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Results 251 - 300 of 520
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Xin H - - 2002
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of drinking water temperature (Tw) on laying hens subjected to warm cyclic air temperature (Ta) conditions. Each experiment consisted of a 1-wk acclimation under thermoneutrality (TN) (Ta = Tw = 21 C), a 4-wk heat exposure or treatment period, and a 2-wk ...
Duchamp Claude - - 2002
The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in ...
Liu Jiping - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stability storage conditions on the enteric release of heat-humidity cured cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) coated beads. Theophylline beads were coated with 25 or 35% diethyl phthalate plasticized CAP dispersion (Aquacoat CPD), and cured at a heat-humidity condition (50 degrees ...
Logan Ellen I - - 2002
Recent studies have demonstrated that typical dry dog foods have significantly less efficacy in reducing accumulation of dental substrates compared to a specifically formulated and processed dental food. This study compared the effects of a typical dry food and a dental food on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in dogs ...
Kawai Kiyoshi - - 2002
The glass transition behaviour of polyphosphate compounds such as di- and tri- polyphosphates used as food additives and ATP, ADP existing in biosystems, were investigated by using DSC. From the DSC heating curves of the frozen solutions, the glass transition temperatures of the maximum freeze concentrated solutions, Tg', were determined. ...
Bonnet B R P - - 2002
Six substrates made up with heated and composted anaerobic biosolid were tested for the production of Eucalyptus viminalis, Schinus terebinthifolius and Mimosa scabrella forest seedlings in a nursery in Southern Brazil. The produced seedlings were statistically evaluated in relation to height, stem diameter, height/stem diameter ratio, aerial and root dry ...
Onyeike Eugene N - - 2002
The effects of heat treatments on the proximate composition, energy content, and levels of some antinutritional factors in brown and marble-colored African yam bean (AYB) seed flours were investigated. In raw brown and marble-colored AYB seed flours; moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and caloric ...
Gutierrez Emilio - - 2002
The paper addresses the absence of reports about the sauna use among the weight loss strategies of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Because AN entails a relentless pursuit of thinness, it might be expected that these patients would frequently resort to saunas. The paper sustains that the absence of reports ...
Browne N - - 2001
AIMS: The effects of stresses imposed on bacterial contaminants during food processing and treatment of packaging material were evaluated on the food pathogen Bacillus cereus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conditions were established which allowed the cells to adapt to heat, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide stresses, but not to osmotic shock. Cross ...
Gould G W - - 2001
Most food-preservation techniques act by slowing down or completely inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms. Few techniques act by inactivating them. While heat remains the technique most extensively used for inactivation, there has been increasing interest recently in the development of alternative approaches in response to the desires of consumers for ...
Cyrys J - - 2001
A comparison, based on the regression of 32 daily mean PM25 aerosol loadings determined by a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) and by a Harvard impactor (HI), is reported for the ambient aerosol of Erfurt (Germany). The PM2.5 concentrations measured by the TEOM were systematically lower then those obtained by ...
Zhou J - - 2001
Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombosis. However, causality is unproven, and it remains unknown whether hyperhomocysteinemia promotes atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, and/or thrombosis. We evaluated the short- and long-term effects of hyperhomocysteinemia on plaque size and structure in 99 atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by methionine (Met) ...
Lucía-Pavón E - - 2001
In order to maintain rotifer populations during periods of low algal production, it is necessary to offer alternate diets, some of which include forms of preserved algae. The present work is based on the effect of live and dead Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus ...
Wolfenson D - - 2001
Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based ...
Glickman E L - - 2001
PURPOSE: This investigation evaluated the influence of ethnicity, Caucasian (CAU) vs. African American (AA), on thermosensitivity and metabolic heat production (HP) during cold water immersion (20 degrees C) in 15 CAU (22.7 +/- 2.7 yr) vs. 7 AA (21.7 +/- 2.7 yr) males. METHODS: Following a 20-min baseline period (BASE), ...
Birlouez-Aragon I - - 2001
The FAST method is based on the determination of maximal fluorescence emission when exciting at 330-350 nm, which corresponds to molecular structures formed between reducing sugars or oxidizing lipids and lysine residues of proteins. This fluorescence is dependent on heat treatment and related to protein nutritional loss. Applied to a ...
Kienzle E - - 2001
Seven pectin samples, six galactomannan sources, five carrageen samples, four alginate samples, one sample of gum traganth, agar agar and gum arabicum, two xanthan samples, two inulin samples and a galacto oligosaccharide, 22 cellulose samples, six lignin samples, four starch samples, nine protein samples, six isolated fats, three meat samples, ...
Sides A - - 2001
Samples of an Australian oat cultivar, Echidna, were pilot-scale processed. At each stage of the processing (raw oats, groats, kiln dried dehulled oats (KDHO), and rolled (flaked)) samples were removed for later sensory and GC-MS analysis of the flavor components. Mean taste panel scores from a trained taste panel were ...
Yalçin S - - 2001
1. This study investigated effects of conditioning at 5 d of age and food restriction during a hot period on responses to prolonged heat stress of two fast (G1 and G2) and one slower-growing (G3) broiler stocks. 2. Chicks from each stock were divided into 3 groups: control, conditioned (chicks ...
Doyle M E - - 2001
The heat resistance data on Listeria monocytogenes in culture media and foods are summarized. Most heat resistance data for foods have been obtained in dairy, meat, poultry, and egg products. Limited data have been published on seafood, fruits, and vegetables. The methodologies employed have evolved over time; hence data from ...
Moran J - - 2001
BACKGROUND, AIMS: Zinc-citrate-containing toothpastes have previously been suggested to be of value at inhibiting plaque and gingival inflammation. Present formulations have included triclosan which is thought to contribute major antibacterial/antiplaque effects. Alternative antimicrobial agents and other ingredients such as oils could help to produce equally effective formulations. The aim of ...
Favreau D - - 2001
A study of the physical process of concentration of maple sap to maple syrup and preparation of maple syrup products by microwave heating is described. Duty cycles of 60, 75 and 100% were used for the microwave application. During the process, some of the drying kinetics are discussed, including the ...
Chiang C F - - 2001
A full-scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT) of food-processing wastewater was evaluated in this study. The wastewater was rich in oil and grease at concentrations of 1,500-2,000 mg/L. The system has been operated for more than one and a half years since the startup. Under steady state conditions, the ATAT ...
Simoneau G G - - 2001
The goal of this study was to determine the systematic effect that varying the slope angle of a computer keyboard along with varying keyboard height (relative to elbow height) have on wrist extension angle while typing. Thirty participants typed on a keyboard whose slope was adjusted to +15 degrees, +7.5 ...
Roussy G - - 2001
A helical RF industrial applicator was evaluated for heating minced meat flowing in a hollow tube. Heating was homogeneous inside the product, although the product was highly lossy due to its high electric conductivity. The homogeneity was much better than could be obtained with microwave heating. A high power density, ...
Vercet A - - 2001
The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect ...
Bersot L S - - 2001
The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products is cause of concern to the food industry as well as to health authorities. Studies were conducted to evaluate the presence of L. monocytogenes in mortadellas acquired at retail stores and to evaluate the fate of two levels of a L. ...
Kuroda M - - 2000
To confirm the formation of gamma-glutamyl-beta-alanylhistidine and related peptide, a model solution (amide-containing amino acids and carnosine) has been heated, and the products are investigated. Spectroscopical analysis indicates that the major product from asparagine and carnosine is beta-aspartyl-beta-alanylhistidine, and that from glutamine and carnosine is gamma-glutamyl-beta-alanylhistidine. Furthermore, to confirm the ...
Hindsø Landin H - - 2000
Studies of adducts from reactive compounds to haemoglobin (Hb) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the N-alkyl Edman method reveals the occurrence of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine (diHOPrVal) at levels of 1-2 pmol/g Hb, in persons without known exposure. The hypothesis that this background originates from glycidol or related compounds during heating ...
Swauger J E - - 2000
Eclipse is a cigarette that produces smoke by primarily heating, rather than burning, tobacco. The Eclipse heat source assembly employs a continuous filament glass mat jacket to insulate the heat source. The glass mat insulator is composed of continuous glass filaments and a binder. The purpose of this article is ...
Shebuski J R - - 2000
Staphylococcus aureus is the most osmotolerant foodborne pathogen, and outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning are often linked to foods of reduced water activity (a(w)) values. While it is generally known that the thermal tolerance of microorganisms increases as the a(w) of the heating menstruum is decreased, surprisingly little research has ...
Karatzas A K - - 2000
The combined action of the plant-derived volatile, S-carvone, and mild heat treatment on the food-borne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated. The viability of exponential phase cultures grown at 8 degrees C could be reduced by 1.3 log units after exposure to S-carvone (5 mmol l-1) for 30 min at 45 ...
Sjövall O - - 2000
Wheat germ is susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated oil. Volatile compounds in stored wheat germ were evaluated using dynamic headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and sensory analysis. Preliminary comparisons were also made between freshly prepared wheat germ and wheat germ subjected to microwave heating at 45 ...
Pane L - - 2000
In this paper, the growth of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica was investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to determine suitable diets for larval and juvenile development in aquaculture systems. Microalgae were maintained in synthetic sea water (19@1000 salinity, 18 degrees C constant temperature) and the algal ...
Tolstoguzov V B - - 2000
The glassy state is not just important in low moisture and frozen foods, where it influences the physical and chemical stability and the crispness of some foodstuffs: glassy biopolymer components affect the physical properties of most food systems and low moisture biological systems. Glassy foods are not always fragile and ...
Yahav S - - 2000
1. The effect of relative humidity (RH, 40% to 75%) at moderate ambient temperatures (Ta, 28 degrees and 30 degrees C) on the performance and thermoregulation of male broiler chickens and turkeys was studied at the age of 4 to 8 weeks. 2. Weight gain and food intake of male ...
Romanovsky A A - - 2000
Both whole-body heat exposure and intraperitoneal heating (IPH) result in a body temperature (T(b)) fall that occurs once heating is abated ("hyperthermia-induced hypothermia"). This phenomenon involves a decrease in the threshold T(b) (T(b-thresh)) for activation of metabolic heat production (cold defense). Whether the T(b-thresh) for ear skin vasodilation (heat defense) ...
Holmqvist O H - - 2000
Epidemiological findings on the relation between foods and colon cancer are inconsistent. Many, but far from all, found positive associations for meat and fat and negative ones for vegetables and fruits. Explanations so far have focused on direct biochemical conversions in the colon or transit time, but they remain unable ...
Dunn A A - - 2000
1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the development of shortening-induced toughness in the Pectoralis major (PM) muscles of commercially processed broilers, air-chilled at 0 degrees C and -12 degrees C, as a function of muscle pH early post-mortem. Electrical stimulation was used immediately after stunning and neck cutting to ...
Okmen Z - - 2000
The main objective of this study was to modify a conventional household microwave oven for recording temperature and weight measurements continuously during microwave drying of foods. A household microwave oven with digital control was equipped with an electronic balance and a set of standard thermocouples that were connected to a ...
De Meuter P - - 1999
Modulated temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MTDSC) is used to characterise food systems. It is shown that by splitting the total heat flow into reversing (related to heat capacity) and non-reversing contributions, overlapping thermal events can be separated. The combination of excellent sensitivity and high resolution provides more accurate results for ...
Rashotte M E - - 1999
The pigeon's main source of regulated heat production, shivering, is especially likely to be used for thermoregulation during the dark phase of the day when there is little heat from locomotor activity. However, food stored in the pigeon's crop is digested during the night, and digestion-related thermogenesis (DRT) will provide ...
Hesselman D M - - 1999
Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested from the Gulf Coast, containing 10(2) to 10(4) most probable number (MPN) per gram of Vibrio vulnificus, were subjected to a commercial heat-shock process. After 1 to 4 min at internal oyster meat temperatures exceeding 50 degrees C, shellstock oysters were shucked, chilled, washed, and packed. ...
Devece C - - 1999
Browning reactions in fruits and vegetables are a serious problem for the food industry. In mushrooms, the principal enzyme responsible for the browning reaction is polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Microwaves have recently been introduced as an alternative for the industrial blanching of mushrooms. However, the direct application of microwave energy to entire ...
Gibernau M - - 1999
The pollination of Philodendron solimoesense (subgenus Meconostigma) was studied in four populations of French Guiana. Flowering is asynchronous within each population during July, and the flowering cycle is a 2-d process. Numerous insects visit Philodendron inflorescences, but the main pollinator seems to be Cyclocephala colasi (Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). The pollination process ...
Abee T - - 1999
"Bacteria have evolved adaptive networks to face the challenges of changing environments and to survive under conditions of stress. Therefore, the efficiencies of inactivation and preservation methods need to be assessed, especially with regard to the enormous potential of food pathogens to adapt to a wide variety of stress conditions. ...
Beighton D - - 1999
A group of 20 students, harbouring >10(4) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day ...
Fernández P S - - 1999
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often ...
Bellara S R - - 1999
A large number of incidents of food poisoning have been linked to undercooked meat products. The use of mathematical modelling to describe heat transfer within foods, combined with data describing bacterial thermal inactivation, may prove useful in developing safer food products while minimizing thermal overprocessing. To examine this approach, cylindrical ...
Koh K - - 1999
1. Circadian variations in heat production (HP) rate and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured in growing broilers maintained at 5 ambient temperatures (14 degrees, 17 degrees, 22 degrees, 27 degrees and 32 degrees C) and at 5 rates of feeding [ad libitum intake and 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% (fasting) ...
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