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Results 351 - 400 of 546
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Greiwe J S - - 1998
To examine the effects of rapid dehydration on isometric muscular strength and endurance, seven men were tested at baseline (control) and after a dehydration (dHST) and a euhydration (eHST) heat stress trial. The dHST consisted of intermittent sauna exposure until 4% of body mass was lost, whereas the eHST consisted ...
Hofmann T - - 1998
The yields of the two intense food odorants 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) obtained by heating mixtures of possible precursors in model systems varying in temperature, pH value, or water content were determined by using stable isotope dilution assays. Although pentoses generated much higher amounts of FFT and MFT than ...
van Dishoeck E F - - 1998
Recent advances in the understanding of the chemical processes that occur during all stages of the formation of stars, from the collapse of molecular clouds to the assemblage of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary accretion disks, are reviewed. Observational studies of the circumstellar material within 100-10,000 AU of the young star ...
Evans R J - - 1998
The adverse effects of trace metals, heat, steam and other conditions encountered in food processing relate to the acceleration of development of rancidity. Measures to retard oxidation of lipids, vitamins, pigments and proteins include elimination of prooxidants, removal of oxygen and use of blends of inhibitors formulated for specific substrates.
Davis P J - - 1998
This paper is a review concerning the way in which heat treatment can modify the allergenicity of food proteins. Any food protein may be allergenic if it can be absorbed intact, or as substantial fragments, through the gut mucosa and then evoke an immune (allergic) response. The intrinsic properties of ...
Tahmassebi J F - - 1997
The effect on the pH of human dental plaque of rinsing and drinking with or without a straw was investigated in eight volunteers using the plaque sampling method. A fruit-based juice was used as the test drink with 10% sucrose and 10% sorbitol solutions serving as positive and negative controls, ...
Deperthes D - - 1997
In the present paper, we determined the kinin-releasing activity of human prostatic kallikrein hK2 and compared it to one of the kallikreins hK1 and prostate specific antigen (hK3). Kinin-like substances active on the rabbit jugular vein were progressively produced when nanomolar concentrations of hK2 were incubated with heated plasma. However ...
Schuman J D - - 1997
The effects of water-bath immersion heat treatments on the inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis within intact shell eggs were evaluated. Six pooled strains of Salm. enteritidis (ca 3 x 10(8) cfu, inoculated near the centre of the yolk) were completely inactivated within 50-57.5 min at a bath temperature of 58 degrees ...
Green G - - 1997
Pediocin PD-1, produced by Pediococcus damnosus NCFB 1832, is inhibitory to several food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. However, pediocin PD-1 is not active against other Pediococcus spp. and differs in this respect to other pediocins produced by Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Production of pediocin PD-1 starts during early ...
Ramaswamy H S - - 1997
Consumer awareness and demand for nutritious yet inexpensive food products call for innovative processing techniques that have both safety and quality as primary objectives. These challenges appear to have been met by aseptic processing techniques, especially for liquid and high-acid foods. However, the extension of aseptic processing principles to low-acid ...
Gardiner J A - - 1997
The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (strawberry yoghurt and baked beans) on plaque acidogenicity was investigated using plaque sampling with a 'Beetrode' electrode. Six varieties of yoghurt, four varieties of baked beans and positive and negative control solutions of 10 per cent sucrose and sorbitol, respectively, ...
Pollard M A - - 1997
The plaque acidogenic response of children from three ethnic groups in South Africa to four different carbohydrates was investigated using the plaque sampling method. A total of 30, 12-year-old children, ten black, ten 'coloured' and ten white, completed this study. The foods tested were 10 per cent sucrose solution, maize ...
Stringer S C - - 1997
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability rely on a mild heat treatment combined with refrigerated storage to ensure microbiological safety and quality. The principal microbiological safety risk in foods of this type is non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. In this article the combined effect of mild heat treatment and refrigerated storage on ...
Robinson C - - 1997
The study of plaque biofilms in the oral cavity is difficult as plaque removal inevitably disrupts biofilm integrity precluding kinetic studies involving the penetration of components and metabolism of substrates in situ. A method is described here in which plaque is formed in vivo under normal (or experimental) conditions using ...
Kashket S - - 1997
Following the demonstration that rinses with solutions of soluble calcium salts reduced sucrose-induced demineralization, a study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect could be obtained by the supplementation of a solid food with calcium lactate (CL). Subjects wore palatal appliances containing blocks of bovine enamel that were coated ...
Cooper J K - - 1997
Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk ...
Peyre F - - 1997
Patterns of power absorption in a microwave oven for a range of dielectric properties of relevance to food processing were investigated. The governing Maxwell's equations with boundary conditions and a TE10 excitation were solved using a finite element method. Food properties were varied from values at their frozen state to ...
Prakash A - - 1997
The uniformity of microwave processing was investigated by measuring the formation of intrinsic chemical markers in disc-shaped and cylindrically-shaped whey protein gel model systems. These markers are formed as a result of thermally induced reactions of sugar and protein precursors. They were measured in samples placed in a pressurizable Teflon ...
Juang H Y - - 1996
Four different temperatures (700-1000 degrees C) were chosen for calcination treatment of as-received hydroxyapatite powder before press forming and sintering to study the effect of calcination on the sintering behaviours. The results show that calcination treatment increases the average particle size and distribution, which changes from trimodal to monomodal. The ...
Pollard M A - - 1996
The aim of this study was to investigate the acid anions produced in plaque after chewing various cereal-based foods and fruits for one minute. Test foods were oranges, apples, bananas, Cornflakes, Branflakes, Weetabix, Alpen, white bread, wholemeal bread, rice and spaghetti, plus positive and negative controls of 10% sucrose and ...
Akhtar M - - 1996
The effects of urea treatment on the potential reactivation of heat-damaged antigenic components of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were examined with cooked foods, including mushrooms, ham, bologna, salami, and turkey. The thermal stability of purified SEA spiked into foods and native SEA produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods was also ...
López M - - 1996
The effects of different heating systems on the heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (ATCC 7953, 12980, 15951 and 15952) were investigated. Spores were heated in distilled water, Sorensen buffer (0.18 mol 1-1), McIlvaine buffer (0.0025-0.18 mol 1-1), and several solutions containing sodium chloride (0.06-12%), sodium nitrite (125 ppm), potassium ...
van der Weijden G A - - 1996
This was a 2-part study. The purpose of the 1st part was to examine the relationship between brushing force and plaque removal efficacy comparing a regular manual toothbrush (M) with an electric toothbrush the Braun/Oral-B Plak Control (B). The study consisted of a single oral prophylaxis followed by 5 experiments ...
Wiernusz C J - - 1996
1. Two experiments were conducted to quantify heat stress (HS) acclimation effects on heat production (H), evaporative heat loss (E), sensible heat loss (S) and change in heat content (HC) of 24 food-deprived and precision fed broilers. 2. In experiment 1, heat stressed fasted HS acclimated birds (group 1) exhibited ...
Rose M D - - 1996
The heat stability of oxytetracycline (OTC) in water and vegetable oil was investigated. Results showed that the drug was unstable in water at 100 degrees C with a half-life of about 2 min, but more stable in oil at 180 degrees C where the half-life was about 8 min. The ...
Bergeron M F - - 1996
A 17-year-old, nationally ranked, male tennis player (AH) had been experiencing heat cramps during tennis match play. His medical history and previous physical exams were unremarkable, and his in-office blood chemistry profiles were normal. On-court evaluation and an analysis of a 3-day dietary record revealed that AH's sweat rate was ...
Giebink D L - - 1996
Simulated clinical conditions were used to test the effect of sterilization on rubber-dam clamp stiffness and dimension. Sixty Hygienic and Ivory W7 clamps were either steam or dry heat sterilized and compared to controls. Stiffness and dimensional change between Ivory clamp groups was significant (p<.0001); the sterilized clamps showed less ...
Amigó J M - - 1996
Food contamination with respect to microsporidiosis in humans (associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and in marine fish farming deserves particular attention. For the first time, a study on the longevity and resistance to both heat and freezing of the spores of a vertebrate microsporidian, Glugea stephani, parasitizing a commercial flatfish ...
Curzon M E - - 1996
Assessment of the acido/cariogenicity of 11 fruits and cereals was carried out using methods recommended at the San Antonio Conference: plaque pH by sampling (PS), indwelling electrode (IDE) and intra-oral cariogenicity test (ICT), together with additional tests of the total carbohydrate content of salivary expectorants, acid anion profiles of plaque, ...
Ohtsubo T - - 1996
To discover the point of maximum interactive effect, we examined the time sequence of high (above (42.5 degrees C) or low (below 42.5 degrees C) -hyperthermia and cis-diammine dichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP). Simultaneous or post-hyperthermic CDDP (0.5 micrograms/ml) treatment at 43 degrees C resulted in a slight synergistic effect, with thermoenhancement ...
Fedorov V V - - 1995
The shape of the plaque pH-profile after consumption of a food item determines the food's potential caries risk. This and related facts have caused an increased interest in measurements of plaque pH-profiles during the last decade. A standard design for these measurements is to take equally spaced observations over a ...
Marathaki E - - 1995
An investigation into the acidogenic potential of six of the most commonly used sugar-containing and sugar-free paediatric medicines was carried out on 10 adult volunteers. The guidelines of the Food, Nutrition and Dental Health Committee of the American Dental Association were followed. Subjects refrained from brushing their teeth for 48 ...
Jensen L - - 1995
We conducted 215 evaluations for plaque, stain, and calculus in 120 dogs at two research sites. Dogs were balanced in groups of five according to baseline plaque index scores; groups were randomly assigned to treatment or control dietary regimens. Dental cleanings were done on Day 0. Dogs in the treatment ...
Viswanathan P - - 1995
The effect of polyols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol) on partially purified inulinase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem mutant grown on Kuth (Saussurea lappa) root as source of inulin was determined. Seventy per cent of inulinase activity was retained in the presence of 4 mol l-1 sorbitol at ...
Paruszewski R - - 1995
Four new compounds: Nic-Phe/4-OMe/-MePhe-Sta-epsilonAhx-OMe/23/,Nic-Phe/4-OMe/-MePhe- Sta-epsilonAhx-Iaa/24/,iNic-Phe/4-OMe/-MeLeu-Sta-ep silonAhx-OMe/29/ and iNic-Phe/4-OMe/-MeLeu-Sta-epsilonAhx-Iaa/30/ have been synthesized in search after renin inhibitors of improved biological properties. Their stability against chymotrypsin activity, solubility in water at pH 7.4, 6.9 and 2.0, partition coefficient and activity in vitro were determined. All synthesized inhibitors are resistant to enzymatic degradation, ...
Taylor F - - 1995
Recycling the contents of a continuous fermentor through a stripping column is proposed as a means of reducing product inhibition and lowering the cost of fuel ethanol production. A 2-L fermentor and 10-cm packed column were continuously operated for 150 days without contamination. Some fouling of the packing with attached ...
Zeng F Y - - 1995
We previously showed that two subpopulations of asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs), designated State 1 and State 2 ASGP-Rs, are present in intact cells and that State 2 ASGP-Rs can be inactivated in permeable rat hepatocytes in a temperature- and ATP-dependent manner. These inactivated ASGP-Rs can be quantitatively reactivated by the addition ...
Patch M A - - 1995
Facilities and equipment which are contaminated by a diseased carcass during slaughter and processing operations must be made free from microorganisms of human health concern before being used again. Therefore, a rapid-acting microbicidal agent is necessary to enable the swift resumption of operations. Currently, water heated to 180 degrees F ...
van Diemen P M - - 1995
Effects of moderate, artificially induced atrophic rhinitis symptoms on level and changes in heat production and activity were determined in pigs kept under different climatic conditions. Eight groups of 30 pigs each, housed in one of two climatically controlled respiration chambers, were exposed to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement ...
Olsson K - - 1995
Water intake was studied in six goats during late pregnancy to investigate if heat stress induces primary polydipsia. The goats were fed twice daily or deprived of food for 24 hr to avoid postprandial drinking and induce hyponatremia. Signs of stress was evaluated by determination of plasma cortisol concentration. Ambient ...
Hendrickx M - - 1995
In this review, current methods used to evaluate the integrated impact of time and temperature upon preserving a food product by a heat treatment are considered. After identifying the basic premise any preservation scheme shall meet, the central role of a feasible description for the heat activation kinetics of microorganisms, ...
Saxer U P - - 1995
In this study on 60 adult subjects, the effective of Parodontax, a dentifrice containing herbal ingredients and sodium bicarbonate abrasive, was compared to a non-marketed new toothpaste containing herbal ingredients and calcium hydrogen phosphate as the abrasive. Plaque, gingivitis and gingival bleeding parameters were scored. The periodontal probe bleeding index ...
Bergeron M F - - 1995
A tennis player's metabolism during play in a hot environment generates an abundance of heat, which is primarily eliminated from the body by evaporation of sweat. An individual's on-court rate of fluid loss will depend on the environmental conditions, intensity of play, acclimatization, aerobic fitness, hydration status, age, and gender. ...
Pollard M A - - 1995
The cariogenicity of starches and fruits was investigated by measuring acidogenicity (plaque sampling) and enamel demineralization. Test foods were oranges, apples, bananas, Cornflakes, Branflakes, Weetabix, Alpen (no added sugar), white bread, wholemeal bread, rice, and spaghetti, with positive and negative controls of sucrose and sorbitol. Plaque sampling indicated that all ...
Lingström P - - 1994
The aim of this study was to monitor pH in 2-day-old dental plaque after administration of a long-acting, lactose-containing nitroglycerin tablet (Suscard). The tablet was placed under the lip of the maxilla. This was done both in two older subjects suffering from heart problems and in 10 younger, healthy subjects. ...
Sakai T - - 1994
Two male workers were acutely intoxicated with gas produced by heating tar epoxy resin paint, and developed peripheral neuropathy. To assess the work atmosphere, we analyzed the degradation products by GC-MS. The major toxic products emitted by heating tar epoxy resin were hydrogen cyanide, phenol, and benzene, as well as ...
Herpin P - - 1994
Heat production was continuously measured from birth to 24 h after birth in pigs tube-fed 14 g kg-1 of colostrum or water (sham-fed animals) at hourly intervals, and maintained at thermoneutrality (34 degrees C) or in moderate cold (24 degrees C). Results indicate that colostrum was necessary to initiate and ...
Ellison A - - 1994
Inactivation of micro-organisms by heat is a traditional food processing technique used to reduce or eliminate the microbial load in foods thus preventing bacterial associated disease and food spoilage. Models of thermal death kinetics are routinely used to predict the amount of heat required but such models are limited by ...
Kihm D J - - 1994
Listeria monocytogenes was highly resistant to hen egg white lysozyme in whole milk but was sensitive in media and in phosphate buffer. Methods to sensitize the pathogen to lysozyme in milk were investigated. Treatment of whole milk by cation exchange to remove minerals, particularly Ca2+ and Mg2+, slightly promoted inactivation ...
Rainey D W - - 1994
This study surveyed 782 certified baseball and softball umpires from randomly chosen umpire associations in one state to assess how much stress they experienced while officiating. The mean stress score was between "very little" and "a moderate amount," although 4.5% of the respondents reported "quite a bit" or "a great ...
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