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Siervo M - - 2009
The Thrifty Gene hypothesis theorizes that during evolution a set of genes has been selected to ensure survival in environments with limited food supply and marked seasonality. Contemporary environments have predictable and unlimited food availability, an attenuated seasonality due to artificial lighting, indoor heating during the winter and air conditioning ...
Cervino Cristina - - 2009
The ability of the endocannabinoid (EC) system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The EC system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. ...
Beckers Sigri - - 2009
Obesity is one of the most important health problems today. Obesity is mostly caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. However, several monogenic forms of obesity also exist. The mutations causing these forms of obesity were all found in genes involved in the leptin-melanocortin pathway: leptin, leptin ...
Shimizu Hiroyuki - - 2009
Nesfatin/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei and brainstem nuclei. Nesfatin/NUCB2 expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was modulated by starvation and refeeding. Intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1 dose-dependently inhibited food intake for 6 hours in male Wistar and leptin resistant, Zucker fatty rats. Intraperitoneal administration ...
Ahmed Haitham M - - 2009
Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fast food manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. ...
Akther Asma - - 2009
Leptin (meaning thin) is attracting the attention of many scientists of the world recently. It is an adipocyte-derived protein hormone discovered in 1994. Human leptin gene is located on chromosome 7. It is mainly expressed in adipose tissue but also in skeletal muscle, stomach, placenta and mammary gland. Leptin play ...
Kirschbaum Aline A - - 2009
The aquatic environment receives many contaminants that can induce damages at the molecular, biochemical, cellular and physiological levels. Centropomus parallelus, an important food resource for local populations, is a predator fish that feeds on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, thus being vulnerable to the bioconcentration and biomagnification processes. This study ...
Spence John C - - 2009
Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults ...
Romero María del Mar Mdel - - 2009
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction ...
Peters Achim - - 2009
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. A few theoretical frameworks have been set up to derive the possible determinative cause of obesity. One concept views that food availability determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is the result of an external energy ...
Hosler Akiko S AS Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3456, USA. - - 2009
Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Inventories of all food stores (n ...
Li Fuzhong F Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. - - 2009
Examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. A ...
Morrison Christopher D CD Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA. - - 2009
Leptin is a protein hormone that acts within the hypothalamus to suppress food intake and decrease body adiposity, but it is increasingly clear that the hypothalamus is not the only site of leptin action, nor food intake the only biological effect of leptin. Instead, leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that ...
Maskarinec Gertraud - - 2009
The present analysis investigated the effect of soya foods on serum levels of six inflammatory markers, leptin, adiponectin, monocyte attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1b (MIP-1b), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and their relationship with BMI and lifetime soya intake. We randomised twenty-four men to a high- (two daily ...
O'Rahilly S - - 2008
In the spirit of celebration associated with the 20th anniversary of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, we have seized the opportunity of taking a highly personal and not at all comprehensive 'whistle-stop tour' of a large body of evidence that, we feel, supports the following conclusions: (1) that body fat ...
Frank L - - 2009
PURPOSE: Recent evidence documents significant associations between community design, physical activity and obesity when adjusting for demographic covariates. Yet it is well understood that energy imbalance and weight gain are also a function of dietary patterns, and perhaps the degree of access to healthy food choices. METHODS: The current study ...
Belsito K R - - 2009
The mechanisms contributing to BW gain following ovariohysterectomy in domestic cats are poorly understood. Moreover, the effects of food restriction to maintain BW following spaying have been poorly studied. Thus, our primary objective was to determine the effects of spaying and food restriction to maintain BW on adipose and skeletal ...
Greenway Frank L - - 2009
Existing obesity therapies are limited by safety concerns and modest efficacy reflecting a weight loss plateau. Here, we explore combination therapy with bupropion (BUP), a putative stimulator of melanocortin pathways, and an opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NAL), to antagonize an inhibitory feedback loop that limits sustained weight reduction. In vitro electrophysiologic ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2008
Energy balance is critical for survival and health, and control of food intake is an integral part of this process. This report reviews hormonal signals that influence food intake and their clinical applications. A relatively novel insight is that satiation signals that control meal size and adiposity signals that signify ...
Larson Nicole I - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Poor dietary patterns and obesity, established risk factors for chronic disease, have been linked to neighborhood deprivation, neighborhood minority composition, and low area population density. Neighborhood differences in access to food may have an important influence on these relationships and health disparities in the U.S. This article reviews research ...
Walker Claire-Dominique - - 2008
Both undernutrition and overnutrition of the mother during pregnancy and lactation produce a syndrome of altered energy balance in the offspring and has long-lasting consequences on CNS systems regulating food intake, metabolism, and food reward. Homeostatic circulating factors like insulin, glucocorticoids, and leptin that are generally increased by exposure to ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. - - 2008
The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed ...
Figlewicz Dianne P DP Metabolism/Endocrinology (151) VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 So. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2009
The hormones insulin and leptin have been demonstrated to act in the central nervous system (CNS) as regulators of energy homeostasis at medial hypothalamic sites. In a previous review, we described new research demonstrating that, in addition to these direct homeostatic actions at the hypothalamus, CNS circuitry that subserves reward ...
Hameed S S Department of Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2009
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. It secretes more than 20 different peptide hormones, which serve both a local regulatory function and provide a means by which the gut can regulate appetite and satiety. As the worldwide prevalence of obesity reaches epidemic proportions, the importance ...
Stice E E Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. estice@ori.org - - 2008
The dorsal striatum plays a role in consummatory food reward, and striatal dopamine receptors are reduced in obese individuals, relative to lean individuals, which suggests that the striatum and dopaminergic signaling in the striatum may contribute to the development of obesity. Thus, we tested whether striatal activation in response to ...
Casey Alicia A AA Department of Communication Arts and Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2008
To examine the association between weight status and characteristics of the food and physical activity environments among adults in rural U.S. communities. Cross-sectional telephone survey data from rural residents were used to examine the association between obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m(2)) and perceived access to produce and low-fat ...
Morland Kimberly B KB Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box #1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. - - 2009
Disparities in access to healthy foods have been identified particularly in the United States. Fewer studies have measured the effects these disparities have on diet-related health outcomes. This study measured the association between the presence of food establishments and obesity among 1295 adults living in the southern region of the ...
Rundle Andrew - - 2009
Differences in the neighborhood food environment may contribute to disparities in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of neighborhood food environments with body mass index (BMI) and obesity after control for neighborhood walkability. This study employed a cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of BMI and obesity among ...
Teegarden Dorothy - - 2008
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. ...
Rasmussen Erin B - - 2008
This experiment reports on the ability of rimonabant to alter the reinforcing properties of food in the genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rat, a strain that exhibits higher levels of endocannabinoids in brain regions that correspond to heightened food intake. We characterized food reinforcement in obese and lean Zucker rats by ...
Huus Karina - - 2009
AIM: To investigate if food frequencies are related to overweight/obesity in 5-year-old children. METHODS: During 1997-1999, 21 700 infants were invited to participate in ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden), a prospective, cohort study. Participants were followed from birth (n = 16 058) to 5 years (n = 7356). Food ...
Attig L - - 2008
Low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a risk factor for further development of metabolic diseases. The pig appears to reproduce nearly all of the phenotypic pathological consequences of human IUGR and is likely to be more relevant than rodents in studies of neonatal development. In the ...
Nowak A - - 2008
Leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were proved to act in concert to control the activity of feeding centres. Since leptin receptor was identified in the gut endocrine L cells and neurons producing GLP-1, we have checked whether GLP-1 mediates the effects of leptin on feeding and drinking behaviour. To this ...
Pichler Michaela M Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, - - 2008
Several studies have reported that carriers of the 103I allele of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene had lower body weight than did persons with the wild-type genotype. A recent study found an association of the MC4R 103I variant with carbohydrate intake, which may mediate some of the association of this ...
Carnell Susan - - 2008
Childhood obesity has multiple causes, most of them capable of explaining only one part of the problem. The population-wide impact of sedentary lifestyles and availability of energy-dense food is undeniable, but substantial individual differences in body weight persist, suggesting that individuals respond differently to the 'obesogenic' environment. One plausible mechanism ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2008
The main objective of this study was to investigate, by means of event-related potentials (ERPs), whether obese individuals process food-related information differently as compared to normal-weight individuals. Because amplitudes of late positive ERP components (P3, LPP) reflect motivational tendencies, obese participants were expected to display enlarged P3 and LPP amplitudes ...
Werrij Marieke Q - - 2009
Obese people prefer and overconsume high-fat foods. At the same time they often attempt to lose weight. In two studies we investigated relations between palatable high-fat food words and disinhibition related concepts (study 1) and palatable high-fat food words and restraint related concepts (study 2) within the semantic priming paradigm. ...
Barbiero Sandra Mari SM Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul/Cardiology Universitary Foundation, Av. Princesa Isabel, RS 90620-001, - - 2009
To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and nutritional habits in schoolchildren aged 10-18 years. Contemporary, cross-sectional, population-based study, with a stratified probabilistic sample of secondary schools in Porto Alegre comprising a total of 511 schoolchildren. Data on family risk factors, anthropometrics and eating habits were collected. The prevalence of ...
Maljaars P W J - - 2008
With the rising prevalence of obesity and related health problems increases, there is increased interest in the gastrointestinal system as a possible target for pharmacological or food-based approaches to weight management. Recent studies have shown that under normal physiological situations undigested nutrients can reach the ileum, and induce activation of ...
- - 2008
Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce to 15% the proportion of adults who are obese. In 2005, no state met this target, ...
Kwate Naa Oyo A - - 2009
The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New ...
Grier Sonya A - - 2008
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and ...
Lundy Robert F RF Jr University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, 500 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40292, United States. - - 2008
Among well-nourished populations, eating beyond homeostatic needs when presented with caloric-dense palatable food evidences the assertion that an increasing proportion of consumption is driven by pleasure, not just by the need for calories. This presents a major health crisis because the affective component of foods constitutes a behavioral risk factor ...
Kirkham Tim - - 2008
Cannabis exerts its actions by mimicking 'endocannabinoid' neuromodulators at CB1 receptors in brain and peripheral tissues. The endocannabinoids both stimulate appetite by increasing food craving and enjoyment and promote the deposition of energy as fat in adipose tissues. These findings have raised the possibility of CB1 antagonists as a novel ...
Coyle Christopher A - - 2008
The Tub gene was originally identified as a spontaneous mutation in C57Bl/6J mice, and associated with adult-onset obesity (Tub MUT mice). Although the original Tub MUT mouse was identified over 15 years ago, there have been few reports on the animal's food intake, body fat percentage or energy expenditure. In ...
Kirkham Tim - - 2008
Cannabis exerts its actions by mimicking 'endocannabinoid' neuromodulators at CB1 receptors in brain and peripheral tissues. The endocannabinoids both stimulate appetite by increasing food craving and enjoyment and promote the deposition of energy as fat in adipose tissues. These findings have raised the possibility of CB1 antagonists as a novel ...
Hagmann William K - - 2008
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) has emerged as one of the most important targets for the treatment of obesity. Pioneering studies with rimonabant helped to validate animal models of food intake reduction and weight loss and made the connection to weight loss in the clinic. A novel, acyclic amide was identified ...
Kim Eun Ran - - 2008
Neurotensin plays a role in regulating feeding behavior. Central injection of neurotensin reduces food intake and the anorectic effect of neurotensin is mediated through neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1). Ntsr1-deficient mice are characterized by mild hyperphagia and overweight without hyperleptinemia. The mechanism by which Ntsr1-deficient mice develop these metabolic abnormalities is ...
Mühlhäusler Beverly Sara - - 2008
The increasing incidence of obesity in the developed and developing world in the last decade has led to a need to define our understanding of the physiological mechanisms which can predispose individuals to weight gain in infancy, childhood and adulthood. There is now a considerable body of evidence which has ...
Cohen Deborah A - - 2008
A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these ...
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