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Flindall Jason W JW University of Lethbridge - - 2014
Evidence from recent neurophysiological studies on non-human primates as well as from human behavioural studies suggest that actions with similar kinematic requirements but different end-state goals are supported by separate neural networks. It is unknown whether these different networks supporting seemingly similar reach-to-grasp actions are lateralized, or if they are ...
Murray Susan S New York Obesity Research Center, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, P&S Box 30 DOM/NYORC, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032-3702, - - 2014
With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established ...
Jiang Tao T Olfaction: From coding to memory team. INSERM, U1028, UMR 5292 CNRS, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, University of Lyon, 69366 Lyon, France.Developmental Ethology and Cognitive Psychology Group, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, CNRS (UMR 6265), Université de Bourgogne-Inra, Dijon, France. tjiang@olfac.univ-lyon1.fr - - 2014
Brain reward systems mediate liking and wanting for food reward. Here, we explore the differential involvement of the following structures for these two components: the ventral and dorsal striatopallidal area, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior insula, and anterior cingulate. Twelve healthy female participants were asked to rate pleasantness (liking of food ...
Fu X-W XW State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100193,People's Republic of - - 2014
The rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), is a serious insect pest of rice with a strong migratory ability. Previous studies on the migration of C. medinalis were mostly carried out in tropical or subtropical regions, however, and what the pattern of seasonal movements this species exhibits in temperate regions ...
Holsen Laura M LM Division of Women׳s Health, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Brigham & Women׳s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Evidence contributing to the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms underlying appetite dysregulation in anorexia nervosa draws heavily on separate lines of research into neuroendocrine and neural circuitry functioning. In particular, studies consistently cite elevated ghrelin and abnormal activation patterns in homeostatic (hypothalamus) and hedonic (striatum, amygdala, insula) regions governing appetite. The ...
Lopez Richard B RB 1Dartmouth - - 2014
The ability to control desires, whether for food, sex, or drugs, enables people to function successfully within society. Yet, in tempting situations, strong impulses often result in self-control failure. Although many triggers of self-control failure have been identified, the question remains as to why some individuals are more likely than ...
Murray Elizabeth E Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Neuroscience Building, Oxford, OX3 7JX, - - 2014
Opioid antagonism reduces the consumption of palatable foods in humans but the neural substrates implicated in these effects are less well understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on neural response to rewarding and aversive sight and taste stimuli. We ...
Niven Jeremy E JE School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food-deprived flies reduce the gain of a visual-motion-sensitive interneuron whilst walking, and the optomotor reflex to which it contributes, providing evidence of coupling between nutritional state, behavior and neural activity.
Longden Kit D KD Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food deprivation alters the processing of sensory information, increasing neural activity in the olfactory and gustatory systems in animals across phyla [1-4]. Neural signaling is metabolically costly [5-9], and a hungry animal has limited energy reserves, so we hypothesized that neural activity in other systems may be downregulated by food ...
Emmenegger Tamara - - 2014
The timing of migration substantially influences individual fitness. To match peak requirements with peak resource availability, we hypothesized that individual migrants schedule spring migration in close relation to seasonal changes in environmental conditions along the route and particularly, at the breeding destination.To test this hypothesis, we investigated the timing of ...
Williams Diana L DL Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Central nervous system control of food intake involves detecting, integrating and responding to diverse internal and external signals. For maintenance of energy homeostasis, the brain uses long-term signals of metabolic status and short-term signals related to the nutrient content of individual meals. Feeding is also clearly influenced by hedonic, reward-related ...
Giuliani Nicole R NR University of - - 2014
Craving of unhealthy food is a common target of self-regulation, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In this study, participants used cognitive reappraisal to regulate their desire to consume idiosyncratically craved or not craved energy-dense foods, and neural activity during regulation was compared with each other and ...
Crabtree Daniel R - - 2013
Acute bouts of high-intensity exercise modulate peripheral appetite regulating hormones to transiently suppress hunger. However, the effects of physical activity on central appetite regulation have yet to be fully investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural responses to visual food stimuli after intense exercise and rest. ...
Hoffbrand A Victor - - 2013
John Scott (1940-2013) was born in Dublin where he was to spend the rest of his career, both as an undergraduate and subsequently Professor of Biochemistry and Nutrition at Trinity College. His research with the talented group of scientists and clinicians that he led has had a substantial impact on ...
Akieda-Asai Sayaka - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and leptin are anorectic hormones. Previously, we showed that intraperitoneal coadministration of subthreshold GLP1 with leptin dramatically reduced food intake in rats. Here, by using midbrain-transected rats, we investigated the role of the neural pathway from the hindbrain to the hypothalamus in the interaction of GLP1 and ...
Yoshikawa Takahiro - - 2013
Currently, little is known about the brain function that allows individuals to suppress eating behavior. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine changes in neural activity over time that were related to suppression of motivation to eat in eleven healthy males. The MEG experiment consisted of four motivation sessions ...
Huerta Claudia I - - 2013
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of the three food-cue paradigms most commonly used for functional neuroimaging studies to determine: i) commonalities and differences in the neural response patterns by paradigm; and, ii) the relative robustness and reliability of responses to each paradigm. Design and ...
Goldman Rachel L - - 2013
While overall success rates of bariatric surgery are high, approximately 20% of patients either regain or never lose the expected amount of weight. The purpose of this study was to determine whether, after gastric-bypass surgery, the degree of weight loss can be differentiated based on the neural response to food ...
Ni Qing-Yong - - 2013
Forest fragmentation and isolation can reduce the size of available habitat and lead to lower food availability for some primate species. The persistence of nonhuman primates in fragments depends largely on their ability to adjust their diet in response environmental change. The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is distributed ...
Kroes Marijn C W - - 2013
It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing ...
Fernandes Maria F - - 2013
The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact ...
Weygandt Martin - - 2013
Deficits in impulse control are discussed as key mechanisms for major worldwide health problems such as drug addiction and obesity. For example, obese subjects have difficulty controlling their impulses to overeat when faced with food items. Here, we investigated the role of neural impulse control mechanisms for dietary success in ...
Karra Efthimia E Centre for Obesity Research, University College London, London, United - - 2013
Polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with human obesity and obesity-prone behaviors, including increased food intake and a preference for energy-dense foods. FTO demethylates N6-methyladenosine, a potential regulatory RNA modification, but the mechanisms by which FTO predisposes humans to obesity remain unclear. In adiposity-matched, normal-weight ...
Burger Kyle S - - 2013
Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as ...
Ahmed Serge H SH Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. - - 2013
To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive ...
Teubner Brett J W BJ Department of Biology and Obesity Reversal Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, - - 2013
Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived "hunger-peptide" ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by ...
Di Salle Francesco - - 2013
Little is known about how CO2 affects neural processing of taste. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of carbonation on brain processing of sweet stimuli, which has relevance to studies of food selection and satiety. The presence of carbonation produced an overall decrease in the neural ...
Sternson Scott M SM Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. - - 2013
How does an organism's internal state direct its actions? At one moment an animal forages for food with acrobatic feats such as tree climbing and jumping between branches. At another time, it travels along the ground to find water or a mate, exposing itself to predators along the way. These ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. - - 2013
Obese compared with lean individuals show greater attention-, gustatory-, and reward-region responsivity to food cues but reduced reward-region responsivity during food intake. However, to our knowledge, research has not tested whether an objectively measured caloric intake is positively associated with neural responsivity independent of excess adipose tissue. We tested the ...
Gearhardt Ashley N - - 2013
Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. The current study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g., non-food commercials, television show) and to explore how this ...
Yokum S - - 2013
Objective:Obese versus lean individuals show greater reward region and reduced inhibitory region responsivity to food images, which predict future weight gain. Thinking of the costs of eating palatable foods and craving suppression have been found to modulate this neural responsivity, but these cognitive reappraisal studies have primarily involved lean participants. ...
Lee Ying - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Dietary disinhibition is a behavioral trait associated with weight gain and obesity. Because food choices are made according to the relative value assigned to each option, examination of valuation signals through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may elucidate the neural basis for the association between dietary disinhibition and weight ...
Biedermann Maurus - - 2013
Migration from recycled paperboard was monitored after 2, 4 and 9 months of storage for six test foods industrially packed in five configurations, four with internal plastic films. After 9 months, the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons into foods directly packed in the paperboard amounted to 30-52 mg/kg, which corresponded ...
Carnell Susan - - 2013
We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to ...
Leidy Heather J HJ Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201, USA. - - 2013
Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping ...
Liang N-C NC Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2013
Stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to the release of glucocorticoids (GC). Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been suggested to facilitate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nonetheless, different stressors can produce distinct effects on food intake and may support different directions of ...
García-García I - - 2013
The aim of this paper is to describe the patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging activation produced by visual food stimuli in healthy participants, as well as in those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in the last ...
Baykal Halil - - 2013
In recent years, neural networks have turned out as a powerful method for numerous practical applications in a wide variety of disciplines. In more practical terms neural networks are one of nonlinear statistical data modeling tools. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to ...
Shapaval V - - 2012
AIMS: The objective of the study was to evaluate a high-throughput liquid microcultivation protocol and FTIR spectroscopy for differentiation of food spoilage filamentous fungi. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the study, fifty nine food-related fungal strains were analyzed. The cultivation of fungi was performed in liquid medium in the Bioscreen C ...
Domijan Ana-Marija - - 2012
Abstract Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB1 is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB1 has a wide range of ...
Panickar Kiran S - - 2012
Polyphenols are natural substances and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, tea, and wine. Some polyphenols have insulin-potentiating and anti-inflammatory effects, both of which are important in obesity. Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic compounds is associated with reduced diet-induced obesity and/or metabolic syndrome in animal and human studies. Insights into ...
Bruce Amanda S - - 2012
Branding and advertising have a powerful effect on both familiarity and preference for products, yet no neuroimaging studies have examined neural response to logos in children. Food advertising is particularly pervasive and effective in manipulating choices in children. The purpose of the present study was to examine how healthy children's ...
Zhu Yikang - - 2012
The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane ...
Beck Kathryn L - - 2012
Using food frequency data to identify dietary patterns is a newly emerging approach to assessing the relationship between dietary intake and iron status. Food frequency questionnaires should be assessed for validity and reproducibility before use. We aimed to investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of an iron food frequency questionnaire ...
Ueno Hiroshi M - - 2012
The iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) is useful for dietary iron supplementation. However, the effects of FeLf on iron-catalyzed off-flavors in lipid-containing food products have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of FeLf on off-flavors development during the production and storage of powdered milk with added fish oil. ...
Gera Tarun - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The utility of iron fortification of food to improve iron deficiency, anemia, and biological outcomes is not proven unequivocally. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate 1) the effect of iron fortification on hemoglobin and serum ferritin and the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia, 2) the possible predictors of ...
Siruguri Vasanthi - - 2012
The present study was carried out on stored rice variety PAU 201 in Punjab that was not permitted for milling and public distribution due to the presence of damaged grains at levels exceeding the regulatory limits of 4.75 per cent. The aim of the study was to determine fungal and ...
Dewey Kathryn G - - 2012
Home fortification of complementary foods with iron and other micronutrients is a low-cost strategy for filling nutrient gaps in the diets of infants and young children, but there has been uncertainty about the safety of universal provision of iron via home fortification in malaria-endemic areas. Based on the current understanding ...
Chang Suying - - 2012
Ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) enhances iron absorption in the presence of phytate. However, the amount of NaFeEDTA that would have to be added to a complementary food to provide the necessary intake of iron for an infant or young child if NaFeEDTA were the sole iron fortificant exceeds the Acceptable ...
Amagloh Francis Kweku - - 2012
The availability of micronutrients from sweetpotato-based complementary foods (CFs): oven-toasted and roller-dried ComFa, and from a maize-based infant food, enriched Weanimix, was compared using phytate/mineral molar ratios, polyphenols and β-carotene levels. The phytate/calcium, iron and zinc molar ratios of approximately 0.17, 1 and 15 predict better absorption of calcium, iron ...
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