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Blake Stephen - - 2011
The retention time of food in the digestive tract of animals has important implications for digestive physiology. Retention time impacts digestive efficiency and among herbivores affects plant-animal interactions including herbivory and seed dispersal. Poorly studied yet iconic Galápagos tortoises are large-bodied generalist herbivores and ecosystem engineers which migrate seasonally. Potentially ...
Maruapula Segametsi D - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/ obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. DESIGN: A nationwide cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. SUBJECTS: A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. RESULTS: OW/OB is associated with greater ...
Moran Siobhan T - - 2011
The aim of this case study was to describe the race nutrition practices of a female runner who completed her first 100-km off-road ultraendurance running event in 12 hr 48 min 55 s. Food and fluid intake during the race provided 10,890 kJ (736 kJ/hr) and 6,150 ml (415 ml/hr) ...
Mohaibes Mohammed - - 2011
Aerobic thermophilic treatment (ATT) of cattle slurry and industrial food waste (whey and jam) was conducted semi-continuously, with the aim of developing the ATT process. We could improve the final products in terms of hygiene, environmental effects and heat production. In addition we tried to solve the foaming problem mechanically. ...
Banna Kelly M - - 2011
To study matching in a species distantly related to mammals and birds, seven bluegill were trained to break a photobeam using a nose-poke response for access to pelleted food in their home aquaria during one-h sessions. Reinforcer ratios available from the two response alternatives varied among the following: 16:1, 8:1, ...
Lebens Herbert - - 2011
The present study examined whether implicit measures of associations with snack foods and food consumer behaviour could be changed through a picture-picture evaluative conditioning procedure. In the experimental condition (n=41), female participants completed a conditioning procedure in which pictures of snack foods were paired with images of negatively valenced female ...
Schaible Ralf - - 2011
Variation in life history can reflect genetic differences, and may be caused by environmental effects on phenotypes. Understanding how these two sources of life history variation interact to express an optimal allocation of resources in a changing environment is central to life history theory. This study addresses variation in the ...
Korine Carmi - - 2011
Since mammalian frugivores generally choose to eat ripe fruit in which ethanol concentration ([EtOH]) increases as the fruit ripens, we asked whether ethanol acts as an appetitive stimulant in the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, and also studied the effects of ethanol on their skin temperature (T(s)). We hypothesized that ...
Vézina François - - 2011
Phenotypic flexibility in shorebirds has been studied mainly in the context of adjustments to migration and to quality of food; little is known on how birds adjust their phenotype to harsh winter conditions. We showed earlier that red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) can acclimate to cold by elevating body mass. ...
Nardoto Gabriela B - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Amazonian populations are experiencing dietary changes characteristic of the nutrition transition. However, the degree of change appears to vary between urban and rural settings. To investigate this process, we determined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails and dietary intake of Amazonian populations living along a rural to ...
Pärn Henrik - - 2012
Dispersal plays a key role in the response of populations to climate change and habitat fragmentation. Here, we use data from a long-term metapopulation study of a non-migratory bird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), to examine the influence of increasing spring temperature and density-dependence on natal dispersal rates and how ...
Xiao Feng - - 2011
As a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been found ubiquitously in the environment, including in tap water. For the first time, we studied PFOS sorption from water to foods (nine commonly consumed vegetables, three meats, and cereals) at two temperatures to estimate the daily intake ...
Zhu Heguang - - 2011
Laboratory scale two-stage anaerobic digestion process model was operated for 280days to investigate the feasibility to produce both hydrogen and methane from a mixture feedstock (1:1 (v/v)) of municipal food waste and sewage sludge. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields obtained in the two stages were 0.93 and 9.5mL/mLfeedstock. To ...
Walker Jacqueline L - - 2011
The aim of this review was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of energy intake measures used in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched for relevant literature, and measures were included if they (1) directly measured energy intake in kilojoules/kilocalories per day; (2) had ...
Chik Z - - 2011
Migration of melamine has been determined for 41 types of retail melamine-ware products in Malaysia. This study was initiated by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, in the midst of public anxiety on the possibility of melamine leaching into foods that come into contact with the melamine-ware. Thus, the objective of ...
Knight-Jones T J D - - 2010
In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and ...
de Jongh Harmen H J - - 2011
The aggregation propensity of heat-treated codfish parvalbumin is investigated upon Maillardation of the protein under food-relevant conditions. About twelve of the fourteen lysine residues had reacted with glucose under these conditions. It is shown using circular dichroism and fluorescence that extensive coupling of glucose moieties on the protein surface does ...
Bateman Libei - - 2010
Extensive studies have been done on beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) fibrils in the past decade due to their potential as functional food ingredients, gelling agents, and encapsulation devices etc. (van der Goot, A. J.; Peighambardoust, S. H.; Akkermans, C.; van Oosten-Manski, J. M. Creating novel structures in food materials: The role of ...
van Boekel Martinus - - 2010
The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolongation of shelf-life, improved digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients, improved palatability, taste, texture and flavour ...
Manabe Hideyuki - - 2011
A tomato saponin, esculeoside A, may be metabolized into various steroidal hormones such as pregnane derivatives that are expected to exhibit various bioactivities in the body, such as anti-osteoporosis, anti-menopausal disorder and anti-tumor actions. Therefore, we attempted to examine the esculeoside A contents of fresh tomatoes, tomatoes boiled in water, ...
Uribarri Jaime - - 2010
Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands ...
Rodriguez-Palacios Alexander - - 2010
We quantified the thermal inhibitory effect of 71°C (recommended for cooking ground meats), and re-heating at 85°C, on food- and food-animal-derived Clostridium difficile spores. All C. difficile strains tested (n=20) survived 71°C for 2 h, but 90% died within 10 min when re-heated at 85°C. Current cooking recommendations would need ...
Erbay Zafer - - 2010
Drying is a complicated process with simultaneous heat and mass transfer, and food drying is especially very complex because of the differential structure of products. In practice, a food dryer is considerably more complex than a device that merely removes moisture, and effective models are necessary for process design, optimization, ...
de Noni Ivano - - 2010
Dried pasta represents a primary food in the diet of many populations who mainly perceive its quality in terms of cooking performances. Indeed, this and other aspects of pasta quality arise from several technological parameters starting from the usage of durum wheat semolina as raw material. In this paper, the ...
Pincus Zachary - - 2010
The developmental process of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is famously invariant; however, these animals have surprisingly variable lifespans, even in extremely homogenous environments. Inter-individual differences in muscle-function decline, accumulation of lipofuscin in the gut, internal growth of food bacteria, and ability to mobilize heat-shock responses all appear to be predictive ...
Petit Magali - - 2010
Pre-flight fuelling rates in free-living red knots Calidris canutus, a specialized long-distance migrating shorebird species, are positively correlated with latitude and negatively with temperature. The single published hypothesis to explain these relationships is the heat load hypothesis that states that in warm climates red knots may overheat during fuelling. To ...
Arribas-Lorenzo Gema - - 2010
Thermal processing of food leads to the formation of dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which are potentially harmful because they are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). GO and MGO formation was examined during the baking process of cookies as cookies are a widely distributed food ...
Savini Michele - - 2010
The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®) using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean(®)) was determined ...
Mauer Lisa J - - 2010
Deliquescence is a first order phase transition from solid to solution that occurs at a relative humidity (RH) that is characteristic to the solid ingredient. In blends containing more than one component with deliquescent behavior, the RH of the solid-solution transition will be lowered, leading to some level of dissolution ...
Sagarzazu N N Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria de Zaragoza, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, - - 2010
To study the development of resistance responses in Campylobacter jejuni to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments after the exposure to different stressful conditions that may be encountered in food-processing environments, such as acid pH, elevated temperatures and cold storage. Campylobacter jejuni cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed ...
Birlouez-Aragon I - - 2010
The recent discovery of the presence of variable amounts of the carcinogenic compound acrylamide in a wide range of severely heat-treated food products, such as fried potatoes, biscuits, bread and coffee or malt, as a result of the heat process, has induced an important research in the area of the ...
Jaeger H - - 2010
The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration ...
Utreja Achint - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of raisins and raisin-containing cereals on plaque acidogenicity in young children. METHODS: Twenty 7- to 11-year-olds participated in this randomized controlled study. The test food groups were raisins, bran flakes, commercial raisin bran cereal (cRB) and experimental raisin bran ...
Wu Su-Hui - - 2009
The maximum rate of sustained energy intake (SusEI) may limit reproductive effort, thermoregulatory capability and other aspects of an animal's energy expenditure. Consequently, factors that limit SusEI are of interest. The ;heat dissipation limitation hypothesis' suggests that maximum SusEI during lactation is limited by the capacity to dissipate body heat ...
Severin Isabelle - - 2010
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is known as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods. 5-HMF is formed as an intermediate in the Maillard reaction and has been identified in a wide variety of heat-processed foods. In recent years, the presence of 5-HMF in foods has raised toxicological concerns: ...
Bengtsson Anton - - 2009
Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is currently promoted in parts of sub-Saharan Africa as a biofortified staple food with large potential to provide considerable amounts of provitamin A carotenoids. However, the bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids from OFSP has not been widely investigated, especially not as an effect of different preparation ...
Zell Markus - - 2009
The ohmic heating rate of a food is highly influenced by its electrical conductivity (σ). A survey of σ values of commonly used meat ingredients when dispersed as 5% (w/w) aqueous solutions/suspensions was undertaken. A subset was further investigated at typical usage levels in solution/suspension, and/or when incorporated into beef ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2009
Furan is a possible human carcinogen (IARC group 2B) with widespread occurrence in many types of foods. In this study, a survey of furan contamination in 230 commercially jarred ready-to-eat infant food products was conducted using headspace sampling in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) with a detection ...
Berry Tristan K - - 2009
The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability ...
Kim T-K - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan ...
Scaravelli Elena - - 2009
Peanut allergic reactions can result from the ingestion of even very small quantities of peanut and represent a severe threat to the health of sensitised individuals. The detection of peanut traces in food products is therefore of prime importance. Peanut traces which can be (unintentionally) present in food products have ...
Wesche Alissa M - - 2009
Environmental stress and food preservation methods (e.g., heating, chilling, acidity, and alkalinity) are known to induce adaptive responses within the bacterial cell. Microorganisms that survive a given stress often gain resistance to that stress or other stresses via cross-protection. The physiological state of a bacterium is an important consideration when ...
Burton Colin H - - 2009
Government policy in many countries has been to promote manure management methods to reduce the negative impacts related to water and air pollution. The central strategy of encouraging manure as a fertiliser rather than treating it as a waste, is under threat from new concerns on public health and especially ...
Guigo Nathanael - - 2009
The glass transition of lignin has been studied by multifrequency calorimetric measurements in order to highlight the morphological changes and the dynamic aspects associated to this relaxation process. Influences of water sorption and thermal annealing on molecular mobility have been considered. Additional investigations by thermogravimetry, infra-red spectroscopy and rheometry have ...
Wakefield Yasha - - 2009
Burns to the oral mucosa usually result from the accidental ingestion of hot food or beverages. The burns are usually of short duration and little consequence. The widespread use of microwave ovens, however, has added a new dimension to the problem. Microwave ovens heat food much quicker than a conventional ...
Herold Keith E - - 2009
A prototype handheld, compact, rapid thermocycler was developed for multiplex analysis of nucleic acids in an inexpensive, portable configuration. Instead of the commonly used Peltier heating/cooling element, electric thin-film resistive heater and a miniature fan enable rapid heating and cooling of glass capillaries leading to a simple, low-cost Thin-Film Resistive ...
Welch John - - 2008
Writing made with the Frixion rollerball pen by Pilot can be made colourless using the eraser incorporated in each pen. The heat generated by the friction between eraser and paper decolourises the ink and other sources of heat have a similar effect. The original colour of the ink is restored ...
Franchini M Comes - - 2008
Two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds, have been synthesised via ion exchange starting from pristine bentonite with octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) and with synthetic melamine-derived N2,N4-dihexadecyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (DEDMEL). The chemical and morphological characterization of the organoclays was based on XRD, TEM, Laser Granulometry, X-Ray Fluorescence and CEC capacity. Copoly(styrene-butadiene-styrene)-nanocomposites (SBS-nanocomposites) were ...
Nevarez L - - 2008
Penicillium glabrum is a filamentous fungus frequently involved in food contamination. Numerous environmental factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric composition, etc.) or food characteristics (water activity, pH, preservatives, etc.) could represent potential sources of stress for micro-organisms. These factors can directly affect the physiology of these spoilage micro-organisms: growth, conidiation, synthesis of ...
Zell Markus - - 2009
Uniform ohmic heating of solid foods primarily depends on the uniformity of electrolyte distribution within the product. Different preparation techniques were tested in an attempt to ensure an even salt dispersion within a full beef muscle (biceps femoris). Meat pieces were soaked, injected and tumbled using a range of procedures ...
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