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Results 451 - 500 of 532
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Dodds M W - - 1988
The primary aim of this study was to rank several reference foods (apple drink, caramel, chocolate, cookie, skimmed milk powder, snack cracker, and wheat flake) according to their plaque pH response as monitored in a panel of 12 volunteers by the plaque-sampling method for comparison with data previously reported with ...
Livesey G - - 1988
Sources of error in the interpretation of respiratory data are evaluated and reviewed with special reference to the detailed composition of foods. Estimates of fuel utilization or synthesis are 12-fold more sensitive to errors in the nonprotein respiratory quotient than is the heat equivalent of oxygen. Estimates of protein oxidation ...
Wong D H - - 1988
The polyvinylchloride delivery hose of a Fisher & Paykel dual servo heated anaesthetic humidifier was melted by the intraluminal hose heater, causing a major leakage of anaesthetic gases during a surgical procedure. Under experimental conditions, melting could be reproduced using polyvinylchloride but not polyester elastomer tubings. Only tubings made of ...
Berger R G - - 1988
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are described for the detection of poultry and pork in cooked and canned meat foods. These assays are based on species-specific, polyclonal antibodies raised against heat-resistant antigens. The heat-resistant antigens were isolated from raw skeletal muscle tissue of pork and chicken and were found to be ...
Destro-Bisol G - - 1988
A low voltage isoelectric focusing (IEF) method for typing human red cell acid phosphatase (ACPl) polymorphism is reported. A clear differentiation of the ACPl*A, ACPl*B and ACPl*C allelic products is obtained by minimizing diffusion of the bands during electrophoresis and during enzyme visualization by using a hydrophilic cellophane film soaked ...
Swiergiel A H - - 1988
1. Temperature of the scrotum or a similarly sized area of skin on the back of young pigs was changed by means of a thermal pad and food intake was measured. 2. Warming the scrotum to 42 degrees C significantly increased food intake in pigs reared and fed at 25 ...
Kashket S - - 1988
Experiments showed that the intraoral iodide permeability (Ip) method can be used in a reproducible and sensitive manner with solid foods. Ingestion of 5-gram portions of cookies made with defined concentrations of sucrose or fat led to an increased Ip (due to demineralization) of Streptococcus mutans-covered bovine enamel blocks in ...
Babar V S - - 1988
The application of dry heat to seeds and meal was not effective in inactivating the TI and reducing the polyphenol content. Soaking for 24 h followed by cooking for 20 min, was equally effective in destroying the TI activity. Germination of jack bean seeds for 40 h decreased the levels ...
Kirby L K - - 1987
Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the capacity of citrinin to cause dose-related increases in water consumption and urine excretion. In Experiment 1, chicks 24 days old were fed mixtures of untreated and inoculated corn containing citrinin to provide 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 micrograms of the toxin ...
Larsson C - - 1987
Changes in glycerol production and two parameters related to energy metabolism i.e. the heat production rate and the ATP pool, were assayed during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii in 4 mM and 1.35 M NaCl media. For both of the yeasts, the specific ATP pool changed during the ...
Poulton T J - - 1987
Theoretical and clinical evidence suggests that traditional ice water immersion is not the best therapy for heatstroke. We treated three patients with serious heatstroke using the downdraft from a light utility helicopter to dissipate heat primarily by evaporation and convection. The speed of cooling was substantially better than that reported ...
Kroening T A - - 1987
The enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase (histidase) is required for growth of Streptomyces griseus on L-histidine as the sole source of nitrogen. Histidase was induced by the inclusion of histidine in the medium, regardless of the presence of other carbon and nitrogen sources. Histidase activity was increased by a shift of culture ...
Swiergiel A H - - 1987
Early-weaned littermate piglets were acclimated to cold for 3 wk and then housed for 6 wk at a room temperature of 10 degrees C in individual cages. Half the littermates (OP) could switch on a heater and thus adjust temperature within a cage; the other half (CP) had access to ...
King G C - - 1987
The preliminary experience of the use of a prototype hyperthermia unit (Astro 200) for tumor regression in Howard University Hospital's Department of Radiotherapy is described. The purpose of this study was to produce homogeneous heat distribution patterns within a 5-cm cylinder in the middle of a phantom (ground beef) using ...
Anderson E N EN - - 1987
The hot/cold system is perhaps the most widely known medical belief system in the world. I propose that the wide acceptance of hot/cold ideas is due to the fact that they provide a particularly simple, economic coding for common human experience, such as hypothermia, heatstroke, and fevers. Coding of foods ...
Laderman C - - 1987
Malaya, an ancient crossroads of trade, was the recipient of Chinese and Ayurvedic humoral ideas and, later, those of medieval Islam. These ideas were readily accepted by Malays, since they are highly congruent with pre-existing notions among aboriginal peoples of Malaya involving a hot-cold opposition in the material and spiritual ...
Seydoux J - - 1986
The effects of the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin, on body temperature, apparent gross food efficiency and activity of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) peroxisomes and mitochondria of rats acclimated at 23 degrees C or at 32 degrees C have been studied. In 23 degrees C-acclimated rats, nafenopin treatment induced an atrophy ...
Meltzer A - - 1986
The effect of ambient temperatures above 28 degrees C on the efficiency of food utilisation were studied in 7 consecutive flocks of male broilers, grown in a cross-ventilated controlled environment poultry house. The best correlation between the food:gain ratio and temperature was obtained when the latter was expressed as degrees-h ...
Levine L - - 1986
A dimensionless correlation of heat transfer coefficient for heat flow between the extruder barrel wall and extrudate is presented. The standard error of estimate of the correlation is 12.4%. The correlation is useful for the design and scale-up of food extruders and the design of associated temperature control systems.
Shelly M - - 1986
Five heat and moisture exchangers were investigated to compare their efficiency of humidification, their ability to filter bacterial spores and their various physical properties. The results are presented and the various mechanisms of heat and moisture exchange are reviewed. The Pall Ultipor BB50, because of its hydrophobic properties, has a ...
Gilbert S H - - 1986
Heat rate and tension were measured during the steady state of isovelocity shortening in frog sartorius muscles at two speeds (7.5 and 2.0 mm s-1) through two ranges of the length-tension curve: 1.11 to 1.01 L0 and 1.01 to 0.91 L0. Both heat rate and mechanical power were higher at ...
Bibby B G - - 1986
Carbohydrate clearance, plaque pH, and saliva pH resulting from eating foods containing high levels of sugar or starch were measured in the same experimental runs on the same test subjects. Foods with a higher content of sugar were removed more rapidly and depressed the pH of the plaque for a ...
Brandon D L - - 1986
Food provides a continuous antigenic stimulus to the immune system and the antigenicity of processed food proteins should be considered in toxicological evaluations. The antigenicity of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor was studied using antibodies prepared by inoculating rabbits with native, heat-denatured, and N-acetylcysteine-treated Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitors. Immunochemical studies using ...
Kilara A - - 1986
This article surveys the knowledge in the area of protein structure and chemistry of denaturation prior to an indepth review of the effects of heat on soy, milk, and egg proteins. It also reviews the methods available to assess denaturation of proteins. Protein denaturation is an ambiguous phenomenon and the ...
Aponte-Merced L - - 1986
Plaque pH changes on rat molars subjected to cariogenic challenge were measured with an antimony microelectrode. Measurements were made after feeding one of seven different reference or snack foods. Resting plaque pH was measured after fasting and minimum plaque pH after feeding the various foods. This reproducible technique may be ...
Johannesson A - - 1985
A simple method for the removal of linear tattoos is described, where tissue destruction is limited to tattooed skin and the resulting necrosis does not extend more than 1 mm into non-tattooed skin. The epidermis overlying tattooed skin can easily be scraped after heat separation. Table salt is rubbed into ...
Hoffman C J - - 1985
Microwave ovens are widely used in foodservice establishments; currently, they are used primarily for reheating. In comparison with conventional methods, approximately 75% less energy is required for microwave cooking or heating. In the future, it is possible that minimal microwave energy will be used to extend shelf life of foods. ...
MacLeod M G - - 1985
The energy metabolism of mature male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) was determined in a computer-controlled indirect multi-calorimeter system of which the design and operation are described. Daily heat production did not change significantly during an initial 6-d period in the calorimeter chambers. Food intake was at first sufficient to promote a ...
Lin J K - - 1985
The levels of dimethylamine-nitrogen (DMA-N), trimethylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) and trimethylamine-N-oxide-nitrogen (TMAO-N) were determined in five species of dried squid. Each sample contained extremely high levels of TMAO-N (2558-8064 ppm) and moderate amounts of TMA-N (121-503 ppm) and DMA-N (124-373 ppm). Over 90% of TMAO-N in squid was converted to TMA-N and ...
Loesche W J - - 1985
The emergence of S. mutans in the plaque flora appears to have depended upon the ability of the organism to sequester sucrose from dietary sources, particularly from between-meal, snack-type foods. S. mutans appears to have a pH optimum at about the pH required for tooth solution to begin. This specialization ...
Honess D J - - 1985
The effect of systemic hyperthermia at 41 degrees C on the response to melphalan (Mel) of KHT and RIF-1 lung microtumours was studied. Mice with KHT microtumours were treated on day 3 or 4 after inoculation and mice with RIF-1 microtumours on day 4. Results were compared with previously published ...
Mackey B M - - 1984
The duration of the lag phase of Salmonella typhimurium injured by heating, freezing, acidification or drying was measured using the 'Malthus' conductance meter. Results confirmed those previously obtained by viable counting and additionally, revealed the very wide variation in lag between and within populations and the extreme length of lag ...
Gallagher I H - - 1984
Ureolytic bacteria were detected in the plaque flora of six subjects, and included members of the genera Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Proportions of these organisms did not change after subjects mouthrinsed thrice daily for four days with a plaque-mineralizing solution which contained urea and mono-fluorophosphate. The effectiveness of this ...
Bibby B G - - 1984
A combination pH micro-electrode inserted into human plaque centrifuged to the base of a closely-fitting fine-mesh wire "basket" has been used to make continuous recordings of the pH responses produced by exposure to various carbohydrate substrates. The pH depressions given by continued immersion in sugar and starch solutions resemble, both ...
Petersen G V - - 1984
The ultimate pH of the longissimus muscle was measured in 1536 lambs routinely slaughtered at a meat export works in the southern part of the North Island during the 1981/82 season. The mean ultimate pH of all samples was 5.60, and 7.2 percent of the carcases had values equal to, ...
Skinner A - - 1984
In a double-blind cross-over study, 24 dental students consumed 150 g of sucrose or maltose a day in various foods. After 15 days, plaque samples were collected from the distal surface of upper right first premolars; post-diet samples were collected four months later. The median total anaerobic count of plaque ...
Bibby B G - - 1983
To indicate the cariogenic potential of some standard foods and confections, their ability to demineralize powdered enamel or enamel sections was tested by incubation with mouth organisms in saliva or plaque. With a few exceptions, the amounts of demineralization produced by the tested substrates in either a closed or flowing ...
Haddad G S - - 1983
This research was designed to test the reliability of modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods for quantitation of thiamine, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid in milk; to ascertain the extent of destruction of those vitamins by modern heat processing; and to determine if it is truthful to report that heat ...
Kuba K - - 1983
Whole meal produced from fresh sardine had a high content of histidine, while that from rancid fish had a high content of histamine. The toxicity to induce gizzard erosion, which appeared after heating, was stronger in the former whole meal than in the latter. Thus, the content of histidine, not ...
Fujita S - - 1983
In order to establish an efficient way to prepare diets for patients in bioclean rooms, sterilization and temperature increase of food and drinks were studied by means of a specially designed microwave oven, which can be set over a range of 50 to 600 W. It is built into a ...
Tatevossian A - - 1983
The tracer diffusion of small ionic species was investigated in water, saliva, dental plaque fluid and in plaque residue packed by a range of g forces. Diffusion rate of NaCl was similar in water, saliva and plaque fluid. The rate of CaCl2, NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4 and Na2SO4 was less in both ...
de Muñiz B R - - 1983
Sixty-six children aged 6-12, permanent residents of a children's home, were placed on a diet during a 45-day experimental period to measure salivary flow-rate, pH of saliva and dental plaque, total concentrations of salivary proteins, inorganic phosphate, bicarbonate, calcium and amylase. The total caloric content, as well as the proportional ...
Kilshaw P J - - 1982
Recent experiments in guinea-pigs suggest that heat treatment applied during the manufacture of baby milk formulae reduces the immunological sensitising capacity of the cow's milk proteins. This immunological benefit must be weighed against possible damage that heat treatment may cause to the nutritional quality of the products. Severe heat treatment ...
Schachtele C F - - 1982
Changes in human dental plaque pH can be used to obtain estimates of the acidogenic potential of ingested foods. The presence of acid in plaque is influenced by a large number of host, microbial, and substrate factors. Several useful methods have been developed for monitoring changes in plaque pH. Plaque ...
Wills M E - - 1982
Using the Oxford Human Milk Pasteuriser human milk was exposed to lower temperature and shorter time periods than employed in classical holder pasteurisation. Heating human milk at 62.5 degrees C for 5 min completely destroyed Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and group B beta-haemolytic streptococci inoculated into the samples. Heating at ...
Svanberg M - - 1982
Mouthrinses with SnF2 in 11 subjects significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) the total colony forming units (CFU) count and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis in plaque. The numbers of S. mutans and S. sanguis were significantly more reduced than was the total CFU count. After rinsing ...
Addy M - - 1982
A dietary aetiology for tooth staining associated with the use of chlorhexidine has been postulated. The time related activity of chlorhexidine would therefore suggest that evening rinsing would result in less staining than morning rinsing. This study measured tooth and tongue staining and plaque accumulation in a group of 18 ...
Schmidt E - - 1982
The loss of essential protein-nutrients by heat treatment of formula products has largely been eliminated by modern techniques employed by the food industry. Heat treatment of human milk reduces the biological activity of protein-like antimicrobial factors, but pasteurisation preserves most of the IgA-activity. Little is known about possible nutritional effects ...
Unklesbay N F - - 1982
Simulating volume demand within hospital food service departments, infrared heat processing conditions were used to heat two similar protein menu items to determine both energy consumption required for heat processing and energy/nutrient rations. A larger, conveyorized infrared oven (CTX-70) and a smaller, infrared unit (Krups 2002) were used to heat ...
Svedhem A - - 1981
Campylobacter jejuni was an almost regular finding in chickens and in minced meat from pigs and cattle sold in ordinary food stores. The bacteria survived on the food at 4 degrees C for one week and frozen at -20 degrees C for three months. None of the strains tested survived ...
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