Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 524
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Beighton D - - 1999
A group of 20 students, harbouring >10(4) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day ...
Fernández P S - - 1999
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often ...
Bellara S R - - 1999
A large number of incidents of food poisoning have been linked to undercooked meat products. The use of mathematical modelling to describe heat transfer within foods, combined with data describing bacterial thermal inactivation, may prove useful in developing safer food products while minimizing thermal overprocessing. To examine this approach, cylindrical ...
Koh K - - 1999
1. Circadian variations in heat production (HP) rate and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured in growing broilers maintained at 5 ambient temperatures (14 degrees, 17 degrees, 22 degrees, 27 degrees and 32 degrees C) and at 5 rates of feeding [ad libitum intake and 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% (fasting) ...
Del Carmen J - - 1999
Velvet bean plants (Mucuna pruriens) are used widely outside the U.S. as a cover crop. The beans (VB), high in protein, contain toxic substances that possibly can be destroyed by heating. Few data are available on the use of VB in poultry nutrition. We examined the effects of raw and ...
Gmür R - - 1999
The purpose of this study was the clinical and microbiological re-examination of dental hygienists, who, 30 months before, had shown remarkably high supragingival levels of periodontitis-associated micro-organisms. Interdental plaque was collected from the same molar sites and investigated by the same immunofluorescence assay with taxa-specific monoclonal antibodies as at the ...
Beard B M - - 1999
The effect of nisin, added in the form of Nisaplin, on the thermal resistance of bacterial spores and the effects of medium composition, exposure time, and pH on nisin enhancement of heat sensitivity were evaluated. Nisin apparently required specific nutrients to sensitize spores to heat. For example, D130 degrees C ...
Minato K - - 1999
The lentinan contents in the Lentinus edodes fruit body during storage were examined by ELISA method using anti-lentinan antibodies. The lentinan content (12.8 mg.g(-)(1) dw) before storage decreased to 3.7 mg.g(-)(1) dw over 7 days at 20 degrees C. However, it only slightly decreased at 1 degrees C and only ...
Bréand S - - 1999
In order to comply with the consumer demand for ready-to-eat and look 'fresh' products, mild heat treatment will be used more and more in the agrofood industry. Nonetheless there is no tool to define the most appropriate mild heat treatment. In order to build this tool, it is necessary to ...
Femenia A - - 1999
The effects of heat treatment and dehydration on fiber structure and hydration properties, using cauliflower floret/curd and stem tissues, have been investigated. No major changes in fiber composition resulted from sample treatments, but the degree of esterification of pectic polysaccharides, approximately 60% in fresh cauliflower, decreased by approximately 12% in ...
Ziegenhagen R - - 1999
The formation of the comutagenic tryptophan derivate norharman in heat-processed food is a well known phenomenon. As a first step to investigate the possible formation of norharman during food storage particularly in regard to fortified food we developed a model system and studied the non-enzymatic formation of the comutagen at ...
Chamchong M - - 1999
Non-uniformity of temperatures in thawing of food and biological materials inside a microwave oven is affected by size, shape, and dielectric properties of the load (food). The objective of this study was to relate the time to thaw and the non-uniformity of heating to the shape, size, and the dielectric ...
Moats W A - - 1999
Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was ...
Tutin C E - - 1999
A 17-month study was made of the primates using a 9-ha "island" of forest, surrounded by savanna, in the northern part of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. One group ofCercopithecus cephus (plus a young maleCercopithecus nictitans who was in permanent association with them) were resident in the fragment and groups of ...
Brake J - - 1998
1. The effects of varying the dietary arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys) ratio for broiler chickens at thermoneutral and high temperatures was studied in a series of 5 experiments which measured intestinal epithelial transport or evaluated growth and food efficiency with practical diets or diets supplemented with L-arginine free base. 2. The growth ...
el-Kayati S M - - 1998
Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the ...
Li B W - - 1998
Hydrolysis of dietary fiber polysaccharides (DFP) is an integral part of any enzymatic-chemical method for dietary fiber analysis. Residues obtained after enzyme treatments of fiber-containing foods are usually suspended in 12 M sulfuric acid and kept at or slightly above ambient temperature for at least 1 h, and then the ...
de Leeuw J J - - 1998
Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), using implanted heart rate and ...
Stapleton J A - - 1998
A cigarette which heats rather than burns tobacco (Premier) was introduced in 1988, but was unacceptable due to unpleasant taste and low nicotine intake. We examined availability of nicotine from a new version (Eclipse), in the same four subjects as our earlier Premier study. Average blood nicotine boosts of 23.7 ...
Tolstoguzov V B - - 1998
Physico-chemical protein modification involved in food processing is used for "engineering" the structure-property relationship of foods. The three main tools used for protein modification are food formulation, mechanical and thermal (heating/cooling) treatments. They correspond to the main stages of all food technologies. Food structural design is based upon incompatibility and ...
Fiocchi A - - 1998
The effect of heat on the allergenicity of beef and bovine serum albumin was investigated among 10 toddlers skin prick test (SPT)-positive to raw and cooked beef. The meat-allergy diagnosis was confirmed during double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with 180 g of beef cooked for 5 min at 100 degrees ...
Rasooly A - - 1998
Western blotting has the potential to overcome some of the major problems associated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of toxins in food, such as cross-reactivity with unrelated antigens and insensitivity with heat-treated foods, because the Western procedure solubilizes denatured protein and allows characterization of the antigen that reacts with ...
Dawes C - - 1998
This paper discusses the different types of calcium phosphate in calculus and the role of plaque pH in controlling calcium phosphate precipitation (calculus) or dissolution (caries). There is great site-specificity of deposition of supragingival but not subgingival calculus, with highest amounts of the former being present on the lingual aspects ...
Nguyen M L - - 1998
Accumulating epidemiological evidence continues to show that lycopene, found in tomatoes, grapefruits and watermelons, is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain chronic diseases and cancers. With respect to lycopene in tomato products, the effect of thermal processing on its stability has not yet been rigorously addressed. This paper ...
George S M - - 1998
The measured heat resistance of cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes was up to eightfold greater when they were grown, heated and recovered anaerobically rather than aerobically. Measured heat resistance was highest when anaerobic gas mixtures were used (time at 59 degrees C for a 6-decimal ...
Juneja V K - - 1998
Duplicate beef gravy or ground beef samples inoculated with a suspension of a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to sublethal heating at 46 degrees C for 15-30 min, and then heated to a final internal temperature of 60 degrees C. Survivor curves were fitted using a linear ...
Yahav S - - 1998
1. Heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck chickens and their normally feathered (na/na) sibs, were exposed to constant ambient temperatures (Ta) ranging between 15 and 35 degrees C and 12h: 12h diurnal high:low temperatures of 15 degrees C:35 degrees C. 2. No significant effect of genotype was obtained in weight gain and ...
Davis C E - - 1998
Catalase (CAT) activity in ground beef and pork was determined on samples cooked from 60 to 71.1 degrees C. One-gram samples of ground round (4% fat), hamburger (24% fat), and commercial pork sausage (38%fat) were cooked in a controlled-temperature waterbath at 65, 68.3 and 71 degrees C. Chilled samples were ...
Greiwe J S - - 1998
To examine the effects of rapid dehydration on isometric muscular strength and endurance, seven men were tested at baseline (control) and after a dehydration (dHST) and a euhydration (eHST) heat stress trial. The dHST consisted of intermittent sauna exposure until 4% of body mass was lost, whereas the eHST consisted ...
Hofmann T - - 1998
The yields of the two intense food odorants 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) obtained by heating mixtures of possible precursors in model systems varying in temperature, pH value, or water content were determined by using stable isotope dilution assays. Although pentoses generated much higher amounts of FFT and MFT than ...
van Dishoeck E F - - 1998
Recent advances in the understanding of the chemical processes that occur during all stages of the formation of stars, from the collapse of molecular clouds to the assemblage of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary accretion disks, are reviewed. Observational studies of the circumstellar material within 100-10,000 AU of the young star ...
Evans R J - - 1998
The adverse effects of trace metals, heat, steam and other conditions encountered in food processing relate to the acceleration of development of rancidity. Measures to retard oxidation of lipids, vitamins, pigments and proteins include elimination of prooxidants, removal of oxygen and use of blends of inhibitors formulated for specific substrates.
Davis P J - - 1998
This paper is a review concerning the way in which heat treatment can modify the allergenicity of food proteins. Any food protein may be allergenic if it can be absorbed intact, or as substantial fragments, through the gut mucosa and then evoke an immune (allergic) response. The intrinsic properties of ...
Tahmassebi J F - - 1997
The effect on the pH of human dental plaque of rinsing and drinking with or without a straw was investigated in eight volunteers using the plaque sampling method. A fruit-based juice was used as the test drink with 10% sucrose and 10% sorbitol solutions serving as positive and negative controls, ...
Deperthes D - - 1997
In the present paper, we determined the kinin-releasing activity of human prostatic kallikrein hK2 and compared it to one of the kallikreins hK1 and prostate specific antigen (hK3). Kinin-like substances active on the rabbit jugular vein were progressively produced when nanomolar concentrations of hK2 were incubated with heated plasma. However ...
Schuman J D - - 1997
The effects of water-bath immersion heat treatments on the inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis within intact shell eggs were evaluated. Six pooled strains of Salm. enteritidis (ca 3 x 10(8) cfu, inoculated near the centre of the yolk) were completely inactivated within 50-57.5 min at a bath temperature of 58 degrees ...
Green G - - 1997
Pediocin PD-1, produced by Pediococcus damnosus NCFB 1832, is inhibitory to several food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. However, pediocin PD-1 is not active against other Pediococcus spp. and differs in this respect to other pediocins produced by Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Production of pediocin PD-1 starts during early ...
Ramaswamy H S - - 1997
Consumer awareness and demand for nutritious yet inexpensive food products call for innovative processing techniques that have both safety and quality as primary objectives. These challenges appear to have been met by aseptic processing techniques, especially for liquid and high-acid foods. However, the extension of aseptic processing principles to low-acid ...
Gardiner J A - - 1997
The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (strawberry yoghurt and baked beans) on plaque acidogenicity was investigated using plaque sampling with a 'Beetrode' electrode. Six varieties of yoghurt, four varieties of baked beans and positive and negative control solutions of 10 per cent sucrose and sorbitol, respectively, ...
Pollard M A - - 1997
The plaque acidogenic response of children from three ethnic groups in South Africa to four different carbohydrates was investigated using the plaque sampling method. A total of 30, 12-year-old children, ten black, ten 'coloured' and ten white, completed this study. The foods tested were 10 per cent sucrose solution, maize ...
Stringer S C - - 1997
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability rely on a mild heat treatment combined with refrigerated storage to ensure microbiological safety and quality. The principal microbiological safety risk in foods of this type is non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. In this article the combined effect of mild heat treatment and refrigerated storage on ...
Robinson C - - 1997
The study of plaque biofilms in the oral cavity is difficult as plaque removal inevitably disrupts biofilm integrity precluding kinetic studies involving the penetration of components and metabolism of substrates in situ. A method is described here in which plaque is formed in vivo under normal (or experimental) conditions using ...
Kashket S - - 1997
Following the demonstration that rinses with solutions of soluble calcium salts reduced sucrose-induced demineralization, a study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect could be obtained by the supplementation of a solid food with calcium lactate (CL). Subjects wore palatal appliances containing blocks of bovine enamel that were coated ...
Cooper J K - - 1997
Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk ...
Peyre F - - 1997
Patterns of power absorption in a microwave oven for a range of dielectric properties of relevance to food processing were investigated. The governing Maxwell's equations with boundary conditions and a TE10 excitation were solved using a finite element method. Food properties were varied from values at their frozen state to ...
Prakash A - - 1997
The uniformity of microwave processing was investigated by measuring the formation of intrinsic chemical markers in disc-shaped and cylindrically-shaped whey protein gel model systems. These markers are formed as a result of thermally induced reactions of sugar and protein precursors. They were measured in samples placed in a pressurizable Teflon ...
Juang H Y - - 1996
Four different temperatures (700-1000 degrees C) were chosen for calcination treatment of as-received hydroxyapatite powder before press forming and sintering to study the effect of calcination on the sintering behaviours. The results show that calcination treatment increases the average particle size and distribution, which changes from trimodal to monomodal. The ...
Pollard M A - - 1996
The aim of this study was to investigate the acid anions produced in plaque after chewing various cereal-based foods and fruits for one minute. Test foods were oranges, apples, bananas, Cornflakes, Branflakes, Weetabix, Alpen, white bread, wholemeal bread, rice and spaghetti, plus positive and negative controls of 10% sucrose and ...
Akhtar M - - 1996
The effects of urea treatment on the potential reactivation of heat-damaged antigenic components of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were examined with cooked foods, including mushrooms, ham, bologna, salami, and turkey. The thermal stability of purified SEA spiked into foods and native SEA produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods was also ...
López M - - 1996
The effects of different heating systems on the heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (ATCC 7953, 12980, 15951 and 15952) were investigated. Spores were heated in distilled water, Sorensen buffer (0.18 mol 1-1), McIlvaine buffer (0.0025-0.18 mol 1-1), and several solutions containing sodium chloride (0.06-12%), sodium nitrite (125 ppm), potassium ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >