Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 952
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Mizuta Einosuke - - 2008
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that regulates food intake and body weight, and that was recently reported to suppress sweet sensitivity in an animal model. We investigated the associations among sweet preference, obesity, and polymorphisms of the leptin gene (LEP) or leptin receptor gene (LEPR). A total of 3,653 residents ...
Bellocchio L - - 2008
Many different regulatory actions have been attributed to endocannabinoids, and their involvement in several pathophysiological conditions is under intense scrutiny. Cannabinoid receptors [cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2] participate in the physiological modulation of many central and peripheral functions. The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food ...
Hoek Janet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the logic of arguments advanced when the New Zealand advertising self-regulation complaints board adjudicated a complaint about a food product; in addition, it compared these arguments and the complainant's experience of the process to international best practice criteria relating to independence. METHODS: Documents relating to a ...
Sahu Abhiram - - 2008
Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is critical for normal food intake and body weight regulation. While hyperleptinemia in obese people suggests a state of leptin resistance, the mechanism is not clearly understood. In a rat model of central leptin infusion in which animals develop resistance to the satiety action of ...
Coccurello Roberto R CNR, Institute of Neuroscience, via del Fosso di Fiorano 64/65, 00143 Roma, - - 2009
Obesity is a current health pandemia. Determinants of this pathology are rather complex and include genetic, developmental and environmental factors only partially disclosed. Stress related neuroendocrine dysregulation and overconsumption of high palatable high caloric food and are likely to contribute to this modern health threats. Despite the evidence that psychosocial ...
Holsten Joanna E - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between obesity and the community and/or consumer food environment. DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search of multiple databases was conducted and seven studies were identified for review. Studies were selected if they measured BMI and environmental variables related to food outlets. Environmental variables included the geographic ...
Pasinetti Giulio Maria - - 2008
Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) has no cure or preventive treatment, an urgent need exists to find a means of preventing, delaying the onset, or reversing the course of the disease. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that lifestyle factors, especially nutrition, may be crucial in controlling AD. Unhealthy lifestyle choices lead ...
Cleland Verity J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The behavioral pathways through which television (TV) viewing leads to increased adiposity in adults are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to determine whether the association between TV viewing and abdominal obesity in young adults is mediated by food and beverage consumption during TV viewing time or by a reduction in ...
Guijarro Ana - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the physiologic importance of endocannabinoids and mitochondrial function in the long-term outcome using a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. BACKGROUND: Sixteen million people are morbidly obese and RYGB surgery is the most effective treatment. Endocannabinoids are implicated in appetite stimulation and regulation of peripheral ...
Vincent R P - - 2008
Obesity is a major cause of premature death in the UK, and may contribute to as many as 30 000 deaths a year in the UK. Although effective treatment for obesity is still awaited, many developments have occurred to improve our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and weight ...
Weiss Ram - - 2008
The rise in the prevalence of obesity in the last few decades and its growing impact on health has driven the scientific community to investigate the physiological basis of energy homeostasis and mechanisms of satiety, and seek targets for intervention against this burgeoning epidemic. Recent findings highlight the role of ...
Murashita Koji - - 2008
Leptin is a key factor for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts is still limited. There are large differences between mammalian and teleost leptin at both gene and protein levels, and in order to characterize the function of leptin ...
Unniappan Suraj - - 2008
Acute administration of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] results in a reduction in food intake in several different vertebrates. However, long-term continuous administration of PYY(3-36) causes only a transient reduction in food intake, thus potentially limiting its therapeutic efficacy. We hypothesized that a fall in leptin levels associated with reduced food intake ...
Key A P F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, compulsivity, hyperphagia and increased risks of life-threatening obesity. Food preferences in people with PWS are well documented, but research has yet to focus on other properties of food in PWS, including composition and suitability for consumption. It is ...
Jansen Anita - - 2008
The recent separation of non-eating disordered obesity into a subtype that is high in negative affect and a subtype that is low in negative affect led to the hypothesis that the two subtypes would show opposite eating responses to typical triggers of overeating. Overweight/obese and normal weight participants, clustered into ...
Herman C P - - 2008
We review the history of "external cues" as an important factor in the control of human food intake. We begin with Schachter's proposal that obese individuals are especially (and perhaps exclusively) responsive to external food cues and examine subsequent modifications and challenges to that model and the decline and resurgence ...
Morrison Christopher D CD Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA. - - 2008
Animals readily reduce food intake and normalize body weight following a period of involuntary overfeeding, suggesting that regulatory systems are engaged to defend against excess weight gain. However, these data exist in the background of an ongoing obesity epidemic, where the ready availability of palatable, energy dense foods often leads ...
Wilson Mark E - - 2008
Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access ...
Ford Paula B - - 2008
Although the overall population in the United States has experienced a dramatic increase in obesity in the past 25 years, ethnic/racial minorities, and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have a greater prevalence of obesity, as compared to white, and/or economically advantaged populations. Disparities in obesity are unlikely to be predominantly due to ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2008
Food interacts with sensors all along the alimentary canal to provide the brain with information regarding its composition, energy content, and beneficial effect. Vagal afferents innervating the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and liver provide a rapid and discrete account of digestible food in the alimentary canal, as well as circulating and ...
Adan Roger A H - - 2008
Most of the drugs that have entered the market for treating obesity were originally developed to treat psychiatric diseases. During the past decade, understanding of the neural circuits that underlie food intake has increased considerably. Different aspects of ingestive behavior such as meal termination, meal initiation and overconsumption of highly ...
Raoult D - - 2008
Environmental factors, such as social networks, have an influence on obesity pandemics. The gut microbial flora (microbiota) plays a role in converting nutrients into calories. Variations in microbiota composition are found in obese humans and mice. The microbiota from an obese mouse confers an obese phenotype when transferred to an ...
Stoeckel Luke E LE Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170, USA. - - 2008
Behavioral studies have suggested that exaggerated reactivity to food cues, especially those associated with high-calorie foods, may be a factor underlying obesity. This increased motivational potency of foods in obese individuals appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system. We used a Philips 3T magnet and fMRI ...
Cameron Jameason D - - 2008
Evidence suggests that when animals are chronically deprived of calories, the reward of a food stimulus becomes more salient. Recently leptin has been implicated in food reward. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of weight-loss on food hedonics and on the reinforcing value of palatable snack ...
Chaptini Louis - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of adults in many developed countries are overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is also affecting children worldwide. Obesity increases the risk of several diseases leading to life-threatening complications. Weight regulation depends on food intake (energy intake) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review ...
Rosenkranz Richard R - - 2008
The home food environment can be conceptualized as overlapping interactive domains composed of built and natural, sociocultural, political and economic, micro-level and macro-level environments. Each type and level of environment uniquely contributes influence through a mosaic of determinants depicting the home food environment as a major setting for shaping child ...
Astrup Arne - - 2008
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased substantially in the nutritional transition countries, and the health burden of obesity-related complications is growing. The introduction of fast-food chains and Westernized dietary habits providing meals with fast-food characteristics seems to be a marker of the increasing prevalence of obesity. The ...
Alberici A - - 2008
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) includes different heterogeneous conditions, mainly characterised by personality changes, along with cognitive deficits in language and executive functions. Movement disorders are variably represented. Behavioural disturbances constitute the core feature of FTLD, and eating disorders represent one of the most distinguishing symptoms between FTLD and Alzheimer's disease ...
Bienertova-Vasku Julie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previously, it has been reported that mutations in the genes encoding for adipokines may be associated with impaired food intake and may serve as potential obesity biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations of defined variability in leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, proopiomelanocortin and ghrelin ...
Tsuda Takanori - - 2008
Obesity is defined as the accumulation of excess adipose tissue resulting from various metabolic disorders. Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a group of metabolic risk factors in one person. Abdominal obesity and adipocyte dysfunction play an important ...
van Baak Marleen A - - 2008
The postprandial activation of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system is crucial to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis. A contribution of postprandial sympathetic activation to the thermic effect of food is not always evident and depends on the size and composition of the meal, with carbohydrates having the clearest effect. Signals related to ...
Swinburn Boyd A - - 2008
The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success - consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to ...
Moura E G - - 2008
Several authors have shown that secondary hypothyroidism was programed by neonatal thyroxine (T4) treatment. However, the associated changes of body weight (BW) were less studied, especially those related to the body fat proportion. Here, we have evaluated the effect of neonatal thyroxine treatment on BW, fat proportion, serum leptin, and ...
Witkos Maciej - - 2008
The purpose of this literature review was to identify and describe the cost of obesity, the contributing factors, and the use of taxation as a possible method of control of this epidemic in a Canadian setting. A review of the current literature found on the PubMed/MEDLINE services of the National ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2008
Countries undergoing the nutrition transition are experiencing a progressive increase in obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCDs). In transitional countries, stunting (shortness for age) and micronutrient deficiencies (iron, vitamin A, and zinc) in children coexist with obesity and NRCDs originating the double burden of nutritional disease. The causal web for ...
Crawford David A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between density of and proximity to fast food outlets and body weight in a sample of children (137 aged 8-9 years and 243 aged 13-15 years) and their parents (322 fathers and 362 mothers). METHODS: Children's measured and parents' self-reported heights and weights were used to ...
Rosengren Annika - - 2008
The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. ...
Black Jennifer L - - 2008
This review critically summarizes the literature on neighborhood determinants of obesity and proposes a conceptual framework to guide future inquiry. Thirty-seven studies met all inclusion criteria and revealed that the influence of neighborhood-level factors appears mixed. Neighborhood-level measures of economic resources were associated with obesity in 15 studies, while the ...
Mietus-Snyder Michele L - - 2008
The prevalence and severity of childhood obesity have increased steadily over the past three decades. The human species evolved to rigorously defend its lower limit for weight and adiposity but is tolerant of the upper limit, which, until recent times, was rarely approached. Neuroendocrine mechanisms within the limbic core of ...
Kumanyika Shiriki K - - 2008
Implementation of strategies to address obesity on a global scale has not yet begun in earnest. One key issue is uncertainty about the relative importance of taking aggressive action on the food vs. physical activity side of the energy balance equation, recognizing that interventions in both areas are critical. Using ...
Collins Allison E - - 2008
Objective. To investigate adolescent eating, activity, and behavioral patterns, and attitudes and their associations with obesity in selected communities in Indonesia. Design. A cross-sectional questionnaire and physical measurement-based study in three communities of varying modernization levels in Indonesia (Yogyakarta, Kuta, and Jakarta). Subjects. 1758 middle school students (aged 12-15 years) ...
Thanos Panayotis K - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Dopamine (DA) regulates food intake by modulating food reward and motivation but its involvement in obesity is much less understood. Recent evidence points to the involvement of leptin in the DA-related modulation of food intake. Here we assess DA D2 receptors (D2R) in a genetic rodent obesity model characterized ...
Sugarman Stephen D - - 2008
Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and ...
Frazier Cristianne R M - - 2008
The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods ...
Aylwin Simon - - 2008
The relentless rise in the prevalence of obesity predicts an exponential increase in the incidence of obesity-related complications. Medical and surgical treatments are necessary to prevent and treat obese co-morbidities, thereby avoiding disability and premature death. Interventions for obesity should be evaluated not by weight loss alone but against the ...
Nieuwenhuizen Arie G - - 2008
Human (visceral) obesity is associated with alterations hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. It is however not completely clear whether the HPA axis is causally or co-incidentally related to (visceral) obesity. This review summarizes supporting data of an involvement of the HPA axis in the development of (visceral) obesity. First, several DNA ...
Wilders-Truschnig M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Systemic low grade inflammation may contribute to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Food intolerance reflected by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies may predispose to low grade inflammation and atherogenesis. We examined the relationship between IgG antibodies specific for food components, low grade inflammation ...
Grill Harvey J HJ Graduate Group of Psychology and Graduate Group of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2007
Animal studies have revealed brain regions that control homeostatic feeding, but the rampant overeating contributing to the obesity epidemic suggests the participation of "nonhomeostatic" control centers. Recent papers by Batterham et al. (2007) and Farooqi et al. (2007) link peptide YY(3-36) and leptin to the activation of nonhomeostatic brain regions.
Davidson Terry L - - 2007
Recent research and theory point to the possibility that hippocampal-dependent learning and memory mechanisms translate neurohormonal signals of energy balance into adaptive behavioral outcomes involved with the inhibition of food intake. The present paper summarizes these findings and ideas and considers the hypothesis that excessive caloric intake and obesity may ...
Kumanyika Shiriki K - - 2008
Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity ...
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