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Carlton Gary N - - 2003
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has announced its intention to replace all total particulate threshold limit values (TLVs) with size-selective TLVs. Because the U.S. Air Force has adopted the TLVs as its occupational exposure limits, the impact of this change is of interest, specifically for hexavalent chromium. This ...
Leclercq Catherine - - 2003
To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and ...
Tossavainen A - - 2003
In Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America and Australia the manufacture and use of asbestos products peaked in the 1970's. The current incidence of mesothelioma ranges from 14 to 35 cases/million/year in eleven industrialized countries which had used asbestos 2.0 to 5.5 kg/capita/year about 25 years earlier. A significant linear correlation ...
Son Busoon - - 2003
To date, personal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exposure and residential indoor and outdoor VOCs levels have not been characterized in Korea. In this study, residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations were measured and compared simultaneously with the personal exposure for each of 30 participants in a medium city, Asan, and ...
Stein Leslie J - - 2003
The influence of exposure and information on sensory evaluation and acceptance of bitter flavor was assessed. Following sensory testing in the laboratory, subjects consumed a commercially-available bittersweet beverage once daily for 7days in a setting of their choosing, then returned to the laboratory for post-exposure tests. Hedonic ratings for the ...
Bono Roberto - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine benzene, toluene, and xylenes air pollution in two cities in Italy (Biella and Torino) having different traffic intesities and to investigate whether new environmental conditions occurred consequent to the changes of gasoline composition in Europe during the last 20 yr. Furthermore, three ...
Gogal Obert M OM - - 2003
The potential risk to wildlife from exposure to explosives, including 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), has been an issue at numerous U.S. military installations where these substances are found in soil and water. Presently, no data describing the effects of RDX exposure in avian species exist. Therefore, an acute lethal dose (ALD) and ...
Kagley A N - - 2003
A selected suite of cytochemical parameters in Mytilus edulis are altered in response to field and laboratory exposure to chemical contaminants. These biomarkers include lysosomal stability, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-ferrihemoprotein reductase activity, liposfuscin deposition, and accumulation of lysosomal and cytoplasmic unsaturated neutral lipid. Normal variations in physiological processes (influenced ...
Järup Lars - - 2003
The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of ...
Alirezazadeh N - - 2003
The programme and results of internal exposure monitoring of four individuals who have worked for 7 to 10 years in a 131I radiopharmaceutical production laboratory are described. The monitoring has been carried out using an in vivo thyroid measurement technique. The maximum and minimum average annual intakes of 131I received ...
Schettgen Thomas - - 2003
Since the formation of acrylamide (AA) in the heating process of starch-containing food could be demonstrated and high contents of this substance were found in commercial food products, there is a great discussion about the possible human health risks connected with this dietary exposure. In order to determine the body ...
Etherington G - - 2003
A study of the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate in two volunteers has been carried out. Low doses (approximately 80 microSv) were achievable because tracers of high isotopic purity were used: 237Pu (measurable by X ray spectrometry) and 244Pu (measurable by accelerator mass spectrometry). Lung retention, amount in blood, uptake ...
Sun Zhongjie - - 2003
The aim of this study was to assess our hypothesis that the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), the renal concentrating response to ADH, or both is decreased by prolonged cold exposure. Six groups (n = 6/group) of rats were used. Three groups were exposed to cold (5 degrees C), whilethe ...
Roth P - - 2003
In most circumstances, measurement of uranium excreted in urine at known times after exposure is potentially the most sensitive method for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems associated with this approach are that natural uranium is always present in urine because of the ingestion of natural ...
Lipsztein J L - - 2003
The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. The control of occupational exposures from these natural sources of radiation imposes a challenge to regulators and radiation protection advisers. A survey pilot programme, which included six mines in Brazil and a ...
Gobba Fabriziomaria - - 2003
The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch ...
Tsuji Joyce S - - 2002
Risk assessment methods of developed countries have prescribed exposure assumptions for calculating health risks that are generally inappropriate for developing countries because of population, cultural, and social differences. For example, populations in developing countries are often subsistence users of natural resources with a more outdoor-oriented lifestyle. Assessments should thus measure ...
Rehůrková I - - 2002
The basic objective of the programme of monitoring the dietary exposure in the Czech Republic is to describe the character of the health risk based on the exposure of the Czech population to chemical substances in food. The conception of the monitoring programme is based on the methods of the ...
Chakroun Radhouane - - 2002
To monitor benzene exposure and to check reliability of urinary trans,trans-Muconic Acid (t,t-MA) as a bio-marker of benzene exposure in local conditions, a study was conducted on 30 Tunisian exposed workers (20 tanker fillers and 10 filling station attendants). The analyses were carried out on environmental air and urinary t,t-MA ...
Cadby Peter A - - 2002
To fully apply already published procedures for the safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients, it is necessary to estimate exposure through different routes and leading to different potential endpoints. Worst-case scenario calculations indicate that deposition on the surface of the skin following use of cosmetics represents the major route of exposure ...
Li Jin-Sheng - - 2002
Objective. To investigate the rule of intensity and duration of HSP70 expression in rat brain and its relationship with brain injury after repeated +Gz exposures. Method. SD male rats were arranged into control group, +2 Gz, +4 Gz, +6 Gz, and +10 Gz exposure groups. Rat brains were taken 6 ...
Fattore E - - 2002
Persistent organic pollutants are a heterogeneous group of chemicals sharing a number a common properties, including long term persistence and diffusion in the environment, and bioaccumulation through the food chain. Animal experiments and epidemiological studies suggest that the most sensitive adverse effects, such as disturbances on metabolism, development, and reproductive ...
Ryan Timothy J - - 2002
Despite a sizable educational art enterprise in the United States there is a dearth of rigorously performed studies of exposures to persons engaged in such activities. Exposures to 45 EPA-designated volatile organic compounds were examined in printmakers in a mixed-use university art school served by a 100% exhausted mechanical ventilation ...
Melikian Assieh A - - 2002
This report is part of an extensive study to verify the validity, specificity, and sensitivity of biomarkers of benzene at low exposures and assess their relationships with personal exposure and genetic damage. The study population was selected from benzene-exposed workers in Tianjin, China, based on historical exposure data. The recruitment ...
Rosenberg Christina - - 2002
Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated ...
Bennett Deborah H - - 2002
We employ the intake fraction (iF) as an effective tool for expressing the source-to-intake relationship for pollutant emissions in life cycle analysis (LCA) or comparative risk assessment. Intake fraction is the fraction of chemical mass emitted into the environment that eventually passes into a member of the population through inhalation, ...
Panev Teodor - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The investigation covered 148 workers from three plants with different levels of benzene exposure. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between workers' personal exposure and urinary excretion of t, t-muconic acid (TTMA). METHODS: The personal exposure to benzene was measured by the sampling of the ...
Dionisi G - - 2002
A study was undertaken by European industry to estimate the consumption of canned beverages and foodstuffs. European can production data were used with adjustments for imports into and out of the EU. It was further assumed that can production, with adjustments, equalled consumption. Owing to the lack of actual consumption ...
Oluwole O S A - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Ataxic polyneuropathy, which occurs in endemic form in an area in southwest Nigeria, is attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. Exposure to cyanide from cassava is, however, not exclusive to this endemic area. In this study, the occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy was compared in two communities in ...
Moschandreas D J - - 2002
This paper identifies and ranks food items by estimating their contribution to the dietary exposure of the US population and 19 subpopulation groups. Contributions to dietary exposures to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, benzene, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon are estimated using either the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) approach, the National ...
Svendsen Kristin - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to fat aerosols and aldehydes in kitchens and to study the variations in exposure between different types of kitchen. METHODS: Measurements were made in four hotel kitchens, two hamburger chain restaurants, 10 à la carte restaurants and three small local ...
Heimbach J T - - 2002
Food-use applications of mineral hydrocarbons (MHC) derived from petroleum sources result in dietary exposure to these compounds by consumers. Food applications of MHC, including white mineral oils, paraffin waxes, microcrystalline waxes and petrolatum, include both direct-additive uses in which the MHC is intentionally applied to the food and indirect-additive uses ...
Suslova K G - - 2002
The systemic distribution of plutonium was determined for "healthy" workers who chronically inhaled plutonium at the radiochemical plants of the Mayak Production Association. The data were obtained by radiochemical analysis of soft tissues and bones samples collected upon autopsy of 120 workers who died from acute coronary diseases and accidents. ...
Kim Yangho - - 2002
To evaluate lead exposure among secondary lead-smelting workers with a focus on erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity, blood lead concentration (PbB), activity of P5N and other biological variables were examined in 88 exposed workers in five secondary lead smelters and in 24 non-exposed workers in Korea. All of the mean ...
Handy R D - - 2002
Little is known about the immunotoxicity of the organophosphate pesticide, diazinon. This study aims at detailing the pathologies in the thymus, spleen, blood cells, and lymph nodes (brachial, mesenteric, and hind quarter gluteal nodes) during chronic oral exposure (300 mg diazinonkg-1 food for 45 days), and explore the combined toxicity ...
Teilmann Grete - - 2002
Pubertal development is regulated by gonadotrophins and sex hormones. There has been a clear secular trend in the timing of puberty during the last century, puberty becoming earlier. Although improved nutrition is assumed to be the cause, this could partly be associated with exposure to so-called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty ...
Linch Kenneth D - - 2002
Concrete is an extremely important part of the infrastructure of modern life and must be replaced as it ages. Many of the methods of removing, repairing, or altering existing concrete structures have the potential for producing vast quantities of respirable dust. Since crystalline silica in the form of quartz is ...
Pang Yaohong - - 2002
As part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in Maryland, we collected indoor air, carpet dust, exterior soil, and duplicate diet samples from a stratified random sample of 80 individuals to evaluate aggregate daily exposure, contributions of specific pathways of exposure, and temporal variation in exposure to chlorpyrifos. ...
Earnest G Scott - - 2002
Real-time monitoring was used to evaluate the ability of engineering control devices retrofitted on two existing dry-cleaning machines to reduce worker exposures to perchloroethylene. In one dry-cleaning shop, a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine that had a water-cooled condenser to reduce the air temperature, improve vapor recovery, and ...
Lambe Joyce - - 2002
Emphasis on public health and consumer protection, in combination with globalisation of the food market, has created a strong demand for exposure assessments of food chemicals. The food chemicals for which exposure assessments are required include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, novel food ingredients, packaging-material migrants, flavouring substances ...
Goleman Wanda L - - 2002
We determined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium perchlorate alter development and metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Eggs and larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of ammonium perchlorate or control medium for 70 d. Most treatment-related mortality was observed within 5 d after exposure and was due in large part to ...
Nielsen Jesper B - - 2002
Intake of marine food is the main source of butyltin exposure in humans. Health effects following exposure to butyltin compounds are usually in the immune system, but endocrine effects of butyltin from a variety of marine species have been documented. The information on human exposure to butyltin compounds and hepatic ...
Stein Jill - - 2002
Developmental disabilities result from complex interactions of genetic, toxicologic (chemical), and social factors. Among these various causes, toxicologic exposures deserve special scrutiny because they are readily preventable. This article provides an introduction to some of the literature addressing the effects of these toxicologic exposures on the developing brain. This body ...
Ewers Lynda M - - 2002
The effectiveness of commercially available interventions for reducing workers' perchloroethylene exposures in three small dry-cleaning shops was evaluated. Depending upon machine configuration, the intervention consisted of the addition of either a refrigerated condenser or a closed-loop carbon adsorber to the existing dry-cleaning machine. These relatively inexpensive (less than $5000) engineering ...
Wright John P - - 2002
Food pesticide residue data are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine potential dietary risk from chronic and acute exposures. An acute dietary risk assessment determines the pesticide exposure resulting from a single-day consumption of food, and uses stepwise refinement of residue estimates to better judge actual ...
van den Heuvel M R - - 2002
Long-term studies on the reproductive fitness of fish under controlled exposure conditions are necessary to address some of the controversy surrounding the field-based studies of pulp and paper effluent effects. This study undertook effluent exposures of 2+ age rainbow trout that were approximately halfway through gonadal growth. Trout were exposed ...
Schäfer P - - 2002
Skin occlusion is a condition encountered with various articles as part of everyday life and resulting changes in skin barrier physiology often remain unnoticed. In the present study we aimed to understand the impact of absorbent feminine hygiene articles, one vapor-permeable and one vapor-impermeable, on skin hydration in response to ...
O'Sullivan D - - 2002
Investigations of the impact of cosmic and solar radiation on aircrew involve many challenges. The great variety of primary and secondary ionising and non-ionising radiation, the wide range of energies involved and the role played by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field and the Sun combine to produce a very ...
Smolders Roel - - 2002
Toxic exposure of organisms interferes with organismal integrity at the biochemical level and ultimately gives rise to effects at the individual level. These effects may result in reductions in ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction, and survival. A chronic toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted where fish ...
Lambe J - - 2002
Estimates of exposure to intentionally added flavouring substances based on two indirect methods, namely the theoretical added maximum daily intake (TAMDI) and maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI), were compared with exposure estimates based on a flavourings stochastic model (FSM). Twelve flavouring substances were chosen to reflect broadly the large number ...
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