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Bowen W H - - 1994
For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet ...
Geddes D A - - 1994
Few dietary studies have been designed to investigate the effects of intake patterns of food items upon the environment of the teeth. This brief review considers evidence about the effects of choice, combination, and sequence of ingested food and drink upon the pH of human dental plaque in vivo. A ...
Armstrong D V - - 1994
Hot weather causes heat stress in dairy cattle. Although effects are more severe in hot climates, dairy cattle in areas with relatively moderate climates also are exposed to periods of heat stress. The resultant decrease in milk production and reproductive efficiency can be offset by implementation of a program consisting ...
West J W - - 1994
Heat stress, resulting when dairy cows are exposed to hot or to hot and humid environmental conditions, reduces DMI and milk yield and increases maintenance costs of the cow. Decreased DMI may help to maintain homeothermy through reduced metabolic heat production. The high yielding cow has greater metabolic activity and ...
Nwaka S - - 1994
During heat stress, trehalose concentration increases in yeast cells in parallel to thermotolerance. This parallelism suggested that trehalose mediated thermotolerance. We show in this work that, under certain conditions, trehalose accumulation and increase in thermotolerance do not go in parallel. A mutant deficient in the trehalose-degrading neutral trehalase shows, after ...
Pizzimenti K V - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of form, heating equipment, and storage time on sensory characteristics of beef stew packaged in a plastic bag currently marketed for foodservice systems. DESIGN: A factorial design was used to consider differences in food quality related to (a) form for reheating, including bulk in bag, ...
Kort H S - - 1994
For almost 4 years, the stability of Der p I was assessed by RAST inhibition in house-dust samples incubated under simulated domestic conditions (5 or 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity). Der p I concentrations were determined before heating dust samples at 60 degrees C to kill the mites, ...
Ooshima T - - 1994
The inhibitory effect of oolong tea extract (OTE) containing polymerized polyphenols on plaque deposition was examined in 35 human volunteers. Thirty-five human volunteers, aged 18-29 years, who received extensive oral prophylactic procedures were requested to refrain from all oral hygiene procedures for 4 days, and to rinse their mouth with ...
Kashket S - - 1994
There is considerable evidence for an association between dental caries and food starches. However, the intraoral utilization of starch may be quite complex, giving rise to conflicting results. Demineralization induced by unsweetened cookies was examined in an intraoral model system that utilized palatal appliances containing blocks of bovine enamel. The ...
McNeal T P - - 1993
Microwave heat susceptors that convert electromagnetic energy to heat attain high temperatures that make it possible to cook some foods to golden crispness in a microwave oven. Susceptors are typically packaged with foods intended for microwave use, e.g., waffles, pizzas, and french fries. The high temperatures > 302 degrees F ...
Garc??a-Villanova R J - - 1993
Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione react with isoniazide in acidified solutions to give the corresponding hydrazones which, by reacting with a zirconium (IV) salt, form fluorescent complexes. Both reactions have been studied separately. Variables such as pH, heating time, and excess of reactives are discussed. The method may be used for the ...
Buyse J - - 1993
1. Diurnal-nocturnal changes in food intake, gut storage of ingesta, food transit time and heat production were studied in male broiler chickens reared under a 14L:10D lighting schedule (lights on from 06.00 to 20.00 h). 2. Food consumption during the scotophase was negligible. Peak food consumption during the photoperiod occurred ...
Jickells S M - - 1993
Benzene in poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) coatings of nonstick cookware was determined by heating a small amount of coating in a sealed vial. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the vial headspace for benzene. A small survey (26 samples) of retail nonstick cookware detected benzene ranging from 2 to 50 ...
Nishikawa Y - - 1993
The present study was undertaken to compare the heat and acid sensitivity of aeromonads with those of other food-poisoning bacteria. It became obvious that aeromonads were more sensitive to heat than Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Aeromonads were killed in peptone water within 2 min at 55 ...
Rozemuller A J - - 1993
Brain amyloidosis with abundant beta/A4 protein deposition in plaques and cortical and meningeal vessels is found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D). In contrast to AD, no neuritic pathology or classical congophilic plaques are found in HCHWA-D. Unlike most AD cases, the congophilic angiopathy ...
Yue S - - 1993
A series of five experiments were done to investigate the relationship between bacterial plaque and enamel caries: 1) Topographic examination of the distribution of plaque and initial enamel caies demonstrated a close relationship between these two. 2) By using a method of caries-like lesion production in vitro, it was shown ...
Binney A - - 1993
Chemical plaque removal is one mechanism whereby an agent could improve oral hygiene and gingival health. As with toothpastes most agents, when delivered as rinses, would be considered adjunctive to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures. The aim of this study was to determine whether selected commercial rinses exhibited clinically significant plaque ...
Radosevich J A - - 1993
This report describes a new method using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to visualize live viable tissue at the microscopic level. The visualization of the MTT stained tissue provides a metabolic assessment of tissue damage, and can be utilized as an extension of conventional hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining. In this report, ...
Kutlu H R - - 1993
Female broiler chicks were given red and green supplemented (200 mg ascorbic acid (AA)/kg) and unsupplemented foods on alternate days for 8 days under heat-stressed and unstressed conditions. After this training period, the birds were given access to both foods, and the intake of each was monitored. In both heated ...
Leikanger S - - 1992
The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption ...
Weiger R - - 1992
Comparisons between plaque index (PlI) and bacterial counts have been made already; however, these did not take into account the area used for plaque sampling. The objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between the PlI score, the number of bacteria and the bacterial plaque vitality when ...
Renström B - - 1992
A product which has been heavily promoted for a number of years is an aluminized plastic foil designed to reflect 80% of body heat. However, a large body of experience points to the following: 1. A minimal amount of heat is radiated by a clothed body. This can easily be ...
Pierzynowski S - - 1992
Antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice in the pig (n = 8) was investigated during early postnatal development and in cattle (n = 6) receiving a different feeding regimen. For pancreatic juice collection, a catheter was surgically implanted in the pancreatic duct. Reintroduction of pancreatic juice was achieved through a T-shaped ...
Kozlovsky A - - 1992
The in vivo efficacy of a newly-developed dental application of a film-forming, chlorhexidine-containing system was examined in beagle dogs. A self-disintegrating film-forming solution was applied three times weekly to the dentitions of 7 out of 13 dogs, which were fed a soft-food diet. Plaque accumulation (Plaque Index) and gingival inflammation ...
McKenzie J E - - 1992
beta-Amyloid protein (beta A4) deposition was characterised in the sulci and gyri of frontal cortex in 14 cases of Alzheimer's disease. A quantitative study was made of two distinct plaque sub-types (diffuse and classic) using immunocytochemistry and image analysis using a discriminant function design. As reported previously more beta A4 ...
Cremer M L - - 1992
Energy used to reheat 3 kg of a standard beef stew to 74 degrees C was measured to determine (a) the benefits of a retort pouch packaging processing system that keeps food microbially safe at room temperature compared with a system that packages food in a plastic bag that requires ...
Seida K - - 1992
An enzymatic method, SK-013, was developed for rapid detection of the peptidase activity in subgingival plaque samples. This method was found to have specificity for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Bacteroides forsythus, and some Capnocytophaga strains. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SK-013 could indicate the presence of ...
Li Y - - 1992
An experiment was carried out to verify the relationship between the heat production associated with food intake and environmental temperature. Four laying hens were trained to eat two meals per day and were kept under artificial illumination with dark, dim and light periods. 2. Metabolic heat production was measured using ...
Ryan T P - - 1992
A vaginal obturator was fabricated to be used in combination with implanted catheters to provide microwave hyperthermia and brachytherapy to the vulva and vaginal wall. This site is difficult to heat or irradiate solely with interstitial techniques. The obturator was modified to provide grooves for the mounting of interstitial catheters ...
Budd R - - 1992
This article reviews published reports of conventional and radiation burns associated with the use of microwave ovens. Conventional food burns can result from the ingestion of microwave heated food because consumers may overlook the differential temperature gradients within foods and between the food and the container. There are reports of ...
Mitchell M A - - 1992
1. Exposure of growing broiler chickens to elevated environmental temperature (35 degrees C) for two weeks, markedly reduced food intake (29%) and growth rate (37%) compared to birds maintained at 22 degrees C. 2. These changes in growth were accompanied by increased in vivo jejunal uptakes of galactose (36%) and ...
Li Y Z - - 1991
1. Heat production, standing and eating activities, and hourly food intake of 4 laying hens were observed simultaneously and the effects of activity and food intake on heat production were studied. 2. Average heat production during the dark period (20.00 to 06.00 h) was 18.9 kJ/kgW0.75 h which was 33% ...
Dalphin J C - - 1991
Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each ...
Li Y Z - - 1991
1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the heat production associated with food intake in laying hens allowed access to food for one (experiment 2) or two hours (experiment 1) daily. 2. In experiment 1, heat production in the fed state was measured for two successive days after 46 ...
Sayeed S A - - 1991
Effect of sorbic acid, an antimicrobial food preservative, on the cellular metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus was observed microcalorimetrically. The highly reproducible and characteristic thermograms of the microorganism were affected significantly by the preservative in a concentration dependent manner. Both the peak heat and total heat dissipation profiles were affected by ...
Friedman D - - 1991
The effects of intravesical instillations of thiotepa, mitomycin C and adriamycin on the normal urothelium were studied in rats. Changes in the bladder wall in the form of fibroblastic atypia and submucous fibrous plaques were significant in the mitomycin C treated group. In 46% of mitomycin C treated animals there ...
Wiggins A D - - 1991
The "most probable number" (MPN) technique for estimating numbers of bacteria in suspensions is well known and has been used for decades by microbiologists, food researchers, and other laboratory scientists. A related procedure, involving an infinite number of serial dilutions at each of times ti, i = 0,1,...,n, is considered, ...
Johnson H D - - 1991
The effects of bST on performance and physiological responses of lactating cows was studied under farm summer and laboratory heat conditions. Twelve cows, 90 to 50 d postpartum, were injected with either bST or vehicle solution for 30 d under farm summer and 10 d under either laboratory thermoneutral or ...
Basappa N - - 1991
The acidogenic potential of commonly consumed solid sweets in Karnataka viz. Peda, Laddu, Mysore Pak and olige, studied in 40 children (9-15 years) with 2-5 dift/DMFT using glass electrode attached to Analog type pH electrometer revealed the mean resting plaque pH for 'peda' group to be 7.05, 'laddu' & mysore ...
Francis C A - - 1991
1. Growing 33-d-old broiler fowl were exposed to air temperatures of 35 to 40 degrees C for a period of 4 h each day for 5 d. 2. The birds were fed on diets providing widely differing proportions and intakes of energy as protein, carbohydrate and fat. 3. Three lighting ...
Reynolds S - - 1991
A Taurolin solution has been shown previously to possess antibacterial activity, not only by a bactericidal effect but also by reducing bacterial surface adherence. Such mechanisms may contribute to reduction in dental plaque in the mouth, however this remains to be determined. The present study assessed whether a Taurolin rinse ...
Oste R E - - 1991
An overview is given on the effects of food processing on the protein digestibility. Beneficial effects of food processing are primarily observed in a range of plant foods containing toxic substances and/or anti-nutrients (legumes, cereals, some seed food). Digestibilities improve by heating, soaking, germination and fermentation. These processing steps reduce ...
Wilson R P - - 1991
1. Resting metabolic rate was determined in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) that had been fed warm and cold ingesta. 2. Post-ingestion metabolic rate was found to be related to food temperature rather than to specific dynamic action. 3. Calorimetric calculations indicate that up to 13% of Adelie penguin daily energy ...
Hathcock J N - - 1991
Trypsin inhibitor (TI) occurs naturally in many foods from plants, notably soybean protein products. Heat treatment inactivates TI and improves nutritional quality, but residual TI activity of 5 to 20% remains after typical commercial treatments. Chronic feeding of TI or products that contain TI can inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin, stimulate ...
Brandon D L - - 1991
Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other ...
Ke O Y - - 1990
The antimalarial compound qinghaosu (artemisinin) was tested in vitro for the ability to inhibit plaque formation by Toxoplasma gondii in fibroblasts. Qinghaosu at 0.4 microgram/ml for 5 days eliminated all plaques and microscopic foci of T. gondii. At 1.3 micrograms/ml for 14 days, qinghaosu completely eliminated T. gondii. Pretreatment of ...
Vassilakos N - - 1990
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH changes in dental plaque and saliva on the magnitude of the galvanic current created when amalgam restorations make contact in the oral cavity. Ten persons with 46 contacts between amalgam fillings in all participated in the experiments. Potential, ...
Ciancio S G - - 1990
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plaque removal of the Water Pik Automatic Toothbrush and Interplak brush versus the Oral B-40 manual brush. Thirty healthy patients having plaque on all tooth surfaces were admitted for this two-week, double-blind study. Patients served as their own control ...
Haim A - - 1990
Metabolic rates by means of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) at various ambient temperatures (T (a)) and food consumption as well as water intake and thermoregulation were compared between individuals of the Cape porcupine Hystrix africaeaustralis acclimated to T (a)=32°C with a photoperiod of 16L:8D summer-acclimated and T (a)=10°C; 8L:16D winter-acclimated. The ...
Goldberg R M - - 1990
Thermal injuries to the upper airway are a well-recognized complication of the inhalation of steam and hot gases, but have only rarely been reported to occur in relation to the ingestion of heated foodstuffs. We report the case of an acute laryngeal burn caused by the ingestion of a microwave-heated ...
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