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Results 451 - 500 of 679
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Akubor P I - - 1999
Flour samples were prepared from fermented and unfermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seeds (AOBS). The flour samples were evaluated for proximate composition and certain functional properties. The influence of defatting on these properties was also determined. Fermentation significantly increased (p < 0.05) the protein and decreased the crude fiber, ...
Krishnan M S - - 1999
The production of ethanol from industrial dry-milled corn starch was studied in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed bioreactor using immobilized biocatalysts. Saccharification and fermentation were carried out either simultaneously or separately. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments were performed using small, uniform kappa-carrageenan beads (1.5-2.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and ...
Jideani I A - - 1999
The focus of this article is the traditional and technological uses of two tropical cereal grains: Digitaria exilis (acha) and D. iburua (iburu); with emphasis on their carbohydrate and protein components. Some useful attributes of the grains emanating from present knowledge are discussed. The major classes of traditional foods from ...
Achi O K - - 1999
Pretreated soy flour was used to replace 10, 20, 30 and 40% of fermented yam flour as a protein supplement. The effect of the supplementation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of 'amala', a popular West African food made from rehydrated yam flour, was investigated. Blanching (10 min in boiling ...
Zasypkin D V - - 1999
Extrusion processing was proposed to provide texture and to expand the variety of cereal food products in an isolated Advanced Life Support (ALS) system. Rice, wheat, and soy are the baseline crops selected for growing during long-term manned space missions. A Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder (model 2003, L/D 20:1), equipped ...
Gonçalvez A A - - 1998
The information about dietary fiber presents controversies in many research areas such as in nomenclature, related illnesses, recommended quantities and terminology, mainly because of lack of analytical data. Different needs and interests for the dietary fiber composition of foods and forages have led to a proliferation of methods for its ...
Farrell D J - - 1998
1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment ...
Ampe F - - 1998
An optimized procedure for the recovery of RNA from micro-organisms involved in the fermentation of starchy foods (mainly hard-to-lyse lactic acid bacteria) is reported. Critical steps for the extraction were: cell recovery by differential centrifugation; cell wall digestion with both mutanolysin and lysozyme; and CTAB treatment for the elimination of ...
Hoebler C - - 1998
Chemical and physical transformations of solid food begin in the mouth, but the oral phase of digestion has rarely been studied. In the present study, twelve healthy volunteers masticated mouthfuls of either bread or spaghetti for a physiologically-determined time, and the levels of particle degradation and starch digestion before swallowing ...
Brighenti F - - 1998
Resistant starch (RS) has been defined as the sum of starch and starch-degradation products that reach the human large intestine (Champ, 1994), and it is now regarded as a sub-fraction of starch with a positive impact on colonic welfare and lipid metabolism. An early estimate of the RS intake in ...
Farrell D J - - 1998
1. Three experiments were undertaken to test the efficacy of 2 enzymes targeting mainly the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in rice bran. 2. In experiment one, 400 g rice bran/kg depressed chick performance and there was a significant decline in growth rate and food intake with increasing inclusion of rice bran ...
Hooper A M - - 1998
Fermentations of Streptomyces sp. E/784 produce low levels of the novel C-30 alkylthio-substituted ansamycin antibiotics naphthomycins J (9) and I (10), in addition to the more abundant C-30 hydroxylated analogues actamycin (1) and naphthomycin D (2) and C-30 chlorinated analogues naphthomycins H (3) and A (4). The addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine ...
Philippeau C - - 1998
This trial was conducted to determine the influence of genotype and ensiling of corn grain on the rate and extent of ruminal starch degradation. Two cultivars of corn that differed in texture of the endosperm, dent (Zea mays ssp. indentata) or flint (Zea mays ssp. indentura) were harvested at 30% ...
Lanciers S - - 1998
Modified food starches were developed as a stabilizer, providing desirable consistency, texture, and storage ability. They are used primarily in strained and junior foods and, to a minor extent, in infant formulas. However, despite the fact that there is an increasing tendency to introduce solid foods to infants at a ...
Southgate D A - - 1998
On current estimates it is likely that about 30 g carbohydrate per day enters the colon. It is probable that our estimates of starch and its degradation products entering the colon, true resistant starch, in a physiological sense, are too low. With total starch intakes of the order of 150 ...
Phillips G O - - 1998
Gum Arabic (Acacia gum, INS 414: E414) is extensively used as a food additive, but there is no regulatory or scientific consensus about its calorific value. It is a complex polysaccharide, primarily indigestible to both humans and animals, not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon under the ...
Akerberg A K - - 1998
The purpose of this work was to develop a method for measurement of the major forms of resistant starch (RS) in foods. The analytical procedure was chosen to mimic physiologic conditions, and included chewing as a prestep before incubation with pepsin, pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The undigestible polysaccharides, including RS, were ...
Zivković R - - 1998
The history of the recognition of the importance of dietary fiber, their current classification into water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber, and lignin, a single non-carbohydrate fiber, and the physiologic role of dietary fiber, with particular reference to retrograde starch resistance to small intestine digestion, are briefly presented. Dietary fiber are highly ...
Rodrigues D C - - 1998
Batch, fed-batch, and semicontinuous fermentation processes were used for the production of xylitol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The best results were achieved by the semicontinuous fermentation process: a xylitol yield of 0.79 g/g with an efficiency of 86% and a volumetric productivity of 0.66 g/L/h.
Camire M E - - 1998
Cooking extruders process a variety of foods, feeds, and industrial materials. Greater flexibility in product development with extruders depends upon understanding chemical reactions that occur within the extruder barrel and at the die. Starch gelatinization and protein denautration are the most important reactions during extrusion. Proteins, starches, and non-starch polysaccharides ...
Rani B - - 1998
A probiotic fermented PCMT food mixture was developed by fermentation of an autoclaved and cooled slurry of pearl millet flour, chickpea flour, skim milk powder and fresh tomato pulp (PCMT 2:1:1:1, w/w) with Lactobacillus acidophilus (10(5) cells/ml), a probiotic organism at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Such a fermented ...
Anglani C - - 1998
A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow ...
Zhang J - - 1998
Tea decoctions prepared from a number of black and green teas inhibited amylase in human saliva. Black teas gave higher levels of inhibition than green teas, and removal of tea tannins with gelatin led to the loss of inhibitory activity from all decoctions. Streptococcal amylase was similarly inhibited by tea ...
Roberfroid M B - - 1998
Research data on the bifidogenic effect of beta(2-1)fructans, which at present are commercialized in the U.S., Japan and Europe as food ingredients, are presented. These food ingredients originate from two different sources. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides are synthesized from sucrose and are composed of GFn [n beta(2-1) linked fructose moieties bound to ...
Matar C - - 1997
The antimutagenic effects of whey, acetone extracts, and protein fractions isolated from milk that had been fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus L89 were investigated using the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N'-oxide in the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA 100). Fermented milk significantly inhibited mutagenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N'-oxide. However, milk fermented by a nonproteolytic variant ...
Raben A - - 1997
Functional foods are gaining more and more interest from health scientists. One way to improve the nutritional properties of foods may be to modify the starch component, often included to stabilize the food product. In this study two chemically modified starches-a 1-2% acetylated potato starch and a starch enriched with ...
Sánchez Castillo C P - - 1997
The starch and total sugar contents of 20 types of fruit, 28 types of vegetables and six different herbs, grown in Mexico, were analysed. The selection was based on dietary surveys to identify those foods most widely consumed. Starch was determined by an enzymatic method whilst total sugar was determined ...
Linke H A - - 1997
Oral carbohydrate clearance and acid production were monitored over a two hour time period following the ingestion of six foods (chocolate bar, potato chip, oreo cookie, sugar cube, raisin and jelly bean). Each food was evaluated intra-orally in eight volunteers. Oral fluid samples were obtained from each volunteer at 30 ...
Lanciers S - - 1997
Modified food starches were developed as a stabilizer, suspending the food particles and providing a desirable consistency, texture, and storage ability. They are used primarily in strained and junior foods and to a minor extent in infant formulas. This review discusses modified food starches because of four principal concerns. The ...
Dorcas M E - - 1997
Coadaptation predicts a match between the thermal physiology and thermoregulatory behavior of reptiles. We tested this prediction by studying the digestive biology of rubber boas (Charina bottae). We measured the thermal dependence of gastric digestive rate and passage rate in rubber boas from 10 degrees C to 35 degrees C. ...
Ibanoglu S - - 1997
Tarhana, a traditional Turkish cereal food, was extruded at different extrusion conditions (product temperature: 60-120 degrees C; screw speed: 100-300 rpm; feed rate: 10-20 kg/h). The mean residence time and corresponding degree of starch gelatinization data were used to estimate the order of reaction, gelatinization rate constants and activation energy ...
Macfarlane S - - 1997
The human colonic ecosystem is an extremely complex environment comprised of several hundred different strains of bacteria. Studies were undertaken to determine whether these organisms formed metabolic or genotypically distinct assemblages in the gut microbiota in relation to polysaccharide fermentation. Measurements of depolymerizing enzymes (4 polysac-charidases, 6 glycosidases) showed that ...
Simango C - - 1997
The current interest in the use of traditional fermented and malted foods for weaning is their potential to reduce the transmission of bacterial enteric pathogens through contaminated weaning foods as well as improving the nutritional value of the foods. This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of ...
Yang B - - 1997
Study of glucose and xylose utilization by Pichia stipitis in a limited oxygen supply condition revealed that the rate of glucose utilization decreased rapidly while that of xylose decreased slowly until the time that glucose and xylose were shown to level out, at which point the rate of xylose utilization ...
Ramulu P - - 1997
Total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content of rice, wheat, sorghum, maize, ragi, bajra, whole grains of pigeonpea, chickpea, green gram and lentil as well as their dehusked split dhals were analyzed. Cereals except rice flours were made into chapati (unleavened bread), while ...
Tanya A K - - 1997
As a result of the lack of reliable data on the fiber content of African foodstuffs, a study to determine the dietary fiber contents (soluble, insoluble and total) on a dry weight basis of a selected variety of major Cameroonian foods was conducted. The influence of processing and preparation methods ...
Olasupo N A - - 1997
As a part of a program to develop starter cultures aiding in the spoilage control and sanitation of African fermented foods, a cereal-based food ('ogi' and its solid form 'agidi' or 'eko') was prepared using a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus strain as the starter culture. The survival of an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ...
Asp N G - - 1997
Resistant starch (RS) has emerged as one of the main substrates for colonic fermentation, together with other undigestible polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. There are indications that RS may be a good source of butyrate, and that the rate and site of fermentation can be varied and optimized. This makes RS potentially ...
Binita R - - 1997
An indigenously developed food mixture which contained huskless barley flour, green gram dhal flour, skimmed milk powder and tomato pulp ("BGMT" mixture) was autoclaved, cooled and fermented with L. acidophilus at 37 degrees C for 24 h at a dosage of 100,000 cells/ml. This process markedly reduced the phytic acid ...
Gualberto D G - - 1997
The health benefits associated with dietary fiber have resulted in it now being used in virtually all food product categories, including many products which are manufactured using extrusion processing. The objective of the present study was to determine if extrusion processing affected phytic acid, and soluble and insoluble fiber contents. ...
Roberfroid M B - - 1997
Non-digestible oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates of the non-a-glucan type which, because of the configuration of their osidic bonds, resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. In the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria. Among the non-digestible oligosaccharides, the chicory fructooligosaccharides occupy a key position and, in most european ...
Akubor P I - - 1997
Full-fat African breadfruit flour was used to replace 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% of sweet potato flour. The chemical composition and functional properties of composite flours showed that they contain more protein, fat, and ash and less carbohydrate than sweet potato flour. With increasing level of supplementation of breadfruit, ...
Sekhon K S - - 1997
The effect of blending of commercially available full fat and defatted rice brans in India from modern multistage rice mills with parboiling/stabilizing facilities in different food products in comparison to those obtained from laboratory milling of rice is reported. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased but muffin volume increased with ...
Kashket S - - 1996
Earlier studies (Kashket et al., 1991) showed that particles of high-starch snack foods remained longer on the teeth than those of high-sucrose, low-starch foods. The question arose whether the prolonged presence of food particles enhances cariogenicity. A study was undertaken to measure sugars, starches, and metabolic acids in retained food ...
Molis C - - 1996
The fate of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in the human gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in six healthy volunteers over an 11-d period. After an equilibration phase, 20.1 g FOS/d was given in three identical postprandial doses. Distal ileal output of FOS and their constituent components were determined by intestinal aspiration after a ...
Caton J M - - 1996
Digestive tract morphology and function were studied in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small (350 g) exudivore with a well-developed caecum. Transit times (times of first appearance of the markers in the faeces following a pulse dose in the food) were similar for Co-EDTA, which marks the fluid phase ...
Englyst H N - - 1996
The digestibility of the starch in plant foods is highly variable, and is dependent on a number of factors, including the physical structure of both the starch and the food matrix. An in vitro technique has been developed to categorize starch in plant foods according to its likely rate and ...
Morais M B - - 1996
The first nonmilk foods that are given to infants contain high levels of starch, a fraction of which is resistant to enzyme hydrolysis. Incomplete digestion of starch may interfere with the absorption of certain minerals. A fraction of dietary starch which is resistant to in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis has been ...
Li B W - - 1996
A general scheme has been developed to determine sugars, starches, and total dietary fiber (TDF) in half-gram freeze-dried subsamples of various foods (or wet samples containing about 0.5 g dry matter). Duplicate subsamples are extracted for free sugars with 80% methanol, dried, derivatized to their trimethylsilylated oximes or ethers, and ...
Malleshi N G - - 1996
Sorghum, pearl millet, and finger millet flours (60% of each) were blended with toasted mung bean flour (30%) and nonfat dry milk (10%) and extruded (Brabender single screw) to make precooked, ready-to-eat, weaning foods. The extruded foods had high cold paste viscosity, but their cooked paste viscosity was lower than ...
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