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Results 401 - 450 of 958
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Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2007
If the new environment and modern lifestyle cause obesity in individuals with thrifty genes by increasing energy intake, it is important to know by what mechanisms hyperphagia occurs and why energy balance is not kept in check by the homeostatic regulator. The argument is developed that procuring and ingesting food ...
Emmerson Paul J - - 2007
The melanocortin family of receptors (MC 1-5R) and their endogenous peptide ligands (alpha, beta, gamma- MSH and ACTH) have been implicated in the control of a wide variety of behavioral and physiological functions including the homeostatic control of food intake and body weight. In rodent models, melanocortin agonists including the ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2007
Obesity rates in the United States are a function of socioeconomic status. Higher rates are found among groups with lower educational and income levels, among racial and ethnic minorities, and in high-poverty areas. Yet, the relation between obesity, nutrition, and diet continues to be viewed in biologic terms, with the ...
French Simone A - - 2007
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. METHODS: Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage ...
Ashrafi Kaveh - - 2007
As in all living organisms, survival in C. elegans requires adequate management of energy supplies. Genetic screens have revealed that C. elegans fat regulation involves a complex network of genes with known or likely functions in food sensation, neuroendocrine signaling, uptake, transport, storage and utilization of fats. Core fat and ...
Yan Liang Zeng - - 2007
The recent emergence of obesity as a major health threat in the industrialized world has intensified the search for novel and effective pharmacologic treatment. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) axis has been shown to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis and is considered among the most promising antiobesity targets. ...
Dridi Sami - - 2007
Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of several energy balance-related factors (leptin, cerulenin, food deprivation, genotype, and gender) on SCD gene expression in chickens. In experiment 1, 6-week-old ...
Hirasawa Michiru - - 2007
In North American society, it is all too common for the intake of calories to outweigh an individual's energy demands. Such over-consumption where high-energy foods are readily available undoubtedly contributes to the growing problem of obesity. Palatable food stimulates brain circuits similar to those that mediate behavioral responses to drugs ...
Kowalski Timothy J - - 2007
There is compelling genetic and pharmacologic evidence to indicate that melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 (MCHR1) signaling is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. The medical need for novel therapies to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders has led to a great deal of interest by pharmaceutical companies ...
Klok M D - - 2007
Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a role in ...
Forshee Richard A - - 2007
The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S. population. The Center ...
Gao Qian Q Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. - - 2007
Metabolic hormones, such as leptin, alter the input organization of hypothalamic circuits, resulting in increased pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) tone, followed by decreased food intake and adiposity. The gonadal steroid estradiol can also reduce appetite and adiposity, and it influences synaptic plasticity. Here we report that estradiol (E2) triggers a robust increase ...
Lin Linus S - - 2006
The discovery of novel acyclic amide cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonists is described. They are potent, selective, orally bioavailable, and active in rodent models of food intake and body weight reduction. A major focus of the optimization process was to increase in vivo efficacy and to reduce the potential for formation ...
Doyon Christian - - 2006
The effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB(1)) antagonist rimonabant on energy metabolism and fasting-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal activation were investigated. Lean and obese Zucker rats were treated orally with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg rimonabant for 14 days. A comprehensive energy balance profile based on whole-carcass analyses ...
Dham Shefali - - 2006
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease globally. It is increasingly a problem of children and individuals in poor countries characterized by food insecurity. This is of great concern as childhood obesity predicts increased future adult obesity. To curb the epidemic of obesity, it is essential to understand the regulation ...
Boyd Steven T - - 2006
The endocannabinoid system is a complex physiologic system. One of the most important discoveries related to the endocannabinoid system is that cannabinoid-1 receptors are present throughout the body and that they are linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Adipose tissue was historically thought to be an inert, passive storage vehicle. ...
Gray Juliette J University Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, - - 2006
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibits food intake, and rodent models of BDNF disruption all exhibit increased food intake and obesity, as well as hyperactivity. We report an 8-year-old girl with hyperphagia and severe obesity, impaired cognitive function, and hyperactivity who harbored a de novo chromosomal inversion, 46,XX,inv(11)(p13p15.3), a ...
Clerc Pascal - - 2007
The role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a satiety factor has been extensively documented. Although most work implies that CCK1 receptor mediates the control of food intake, a contributing role for CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) in the CCK-induced satiety cannot be totally excluded. The hypothesis that CCK2R invalidation disrupts regulatory pathways with ...
Adan R A H - - 2006
Mutations in the human melanocortin (MC)4 receptor have been associated with obesity, which underscores the relevance of this receptor as a drug target to treat obesity. Infusion of MC4R agonists decreases food intake, whereas inhibition of MC receptor activity by infusion of an MC receptor antagonist or with the inverse ...
Bellocchio Luigi - - 2006
One of the most interesting pharmacological targets proposed in the past ten years for fighting obesity and related metabolic disorders is the endocannabinoid system. The role of the endocannabinoid system is crucial in regulating the rewarding properties of food, in controlling energy balance by acting at the hypothalamic circuitries involved ...
Bouret S G - - 2006
The hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight, and recent work has defined a core circuitry in the hypothalamus that appears to mediate many of the effects of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin on feeding and glucose homeostasis. However, until recently, little was known ...
Bethanis Sotirios K - - 2006
Leptin is a 16-kDa nonglycosylated protein primarily secreted from the adipocytes of white fat; minor levels of regulated leptin expression also occurs at other sites such as placenta, skeletal muscle, the stomach fundus, and culture-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Leptin is primarily involved in the regulation of food intake and ...
Eknoyan Garabed - - 2006
Chronic food shortage and malnutrition have been the scourge of humankind from the dawn of history. The current worldwide epidemic of obesity, now recognized as a public health crisis, is barely a few decades old. Only after the technological advances of the eighteenth century did a gradual increase in food ...
Hommel Jonathan D - - 2006
The leptin hormone is critical for normal food intake and metabolism. While leptin receptor (Lepr) function has been well studied in the hypothalamus, the functional relevance of Lepr expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has not been investigated. The VTA contains dopamine neurons that are important in modulating motivated ...
Morton G J - - 2006
The capacity to adjust food intake in response to changing energy requirements is essential for survival. Recent progress has provided an insight into the molecular, cellular and behavioural mechanisms that link changes of body fat stores to adaptive adjustments of feeding behaviour. The physiological importance of this homeostatic control system ...
Brown Lynda M - - 2006
As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, adequate animal models acquire increased importance for the investigation of energy homeostatic mechanisms. Understanding the central mechanism of action of the adiposity hormones, insulin and leptin, has become particularly important as researchers examine ways to treat or prevent obesity. Although the intra-3rd-ventricular ...
Lumeng Julie C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relationship between maternal prompting to eat, child compliance, and mother and child weight. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-one 3- to 6-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped tasting four foods (two familiar, two novel). Maternal prompts to eat and the child's compliance with the prompts ...
Salinsky Eileen - - 2006
This issue brief reviews key findings and recommendations from the Institute of Medicine study on food marketing and its effects on childhood obesity. The brief describes the childhood obesity epidemic, discusses key trends associated with rising childhood obesity rates, and considers the relative role of marketing practices on diet and ...
Gittelsohn Joel - - 2006
Effective approaches for the prevention and reduction of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases are urgently needed. Food store-centered programs represent one approach that may be both effective and sustainable. The authors developed a food store-based intervention in the Marshall Islands using qualitative and quantitative formative research methods, including a store ...
Astrup A - - 2006
The current obesity epidemic is generally considered multi-causal. Certain foods, including snacks such as potato chips, and their marketing are often highlighted as needing particular attention. This forces potato chip producers to take position on their role and responsibility. Based on expert interviews and a literature review, a systems analysis ...
Sakuta Tomohiro - - 2006
Chronic topical treatment of rats with a new RARgamma-selective retinoid, ER36009, resulted in a significant reduction of epididymal white adipose tissue and a significant increase of interscapular brown adipose tissue without affecting food intake. ER36009 markedly decreased PPARgamma, 11beta-HSD1, and Bcl-2 mRNA levels, and increased Bax mRNA in white adipose ...
Yamamoto Julienne A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an increasing public health problem. Fast food consumption has been linked to obesity. The purpose of this study is to determine adolescent calorie and fat consumption patterns at different types of restaurants. METHOD: Study subjects (104 adolescents) were asked to order a dinner meal ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2006
A neural network sensitive to leptin and other energy status signals stretching from the hypothalamus to the caudal medulla has been identified as the homeostatic control system for the regulation of food intake and energy balance. While this system is remarkably powerful in defending the lower limits of adiposity, it ...
Levin Barry E - - 2006
The perfect survivor must be able to eat and store as many calories as possible when food is readily available as a buffer against periods of scarcity. He must also reduce energy expenditure when food is scarce and efficiently and accurately restore lost adipose stores when food is again available. ...
Torto Rita R Departments of Physiology, University of Florida McKnight Brain Institute, P.O. Box 100244, Gainesville, FL 32610-0244, - - 2006
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that insufficiency of leptin restraint in the hypothalamus is responsible for promoting weight gain and adiposity after ovariectomy (ovx). Whether increasing leptin transgene expression can overcome the diminution in leptin restraint was evaluated in ovx rats. Enhanced leptin or green fluorescent protein (GFP; ...
O'Rahilly Stephen S Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, - - 2006
Considerable attention is currently being paid to the secular changes in food intake and physical activity that underlie the increase in the prevalence of obesity that is apparent in many societies. While this is laudable it would be unwise to view these environmental factors in isolation from the biological factors ...
Billes Sonja K - - 2007
Although originally developed as an antidepressant, long-term bupropion (BUP) treatment was recently shown to cause 5-8% weight loss over placebo in clinical trials with obese adults. BUP's antidepressant properties probably stem from its ability to increase extracellular brain dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels by inhibiting their reuptake, although the ...
Porubská Katarína - - 2006
Obesity and overweight are important risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and associated chronic diseases, and therefore, they have become serious global problems in the western and developed countries. But little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of eating behavior and its influences on the central ...
Blass Elliott M - - 2006
Television viewing (TVV) has been linked with obesity, possibly through increased sedentary behavior and/or through increased ingestion during TVV. The proposition that TVV causes increased feeding, however, has not been subjected to experimental verification until recently. Our objective was to determine if the amount eaten of two familiar, palatable, high-density ...
Killgore William D S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether affect ratings predicted regional cerebral responses to high and low-calorie foods. METHOD: Thirteen normal-weight adult women viewed photographs of high and low-calorie foods while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Regression analysis was used to predict regional activation from positive and negative affect scores. RESULTS: Positive ...
Varela-Moreiras G - - 2006
Edible fats are important food components that enhance palatability by providing texture and enhancing flavour. They also provide essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins. In addition, we enjoy eating foods containing fat, but there is also a negative side; excessive consumption may not be good for health, but we ...
Buettner Christoph - - 2006
Leptin has pleiotropic effects on glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. Here, we validate the use of a cell-permeable phosphopeptide that blocks STAT3 activation in vivo. The combination of this biochemical approach with stereotaxic surgical techniques allowed us to pinpoint the contribution of hypothalamic STAT3 to the acute effects of leptin ...
Lieberman Leslie Sue - - 2006
The nutrition transition has created an obesogenic environment resulting in a growing obesity pandemic. An optimal foraging approach provides cost/benefit models of cognitive, behavioral and physiological strategies that illuminate the causes of caloric surfeit and consequent obesity in current environments of abundant food cues; easy-access and reliable food patches; low ...
Maletínská Lenka - - 2006
Treatment of newborn mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG) is neurotoxic for hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and causes obesity. In the MSG-treated 16-week-old NMRI mice, we detected specific ablation of ARC neuronal cells, 8 times higher fat to body mass ratio but unchanged body mass compared to controls, advanced hyperglycemia and ...
Moran Timothy H - - 2006
Leptin reduces food intake through a specific effect on meal size. Investigations into how this within meal effect of leptin is mediated have demonstrated that leptin increases the ability of within meal inhibitory feedback signaling to limit intake and activate neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Leptin's ...
Davis Caroline C Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, York University, 343 Bethune College, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3. - - 2007
The ability to assess accurately the relative size of food portions is highly variable in the population. This study was designed to identify salient individual differences that correlate with this variation since estimation errors are seen as a barrier to the control of food intake and a detriment to many ...
Craeynest Mietje - - 2006
We investigated whether youngsters with obesity (n=39) differed from a control group (n=39) in their self-reported attitudes towards and in their implicit identification with physical activity and food. Self-reported attitudes were assessed using a rating scale; implicit identification was assessed using a self-concept Implicit Association Task (IAT). Results revealed a ...
Steinberg Gregory R - - 2006
We examined the actions of a second-generation ciliary neurotrophic factor analog (CNTF(Ax15)) on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of food intake. Unlike leptin CNTF(Ax15) has been shown to reduce food intake in obese rodents and humans. Intraperitoneal injection of CNTF(Ax15) acutely (45 min) reduced hypothalamic AMPKalpha2 activity, AMPKalpha2Thr172 ...
Mela David J - - 2006
Pleasure from foods can stimulate "non-homoeostatic" eating, and might therefore also potentially contribute toward obesity. However, obesity is not reliably associated with heightened hedonic responses to foods. This apparent discrepancy may reflect the differentiation between "liking" and "wanting". Supporting this, behavioural and neurophysiological data on responsiveness to food-related cues indicate ...
Gayle Dave A - - 2006
Feeding dysregulation may manifest as either under-nourishment (e.g., anorexia) or excessive eating leading to obesity. Recent studies have suggested a gender-related variance in weight maintenance in response to chronic disease or obesity-related dietary regimens. However it is unclear whether these gender differences in weight management are secondary to appetite-mediated food ...
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