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Results 501 - 550 of 560
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Brandon D L - - 1986
Food provides a continuous antigenic stimulus to the immune system and the antigenicity of processed food proteins should be considered in toxicological evaluations. The antigenicity of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor was studied using antibodies prepared by inoculating rabbits with native, heat-denatured, and N-acetylcysteine-treated Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitors. Immunochemical studies using ...
Kilara A - - 1986
This article surveys the knowledge in the area of protein structure and chemistry of denaturation prior to an indepth review of the effects of heat on soy, milk, and egg proteins. It also reviews the methods available to assess denaturation of proteins. Protein denaturation is an ambiguous phenomenon and the ...
Aponte-Merced L - - 1986
Plaque pH changes on rat molars subjected to cariogenic challenge were measured with an antimony microelectrode. Measurements were made after feeding one of seven different reference or snack foods. Resting plaque pH was measured after fasting and minimum plaque pH after feeding the various foods. This reproducible technique may be ...
Johannesson A - - 1985
A simple method for the removal of linear tattoos is described, where tissue destruction is limited to tattooed skin and the resulting necrosis does not extend more than 1 mm into non-tattooed skin. The epidermis overlying tattooed skin can easily be scraped after heat separation. Table salt is rubbed into ...
Hoffman C J - - 1985
Microwave ovens are widely used in foodservice establishments; currently, they are used primarily for reheating. In comparison with conventional methods, approximately 75% less energy is required for microwave cooking or heating. In the future, it is possible that minimal microwave energy will be used to extend shelf life of foods. ...
MacLeod M G - - 1985
The energy metabolism of mature male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) was determined in a computer-controlled indirect multi-calorimeter system of which the design and operation are described. Daily heat production did not change significantly during an initial 6-d period in the calorimeter chambers. Food intake was at first sufficient to promote a ...
Lin J K - - 1985
The levels of dimethylamine-nitrogen (DMA-N), trimethylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) and trimethylamine-N-oxide-nitrogen (TMAO-N) were determined in five species of dried squid. Each sample contained extremely high levels of TMAO-N (2558-8064 ppm) and moderate amounts of TMA-N (121-503 ppm) and DMA-N (124-373 ppm). Over 90% of TMAO-N in squid was converted to TMA-N and ...
Loesche W J - - 1985
The emergence of S. mutans in the plaque flora appears to have depended upon the ability of the organism to sequester sucrose from dietary sources, particularly from between-meal, snack-type foods. S. mutans appears to have a pH optimum at about the pH required for tooth solution to begin. This specialization ...
Honess D J - - 1985
The effect of systemic hyperthermia at 41 degrees C on the response to melphalan (Mel) of KHT and RIF-1 lung microtumours was studied. Mice with KHT microtumours were treated on day 3 or 4 after inoculation and mice with RIF-1 microtumours on day 4. Results were compared with previously published ...
Mackey B M - - 1984
The duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium injured by heating, freezing, acidification or drying was measured using the 'Malthus' conductance meter. Results confirmed those previously obtained by viable counting and additionally, revealed the very wide variation in lag between and within populations and the extreme length of lag ...
Gallagher I H - - 1984
Ureolytic bacteria were detected in the plaque flora of six subjects, and included members of the genera Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Proportions of these organisms did not change after subjects mouthrinsed thrice daily for four days with a plaque-mineralizing solution which contained urea and mono-fluorophosphate. The effectiveness of this ...
Bibby B G - - 1984
A combination pH micro-electrode inserted into human plaque centrifuged to the base of a closely-fitting fine-mesh wire "basket" has been used to make continuous recordings of the pH responses produced by exposure to various carbohydrate substrates. The pH depressions given by continued immersion in sugar and starch solutions resemble, both ...
Petersen G V - - 1984
The ultimate pH of the longissimus muscle was measured in 1536 lambs routinely slaughtered at a meat export works in the southern part of the North Island during the 1981/82 season. The mean ultimate pH of all samples was 5.60, and 7.2 percent of the carcases had values equal to, ...
Skinner A - - 1984
In a double-blind cross-over study, 24 dental students consumed 150 g of sucrose or maltose a day in various foods. After 15 days, plaque samples were collected from the distal surface of upper right first premolars; post-diet samples were collected four months later. The median total anaerobic count of plaque ...
Bibby B G - - 1983
To indicate the cariogenic potential of some standard foods and confections, their ability to demineralize powdered enamel or enamel sections was tested by incubation with mouth organisms in saliva or plaque. With a few exceptions, the amounts of demineralization produced by the tested substrates in either a closed or flowing ...
Haddad G S - - 1983
This research was designed to test the reliability of modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods for quantitation of thiamine, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid in milk; to ascertain the extent of destruction of those vitamins by modern heat processing; and to determine if it is truthful to report that heat ...
Kuba K - - 1983
Whole meal produced from fresh sardine had a high content of histidine, while that from rancid fish had a high content of histamine. The toxicity to induce gizzard erosion, which appeared after heating, was stronger in the former whole meal than in the latter. Thus, the content of histidine, not ...
Fujita S - - 1983
In order to establish an efficient way to prepare diets for patients in bioclean rooms, sterilization and temperature increase of food and drinks were studied by means of a specially designed microwave oven, which can be set over a range of 50 to 600 W. It is built into a ...
Tatevossian A - - 1983
The tracer diffusion of small ionic species was investigated in water, saliva, dental plaque fluid and in plaque residue packed by a range of g forces. Diffusion rate of NaCl was similar in water, saliva and plaque fluid. The rate of CaCl2, NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4 and Na2SO4 was less in both ...
de Muñiz B R - - 1983
Sixty-six children aged 6-12, permanent residents of a children's home, were placed on a diet during a 45-day experimental period to measure salivary flow-rate, pH of saliva and dental plaque, total concentrations of salivary proteins, inorganic phosphate, bicarbonate, calcium and amylase. The total caloric content, as well as the proportional ...
Kilshaw P J - - 1982
Recent experiments in guinea-pigs suggest that heat treatment applied during the manufacture of baby milk formulae reduces the immunological sensitising capacity of the cow's milk proteins. This immunological benefit must be weighed against possible damage that heat treatment may cause to the nutritional quality of the products. Severe heat treatment ...
Schachtele C F - - 1982
Changes in human dental plaque pH can be used to obtain estimates of the acidogenic potential of ingested foods. The presence of acid in plaque is influenced by a large number of host, microbial, and substrate factors. Several useful methods have been developed for monitoring changes in plaque pH. Plaque ...
Wills M E - - 1982
Using the Oxford Human Milk Pasteuriser human milk was exposed to lower temperature and shorter time periods than employed in classical holder pasteurisation. Heating human milk at 62.5 degrees C for 5 min completely destroyed Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and group B beta-haemolytic streptococci inoculated into the samples. Heating at ...
Svanberg M - - 1982
Mouthrinses with SnF2 in 11 subjects significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) the total colony forming units (CFU) count and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis in plaque. The numbers of S. mutans and S. sanguis were significantly more reduced than was the total CFU count. After rinsing ...
Addy M - - 1982
A dietary aetiology for tooth staining associated with the use of chlorhexidine has been postulated. The time related activity of chlorhexidine would therefore suggest that evening rinsing would result in less staining than morning rinsing. This study measured tooth and tongue staining and plaque accumulation in a group of 18 ...
Schmidt E - - 1982
The loss of essential protein-nutrients by heat treatment of formula products has largely been eliminated by modern techniques employed by the food industry. Heat treatment of human milk reduces the biological activity of protein-like antimicrobial factors, but pasteurisation preserves most of the IgA-activity. Little is known about possible nutritional effects ...
Unklesbay N F - - 1982
Simulating volume demand within hospital food service departments, infrared heat processing conditions were used to heat two similar protein menu items to determine both energy consumption required for heat processing and energy/nutrient rations. A larger, conveyorized infrared oven (CTX-70) and a smaller, infrared unit (Krups 2002) were used to heat ...
Svedhem A - - 1981
Campylobacter jejuni was an almost regular finding in chickens and in minced meat from pigs and cattle sold in ordinary food stores. The bacteria survived on the food at 4 degrees C for one week and frozen at -20 degrees C for three months. None of the strains tested survived ...
Dahl C A - - 1981
In the microwave-heating subsystem of the simulated cook/chill food service, 100-gm. portions of precooked beef loaf were heated 80 sec. (2,450 mHz; 237 V.; 3,003 W. input power; 1,407 W. output power) to a mean internal end temperature of 82 +/- 9 degrees C. Mean input power to the microwave ...
Rugg-Gunn A J - - 1981
Plaque pH in six adult subjects was monitored while they consumed a meal containing three foods. The marked fall in plaque pH caused by drinking sugared coffee was considerably reduced by eating the two non-sugary foods (egg and crisp-bread) before, during, or after the sugared coffee. This favorable action was ...
Falter H - - 1981
In serum, the M subunit of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes, MM and MB, is modified by a heat labile factor. As a result of the modification three sub-bands of MM and two of MB can be demonstrated by agarose electrophoresis. Normal sera contain MM1 as the dominant sub-band with lesser ...
Furuta K - - 1980
Pellet feeds were prepared at 70, 80, 83 and 90 degrees C under constant steam pressure of 4.0 kg/cm2. Under these conditions, the foods received 10 seconds of heat treatment, but treatment at 90 degrees C was found inappropriate since the food became slushy. Pelleting conditions examined in this study ...
Dahl C A - - 1980
In this study, time-temperature parameters, yield, and moisture and fat content of various foods were determined through laboratory simulation of a cook/chill hospital foodservice system with a microwave oven and after microwave heating for service. Portions (100 gm. per portion) of beef loaf, potatoes, and frozen and canned beans each ...
Black N - - 1980
The replacement of much old equipment and improvements in the maintenance of such items as heated trolleys were prominent among the recommendations of two food hygiene surveys carried out in Oxfordshire AHA(T). The surveys and the circumstances that led up to them, are described by Dr Nicholas Black of the ...
Stephenson R G - - 1980
The impact of heat stress on the feed intake, milk production, water intake and urine output of undernourished lactating ewes and on the growth rate and water intake of their lambs was measured both in a climate chamber and during exposure to natural high ambient temperature conditions. Similar liveweight increases ...
Hancock E B - - 1980
A group of 40 healthy, young adult male naval recruits were examined and scored for gingival inflammation, plaque, food impaction, pocket depth, carious lesions, calculus, restorations and overhangs. The findings of this study support those previously reported in naval recruits, i.e. gingival inflammation is widespread involving almost every area examined. ...
Dahl C A - - 1980
The purpose was to evaluate microbiological quality and end temperature (ET) of portioned food after heating in a microwave oven as used in a hospital cook/chill foodservice system. Beef loaf (15 kg), potatoes (6 kg), and green beans (5 kg) were prepared in a laboratory. After initial cooking to 60 ...
Takei H H - - 1980
There is a close relationship between the contact, contour, and shape of the teeth that creates the interproximal space with the help of the interdental gingiva. The interdental gingiva, composed of the facial and lingual papillae and the col, is a unique area anatomically and histologically. The high incidence of ...
Rollin J L - - 1979
Mathematical formulas which incorporate thermal properties of the food, geometry of the food mass, and process conditions during cooling were used to predict the time required for a cooked ground beef product chilled in bulk to cool to 45 degrees F. (7 degrees C.). Formulas predicted cooling time within 36 ...
Andrews G P - - 1979
Sublethal heating of Staphylococcus aureus produced little loss of catalase activity, but incubation of the injured cells in tryptic soy broth, with or without 10% NaCl added, produced an 85% decrease in catalase activity. Cells recovered in tryptic soy broth demonstrated increases in catalase levels after approximately 5 h, whereas ...
Nallan G B - - 1979
Three pigeons were trained on a differential, intradimensional autoshaped discrimination. A 45 degrees line tilt was always paired with food whereas a 15 degrees line tilt was never paired with food. All subjects learned the discrimination within 17 sessions. The pigeons were then given generalization tests in extinction over seven ...
Wolfenson D - - 1979
1. Mature laying hens were subjected to ambient temperatures sufficient to maintain body temperature of 43 degrees C for periods of 6 to 7 h during the day (eight periods) or the night (five periods). This did not reduce total daily food consumption. 2. The effect of heat stress during ...
Cooper R G - - 1978
Folacin derivatives were found to vary greatly in thermal stability. It is worth mention that pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA), the folate used therapeutically and in food supplementation, was extremely stable to heat under the experimental conditions, that is, at 100 degrees C. in neutral solution. Under these conditions, 5-formyl-THFA also exhibited ...
Molyneux G S - - 1978
The structure, distribution, density and innervation of arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) have been compared in the skin of Weddell and elephant seals, as part of a study of the structure and function of arteriovenous anastomoses in mammals. In both genera AVAs were coiled vessels with the segmental structure typical of "epithelioid" ...
Gilmour M N - - 1978
A method for weighing samples of plaque using a weighing assembly comprising a sample-bearing boat, held in a closed capsule to avoid moisture loss to room or balance environment is described. The system described is an objective device for measuring, by wet weight the amounts of plaque accumulating under various ...
Ellis F P - - 1976
In this third paper on heat illness, the position of acclimatization in prevention of heat illness is reviewed. Both short and long-term acclimatization are considered, the former in more detail with discussion of present knowledge of the differences arising from artificial and natural acclimatization, the effects of training, water intake ...
Coulter W A - - 1976
The effect of chlorhexidine on the development of plaque, resulting from the inoculation with saliva of a tooth mounted in an artificial mouth, has been studied. The agent delayed the formation of plaque and also inhibited changes in pH and Eh, whether sucrose was present or not. Applied as a ...
Sternberg M - - 1975
Lysinoalanine, N6-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, an unusual amino acid implicated as a renal toxic factor in rats, has been found in proteins of home-cooked and commercial foods and ingredients. Although it has been reported to occur in both edible and nonfood proteins only after alkali treatment, it has now been identified in food ...
DeChatelet L R - - 1974
Heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa are phagocytized much more slowly by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes than are the live organisms. The post-phagocytic increase in hexose monophosphate shunt activity (HMS) parallels the ingestion of the bacteria. The addition of serum to the live organisms causes a marked increase in both ingestion and cellular HMS ...
Nelson F E - - 1972
Sublethally stressed cells of 9 of 10 species of yeast were recovered at maximum levels when potato dextrose agar was adjusted to approximately pH 8. The optimum for candida utilis was at approximately pH 10. At pH 3.5, as commonly employed with media selective for yeasts and molds, recovery of ...
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