple factors that affect reprocessing. METHODS: ...
Davies H W - - 1999
We measured inhalable, thoracic, and so-called "total" wood dust exposure in British Columbia lumber mill workers. Particle-size selective sampling was conducted using the GSP and Seven hole inhalable samplers, the PEM thoracic sampler and the 37-mm closed-face cassette "total" sampler. All measurements were full-shift personal samples, obtained from randomly selected ...
Eduljee G - - 1999
This study discusses the potential exposure of occupational workers and general consumers in the European Union (EU) to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) caused by exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its derivatives. A synthesis of reported exposure data relating exposure to PCP and its derivatives in an occupational ...
Hibbert R - - 1999
This paper reports findings from a screening study conducted to examine potential lead (Pb) exposures in residents of a Mexican village where Pb oxide continues to be used in ceramic pottery production. Extremely high Pb concentrations were measured in personal and indoor air samples, household surface dust samples, and household ...
Wolt J D - - 1999
Current USEPA Office of Pesticide Program approaches to acute dietary risk assessment do not adequately address uncertainty in the distributional analysis of exposure. This is especially true with respect to regulatory decision points (bright lines) located at the far extreme of the cumulative output distribution. Use of the 99.9th centile ...
Teschke K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: We analyzed 1,632 measurements of airborne wood dust reported to OSHA's Integrated Management Information System in the period 1979 to 1997. METHODS: The relationships between wood dust concentrations and various factors documented in the OSHA database were examined in a multiple regression model. RESULTS: Exposures ranged from less than ...
Kreienbrock L - - 1999
The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in ...
Lynam D R - - 1999
Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since the 1970s in the U.S. as a gasoline octane enhancer Extensive testing of the effects of MMT on regulated gaseous emissions carried out on a wide variety of automobiles showed that use of MMT resulted in significantly lower NOx emissions Tests showed ...
Miller C S - - 1999
'Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance' (or TILT) describes a two-step disease process in which (1) certain chemical exposures, e.g., indoor air contaminants, chemical spills, or pesticide applications, cause certain susceptible persons to lose their prior natural tolerance for common chemicals, foods, and drugs (initiation); (2) subsequently, previously tolerated exposures trigger symptoms. ...
Newland M C - - 1999
Manganese's neurotoxicity continues to present a puzzling array of differences across individuals and across published reports in the profile of effects seen in humans and nonhuman species, but some of the sources of individual variability are becoming clear from studies of animals. The kinetics of manganese is a critical component ...
Zayed J - - 1999
This study aims to assess the atmospheric concentrations of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), respirable manganese (MNR) and total manganese (MnT) in certain specific microenvironments and to provide an estimation of human exposure to MnR. Sampling was carried out in five microenvironments: a gas station, an underground car park, downtown Montreal, ...
Adeniyi F A - - 1999
Lead is a toxic trace metal but useful in a number of industries and occupations. In view of its wide usage appropriate attention to precautionary measures against excessive exposure is desirable. The study was carried out in two phases; one based in Southwest Nigeria involving 137 subjects comprising 86 occupationally ...
Linnett P J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Chloroplatinates are potent allergens but other soluble platinum compounds such as tetraammine platinum dichloride (TPC) do not provoke reactions in subjects who are sensitive to chloroplatinates. TPC has been used in the manufacture of autocatalysts for 20 years. This study analyses 20 year data on exposure to soluble platinum ...
Sussell A - - 1999
We evaluated worker lead exposures and cleaning effectiveness during initial cleanup of 19th-century buildings with highly deteriorated lead-based paint. Eighteen rooms of similar size and condition in two university-owned buildings were selected for a pilot project to compare three methods for removing loose paint, paint chips, and dust. The methods ...
Vainiotalo S - - 1999
We studied customer exposure during refueling by collecting air samples from customers' breathing zone. The measurements were carried out during 4 days in summer 1996 at two Finnish self-service gasoline stations with "stage I" vapor recovery systems. The 95-RON (research octane number) gasoline contained approximately 2.7% methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ...
Moneim I A - - 1999
An expanded follow-up assessment of the autoantibody response to neuronal and astroglial autoantigens (NF68; NF160; NF200; MBP; GFAP) as early markers of neurotoxicity was performed in male workers exposed to lead (Pb) of a battery factory (n=50) and a matched reference group (R) of workers at a food packing plant ...
Nieuwenhuijsen M J - - 1999
AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to ...
Tchernitchin A N - - 1999
Since the early reports linking the development of clear cell cervicovaginal adenocarcinoma in young women with diethylstilbestrol treatment of their mothers during pregnancy, it became clear that perinatal exposure to several substances may induce irreversible alterations, that can be detected later in life. Current evidence suggests that these substances induce, ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
Nickel is an essential element for at least several animal species. These animal studies associate nickel deprivation with depressed growth, reduced reproductive rates, and alterations of serum lipids and glucose. Although there is substantial evidence of an essential status for nickel in animals, a deficiency state in humans has not ...
Dutkiewicz T - - 1999
Exposure to toxic chemicals in the work, natural and home environments is recognised as combined exposure. The system of integral evaluation of human exposure should take account of all toxic substances occurring in all environmental media (air, water, soil and food), and all routes through which they enter the human ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
Manganese is a very hard, brittle metal, which is used to increase the strength of steel alloys. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract occurs in the divalent and tetravalent forms. Permanganates, which are strong oxidizing agents, have a +7 valence. The principal organomanganese compound is the anti-knock additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. ...
Balonov M I - - 1999
The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and ...
Stern A H - - 1998
Several previous studies of exposure to chromium waste in New Jersey have shown that Cr levels are elevated in household dust in homes adjacent to waste sites and that Cr levels in the urine of residents near sites are also elevated compared to control populations. It has not been possible ...
Bang B E - - 1998
In this study we have measured exposure levels to quartz in different parts of the slate industry in Alta, Northern Norway. Full shift personal samples were collected from the breathing zones of outdoor and indoor workers in the slate quarries and a slate factory. The quartz content of respirable dust ...
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