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Results 351 - 400 of 946
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Craeynest Mietje - - 2008
Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation ...
Naef Lindsay - - 2007
Recent evidence suggests that the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) modulates energy balance through a number of mechanisms, including acting in the brain to increase food intake. In the current studies, we first demonstrated that chronic infusions of PRL into the lateral ventricles increased food intake in cycling rats without disrupting ...
Rowland Neil E - - 2008
For the past 50 years, the most prevalent theoretical models for regulation of food intake have been based in the physiological concept of energy homeostasis. However, several authors have noted that the simplest form of homeostasis, stability, does not accurately reflect the actual state of affairs and most notably the ...
Farooqi I Sadaf IS University Department of Medicine and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. - - 2007
Studies of the fat-derived hormone leptin have provided key insights into the molecular and neural components of feeding behavior and body weight regulation. An important challenge lies in understanding how the rewarding properties of food interact with, and can override, physiological satiety signals and promote overeating. We used functional magnetic ...
Inge Thomas H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A 14-year-old boy presented with daytime somnolence, intermittent emesis and hypothyroidism. Neuroimaging revealed a calcified suprasellar intracranial mass, suspected to be a craniopharyngioma. Subtotal resection of the tumor confirmed the diagnosis. Extreme obesity (BMI >60 kg/m(2)) and hyperinsulinemia followed tumor resection and cranial irradiation. Dietary interventions were unsuccessful, and ...
Arias Horcajadas Francisco - - 2007
Cannabinoid system is a crucial mechanism in regulating food intake and energy metabolism. It is involved in central and peripheral mechanisms regulating such behavior, interacting with many other signaling systems with a role in metabolic regulation. Cannabinoid agonists promote food intake, and soon a cannabinoid antagonist, rimonabant, will be marketed ...
Guallar-Castillón Pilar - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Consumption of fried food has been suggested to promote obesity, but this association has seldom been studied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of energy intake from fried food with general and central obesity in Spain, a Mediterranean country where frying with oil is a traditional cooking procedure. ...
Dykens Elisabeth M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the leading known genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by intellectual disabilities, maladaptive and compulsive behaviors, and hyperphagia. Although complications of obesity resulting from hyperphagia are the leading cause of death in PWS, quantifying this drive for food has long been an unmet research need. This ...
Raun Kirsten - - 2007
To evaluate the efficacy of liraglutide, a new, stable, once-daily human analog of glucagon-like peptide-1, in a new animal model of obesity. Liraglutide was administered subcutaneously once daily (7 microg/kg for 7 weeks) to six female obese Göttingen minipigs. Food intake and feeding patterns were monitored using a novel automated ...
Levin Barry E - - 2007
There is a widespread obesity epidemic in the developed world which is having an adverse impact on the health of affected individuals. Many of the afflicted have a genetic predisposition to become obese. These individuals become obese when they over consume highly palatable, calorically dense foods which are readily available ...
Dallman Mary F - - 2007
Glucocorticoids act primarily in a feed-forward fashion on brain to activate CNS pathways that implement wanting appropriate to physiological needs. Thus, depending on the available conditions, elevated glucocorticoids may augment the behavioural want to run, fight or feed. Although glucocorticoids stimulate intake of chow, fat and sucrose, insulin appears to ...
Julliard A K - - 2007
Numerous peripheral and hypothalamic peptides control food intake. Among these signals are orexin, an orexigenic molecule released into the olfactory bulb by centrifugal hypothalamic fibres and leptin, an anorexigenic molecule that is released peripherally and can pass through the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, we injected either orexin or ...
Bojanowska E - - 2007
Leptin interplays with other peptides to control feeding behaviour in humans and animals. Using exendin-4, an agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1, we investigated whether leptin modifies its effect on food intake in the rat. In the first series, exendin-4 alone (0.1, 2 or 10 microg per rat), leptin alone (0.1, 2, ...
Després Jean-Pierre - - 2007
Recent studies have provided evidence that the endocannabinoid (EC) system has very significant effects on energy balance and metabolism through the central control of appetite and by affecting peripheral metabolism. Endocannabinoids are endogenous phospholipid derivatives which bind and activate cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 (CB1 and CB2 receptors). ...
Rothemund Yvonne - - 2007
The neural systems regulating food intake in obese individuals remain poorly understood. Previous studies applied positron emission tomography and manipulated hunger and satiety to investigate differences in appetitive processing between obese and normal-weight individuals. However, it is not known whether manipulation of stimulus value may yield different neural activity in ...
Yang S J - - 2007
Leptin, which is produced in proportion to adiposity, has been reported to regulate feeding behaviors. Previous researchers reported that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) decreased food intake, while L-arginine attenuated this effect. Recently, studies showed that NO plays an important role as a mediator of feeding behavior induced ...
Soetens Barbara - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Based on cognitive theory (CT), the aim of this study is to investigate the cognitive processing of food cues in clinically overweight adolescents. DESIGN: An experimental design with performance-based measures. METHODS: Eighty-seven (45 overweight, 42 normal weight) adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were examined. All ...
Desai Mina - - 2007
Maternal food restriction during pregnancy results in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns with significantly decreased plasma leptin levels. When nursed by ad libitum-fed controls, IUGR offspring exhibit hyperphagia with adult obesity, marked by increased percentage body fat and plasma leptin, suggesting altered anorexigenic pathways. The authors examined leptin signaling pathways and ...
Badman Michael K - - 2007
Obesity is responsible for the mounting incidence of metabolic disease in adult and pediatric populations. Understanding of the pathogenesis and maintenance of the obese state has advanced rapidly over the past 10 years. Bodily energy reserves are managed actively by complex systems that regulate food intake, substrate partitioning, and energy ...
Adam Tanja C TC University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, United - - 2007
An increasing number of people report concerns about the amount of stress in their life. At the same time obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide. Evidence is accumulating rapidly that stress related chronic stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and resulting excess glucocorticoid exposure may play a potential role ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2007
Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is a gut-brain peptide that decreases food intake when administered by intravenous infusion to lean and obese humans and rats. However, chronic administration of PYY(3-36) by osmotic minipump to lean and obese rodents produces only a transient reduction in daily food intake and weight gain. It has ...
Licinio Julio - - 2007
In this report, we examine the effects of leptin on the intake of specific macro- and micronutrients in a female patient with leptin gene deficiency. The patient was studied off and on leptin at stable body weight, within the normal to mildly overweight range. The data were obtained by detailed ...
Sachot C - - 2007
Leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, is mainly known for its regulatory role of energy balance by direct activation of hypothalamic receptors. Recently, its function in the acute control of food intake was additionally attributed to activation of the vagus nerve to regulate meal termination. Whether vagal afferent ...
Sugarman Stephen D - - 2007
That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that ...
Kuhajda Francis P - - 2007
The rising incidence of obesity, as a disorder of energy metabolism, has provoked a search for pharmacological agents that either increase energy expenditure or reduce food intake. The fatty acid oxidation pathway, and its rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 are potential targets for the treatment of obesity. The modulation of ...
McCarty Catherine A - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine if the nutrient content of recipes available in newspapers is related to community obesity rates. METHODS: All recipes published in the major newspapers for 3 cities with populations of 400,000 or more from 4 geographic areas within the United States the ...
Kaufman Leslie - - 2007
Despite prevention efforts, childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This ethnographic study seeks to enhance understandings of the sociocultural dimensions of childhood obesity and inform prevention efforts. Using participant observation, interviews, and life histories, this research probes the sociocultural roots of childhood obesity by exploring the ...
Asfaw Abay - - 2007
I examine the relationship between micronutrient deficiency and the prevalence of mothers' overweight/obesity in Egypt using the 1997 Egyptian Integrated Household Survey. The ordered logit results show an overlap between micronutrient deficiency and the prevalence of mothers' overweight/obesity in Egypt. The odds of being overweight/obese are 80.8% higher for micronutrient ...
Peters J H - - 2007
A recombinantly produced murine leptin analog (MLA) antagonizes leptin-induced signaling in cell lines that express the long form of the leptin receptor. However, the effects of MLA on the activity of leptin-sensitive neurons and on central neural controls of food intake have not been reported. Here we report effects of ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2007
Increased endocannabinoid (EC) system activity promotes excessive food intake and obesity in animals and humans. The EC system regulates food intake and hedonic reward through central mechanisms located within the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain. In rodent models, cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptor blockade reduces appetite and weight and prevents obesity and insulin ...
Nohr D - - 2007
Over the last two or three decades meat and especially liver have been looked upon as unhealthy food with high fat content and carcinogenic potential. In addition, its content of highly valuable micronutrients has mostly been ignored. As a result, the mean uptake and serum levels of several micronutrients in ...
Faith Myles S - - 2007
The authors reviewed the evidential basis of three environmental approaches to reducing population obesity: What are the effects of (a) taxing or subsidizing foods, (b) manipulating the ease of food access, and (c) restricting access to certain foods? A narrative review evaluated evidence using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ...
Musatov Sergei - - 2007
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure by estrogens. Although it is well documented that a disruption of ERalpha signaling in ERalpha knockout (ERKO) mice leads to an obese phenotype, the sites of estrogen action and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon ...
Zhang Xue-Ying - - 2007
Lactation is the most energetically expensive period for mammals and is associated with increased metabolism and energy intake, but decreased thermogenic capacity. It is well known that small mammals increase both food intake and thermogenesis in the cold. The present study aimed to examine whether Brandt's voles Lasiopodomys brandtii could ...
Buff Preston R - - 2007
Endocrine characteristics of Quarter Horse-type mares were determined during a 68 h feed deprivation and again in the same mares following surgical thyroidectomy (THX). A crossover experimental design was implemented, in which mares received brome hay available ad libitum (FED) or were food deprived (RES) for 68 h. Blood samples ...
Grudell April B M - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing global epidemic. Several central and peripheral hormones and neurotransmitters are involved in appetite control. Peptide YY (PYY) - one of the major anorexigenic (satiation-causing) gastrointestinal peptides - when administered peripherally, leads to decreased food intake and hunger scores. RECENT FINDINGS: The vagus nerve, ...
Wisse Brent E - - 2007
Hypothalamic IL1 is suggested to be a critical mediator of the central effects of the adipocyte hormone leptin on energy balance. We hypothesized that IL1 receptor signaling is required for exogenously administered leptin to cause anorexia and weight loss, but not for physiological effects of endogenous leptin signaling on energy ...
Trinko Richard - - 2007
Increasing rates of obesity have alarmed health officials and prompted much public dialogue. While the factors leading to obesity are numerous, an inability to control intake of freely available food is central to the problem. In order to understand this, we need to better define the mechanisms by which the ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2007
If the new environment and modern lifestyle cause obesity in individuals with thrifty genes by increasing energy intake, it is important to know by what mechanisms hyperphagia occurs and why energy balance is not kept in check by the homeostatic regulator. The argument is developed that procuring and ingesting food ...
Emmerson Paul J - - 2007
The melanocortin family of receptors (MC 1-5R) and their endogenous peptide ligands (alpha, beta, gamma- MSH and ACTH) have been implicated in the control of a wide variety of behavioral and physiological functions including the homeostatic control of food intake and body weight. In rodent models, melanocortin agonists including the ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2007
Obesity rates in the United States are a function of socioeconomic status. Higher rates are found among groups with lower educational and income levels, among racial and ethnic minorities, and in high-poverty areas. Yet, the relation between obesity, nutrition, and diet continues to be viewed in biologic terms, with the ...
French Simone A - - 2007
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. METHODS: Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage ...
Ashrafi Kaveh - - 2007
As in all living organisms, survival in C. elegans requires adequate management of energy supplies. Genetic screens have revealed that C. elegans fat regulation involves a complex network of genes with known or likely functions in food sensation, neuroendocrine signaling, uptake, transport, storage and utilization of fats. Core fat and ...
Yan Liang Zeng - - 2007
The recent emergence of obesity as a major health threat in the industrialized world has intensified the search for novel and effective pharmacologic treatment. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) axis has been shown to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis and is considered among the most promising antiobesity targets. ...
Dridi Sami - - 2007
Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of several energy balance-related factors (leptin, cerulenin, food deprivation, genotype, and gender) on SCD gene expression in chickens. In experiment 1, 6-week-old ...
Hirasawa Michiru - - 2007
In North American society, it is all too common for the intake of calories to outweigh an individual's energy demands. Such over-consumption where high-energy foods are readily available undoubtedly contributes to the growing problem of obesity. Palatable food stimulates brain circuits similar to those that mediate behavioral responses to drugs ...
Kowalski Timothy J - - 2007
There is compelling genetic and pharmacologic evidence to indicate that melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 (MCHR1) signaling is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. The medical need for novel therapies to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders has led to a great deal of interest by pharmaceutical companies ...
Klok M D - - 2007
Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a role in ...
Forshee Richard A - - 2007
The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S. population. The Center ...
Gao Qian Q Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. - - 2007
Metabolic hormones, such as leptin, alter the input organization of hypothalamic circuits, resulting in increased pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) tone, followed by decreased food intake and adiposity. The gonadal steroid estradiol can also reduce appetite and adiposity, and it influences synaptic plasticity. Here we report that estradiol (E2) triggers a robust increase ...
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