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Results 201 - 250 of 953
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McCaffery Jeanne M - - 2009
Prior research indicates that successful weight-loss maintainers (SWLs) work harder than people of normal weight to maintain their weight loss, including greater dietary restriction of fat and higher physical activity levels. However, little work to date has examined how SWLs differ biologically from normal-weight (NW) and obese controls. The objective ...
Cocores James A - - 2009
One plausible explanation for the controversy that surrounds the causes and clinical management of obesity is the notion that overeating and obesity may only be a couple of "symptoms" associated with a yet to be discovered medical disorder. OBJECTIVES: To introduce the Salted Food Addition Hypothesis. This theory proposes that ...
Khan Laura Kettel - - 2009
Approximately two thirds of U.S. adults and one fifth of U.S. children are obese or overweight. During 1980--2004, obesity prevalence among U.S. adults doubled, and recent data indicate an estimated 33% of U.S. adults are overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9), 34% are obese (BMI >or=30.0), including nearly 6% who ...
Martin Laura E - - 2010
One out of three adults in the United States is clinically obese. Excess food intake is associated with food motivation, which has been found to be higher in obese compared to healthy weight (HW) individuals. Little is known, however, regarding the neural mechanisms associated with food motivation in obese compared ...
Babiloni Claudio - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Are obese subjects characterized by a reduction of attentional cortical responses to the enlargement of food or body images? METHODS: Electroencephalographic data were recorded in 19 obese and 15 normal-weight adults during an "oddball" paradigm. The subjects were given frequent (70%) and rare (30%) stimuli depicting faces (FACE), food ...
Pierson Pascale David - - 2009
Obesity is a major risk factor in the development of conditions such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and cancer. Several pieces of evidence across different species, including primates, underscore the implication of the histamine 3 receptor (H(3)R) in the regulation of food intake and body weight and the ...
bin Zaal A A - - 2009
to study the association between the dietary habits and behavioural factors with the increased risk of obesity amongst adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 661 adolescents (324 boys and 337 girls) aged 12 to 17 years selected by means of a multistage ...
Galvez Maida P MP Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. - - 2009
Prior studies have shown an association between fast-food restaurants and adolescent body size. Less is known about the influence of neighborhood food stores on a child's body size. We hypothesized that in the inner-city, minority community of East Harlem, New York, the presence of convenience stores and fast-food restaurants near ...
Neary Marianne T MT Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ, United - - 2009
Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for patients with morbid obesity. This is no solution to the present obesity pandemic however. Currently licensed non-surgical pharmaceuticals are of limited efficacy and alternatives are needed. Harnessing the body's own appetite-regulating signals is a desirable pharmacological strategy. The gastrointestinal tract has a ...
Sucajtys-Szulc Elzbieta - - 2009
Rat adipose tissue is the principal site of leptin synthesis, however, leptin gene expression has been demonstrated in many rat tissues. Some data indicate that leptin produced by human brain and adipose tissue could cooperate in the regulation of food intake. In this case the regulation of leptin gene expression ...
Chaloupka Frank J - - 2009
After a decade of analyzing environmental influences on substance use and its consequences among youth in the United States, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Bridging the Gap program has begun studying the effect of environmental factors on youth physical activity, diet, and weight outcomes. Much of this research has focused ...
Lowe Michael R - - 2009
This paper describes the psychometric evaluation of a new measure called the Power of Food Scale (PFS). The PFS assesses the psychological impact of living in food-abundant environments. It measures appetite for, rather than consumption of, palatable foods, at three levels of food proximity (food available, food present, and food ...
Steyer Terrence E - - 2009
Although many complementary therapies are promoted for the treatment of obesity, few are truly therapeutic. Evidence suggests that food containing diacylglycerol oil, acupuncture, and hypnosis are the only evidence-based complementary therapies for the treatment of obesity, and, at best, these should be used as adjuvants to the more conventional therapies ...
Peterlin B Lee - - 2009
Although it has long been known that fasting or the consumption of certain foods can trigger headaches, abdominal and total body obesity have only recently been linked to migraine. Several adipocytokines appear to play an integral role in feeding and obesity--and have also been linked to pain. Among these proteins ...
DiLeone R J - - 2009
Food intake is regulated by many factors, including sensory information, metabolic hormones and the state of hunger. In modern humans, the drive to eat has proven to be incompatible with the excess food supply present in industrialized societies. A result of this imbalance is the dramatically increased rates of obesity ...
Zheng H - - 2009
Powerful biological mechanisms evolved to defend adequate nutrient supply and optimal levels of body weight/adiposity. Low levels of leptin indicating food deprivation and depleted fat stores have been identified as the strongest signals to induce adaptive biological actions such as increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure. In concert with ...
Small D M DM The John B Pierce Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. - - 2009
The obesity epidemic has unfolded in a matter of decades, not millennia, and therefore cannot be attributed to a drift in the genome. Rather, the temporal characteristics of the epidemic more closely track environmental and lifestyle changes, such as reduced physical activity, increased availability of palatable and energy-dense foods and ...
Prud'homme M J - - 2009
Food odours are major determinants for food choice, and their detection depends on nutritional status. The effects of different odour stimuli on both behavioural responses (locomotor activity and sniffing) and Fos induction in olfactory bulbs (OB) were studied in satiated or 48-h fasted rats. We focused on two odour stimuli: ...
Stoeckel Luke E LE Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. - - 2009
Exaggerated reactivity to food cues in obese women appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system that includes the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether differences between 12 obese and 12 normal-weight women in reward-related ...
Kingsley Philip J - - 2009
Since the discovery of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the early 1990s, the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in a wide array of physiological processes, such as control of food intake and energy balance, fertility and obesity. As the importance of this system becomes apparent, there is a ...
Morton Gregory J - - 2009
Recent evidence suggests that leptin reduces food intake via actions in the brain circuitry of food reward, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as leptin receptors are present in the VTA, and leptin injection in the VTA reduces food intake. In the hypothalamus, leptin-induced anorexia requires signaling via Janus ...
Zhang Jiejin - - 2009
The soluble leptin receptor (SLR) is the major, circulating, leptin-binding protein and, in vitro, the SLR inhibits leptin-binding to cell surface receptors. Here we assessed the effects of the SLR on physiological responses to leptin, in vivo. SLR and leptin were given as a single injection (intracerebroventricularly, i.c.v.) or by ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2009
Obesity and type 2 diabetes follow a socioeconomic gradient. Highest rates are observed among groups with the lowest levels of education and income and in the most deprived areas. Inequitable access to healthy foods is one mechanism by which socioeconomic factors influence the diet and health of a population. As ...
Gundersen Craig - - 2009
There has been extensive previous research examining the connection between obesity and food insecurity, 2 serious nutrition challenges facing low-income children in the US. All of this work used BMI to categorize a child as obese. Although BMI is one way to categorize the obesity status of a child, other ...
Lobato Jackeline Christiane Pinto - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between the consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats and the prevalence of obesity in the state capitals of Brazil. DESIGN: An ecological evaluation of obesity and dietary risk factors was carried out in twenty-six state capitals of Brazil. SETTING: Analysis was based on the age-standardized ...
de Kloet Annette D - - 2009
As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, the development of effective therapies is a high priority. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as an important influence on the regulation of energy homeostasis. The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol act on cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) in the brain and many peripheral tissues causing ...
Könner A Christine - - 2009
As the obesity epidemic, diabetes mellitus type 2, and associated comorbidities show no signs of abating, large efforts have been put into a better understanding of the homeostatic control mechanisms involved in regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis. For decades, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which integrates peripheral signals ...
Odoms-Young Angela M - - 2009
Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising ...
Nagaoka D - - 2010
For the purpose of investigating the mechanism of obesity-induction/re-induction including weight-cycling in beagles, a study was conducted using commercially available dog food combined with human food to mimic at home-snacking and diet-supplementation behaviours. Adult female beagles, which had free access to water and exercise, were used (n = 9). All ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. - - 2009
This report reviews findings from studies that have investigated whether abnormalities in reward from food intake and anticipated food intake increase risk for obesity. Self-report and behavioral data suggest that obese relative to lean individuals show elevated anticipatory and consummatory food reward. Brain imaging studies suggest that obese relative to ...
Veerman J Lennert - - 2009
There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). We constructed a mathematical simulation model to ...
Cornier Marc-Andre - - 2009
Obesity is a serious and growing public health problem in the United States and the world. The pathophysiological processes that underlie the increasing prevalence of obesity have not been clearly defined but likely involve faulty interactions between environmental factors, which favor positive energy balance, and weight regulatory systems in genetically ...
Misra Madhusmita - - 2009
Orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways mediate food intake and may be affected by meal composition. Our objective was to determine whether changes in levels of active ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) differ in obese vs. normal-weight adolescent girls following specific macronutrient intake and predict hunger and subsequent food intake. We enrolled ...
Newby P K - - 2009
The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; ...
Courtemanche Charles - - 2009
Economists have begun to debate if the rise in cigarette prices in the U.S. in recent decades has contributed to the nation's rise in obesity, reaching conclusions that are surprisingly sensitive to specification. I show that allowing for the effect to occur gradually over several years leads to the conclusion ...
Wilde Peter J - - 2009
We are all well aware that rising levels of obesity in developed countries is having a significant impact on the health of the population. This is despite the availability of a wide range of low-calorie foods and an awareness of how important it is to adopt a healthy lifestyle. A ...
Sallis James F - - 2009
Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research ...
Francis Damian K - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity have increased to epidemic proportions among adolescents and are associated with chronic non-communicable diseases and excess mortality in adulthood. The association of overweight/obesity with poor dietary habits has not been studied in adolescents in middle-income developing countries. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ...
Camerino Claudia - - 2009
Oxytocin (Oxt) is secreted both peripherally and centrally and is involved in several functions including parturition, milk let-down reflex, social behavior, and food intake. Recently, it has been shown that mice deficient in Oxt receptor develop late-onset obesity. In this study, we characterized a murin model deficient in Oxt peptide ...
Zheng Jolene - - 2009
Sympathetic activity and obesity have a reciprocal relationship. Firstly, hypothalamic obesity is associated with decreased sympathetic activity. Caffeine and ephedrine increase sympathetic activity and induce weight loss, of which 25% is due to increased metabolic rate and 75% is due to a reciprocally decreased food intake. Secondly, hormones and drugs ...
Vettor Roberto - - 2009
Endocannabinoids (ECs) regulate energy balance by modulating hypothalamic circuits controlling food intake and energy expenditure. However, convincing evidence has accumulated indicating that the EC system is present also in peripheral tissues, in particular in adipose tissue. Fat cells produce and are targets of ECs. Glucose uptake and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) ...
Corwin Rebecca L - - 2009
Food addiction is a pervasive, yet controversial, topic that has gained recent attention in both lay media and the scientific literature. The goal of this series of articles is to use a combination of preclinical and clinical data to determine whether foods, like drugs of abuse, can be addictive, the ...
Blüher Susann - - 2009
Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone in not only the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure but also in the regulation of neuroendocrine and immune function as well as the modulation of glucose and fat metabolism as shown by numerous observational and interventional studies ...
Zhang Husen - - 2009
Recent evidence suggests that the microbial community in the human intestine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. We examined 184,094 sequences of microbial 16S rRNA genes from PCR amplicons by using the 454 pyrosequencing technology to compare the microbial community structures of 9 individuals, 3 in ...
Wang Gene-Jack - - 2009
Although impaired inhibitory control is linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including obesity, the brain mechanism(s) underlying voluntary control of hunger are not well understood. We assessed the brain circuits involved in voluntary inhibition of hunger during food stimulation in 23 fasted men and women using PET and ...
Siervo M - - 2009
The Thrifty Gene hypothesis theorizes that during evolution a set of genes has been selected to ensure survival in environments with limited food supply and marked seasonality. Contemporary environments have predictable and unlimited food availability, an attenuated seasonality due to artificial lighting, indoor heating during the winter and air conditioning ...
Cervino Cristina - - 2009
The ability of the endocannabinoid (EC) system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The EC system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. ...
Beckers Sigri - - 2009
Obesity is one of the most important health problems today. Obesity is mostly caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. However, several monogenic forms of obesity also exist. The mutations causing these forms of obesity were all found in genes involved in the leptin-melanocortin pathway: leptin, leptin ...
Shimizu Hiroyuki - - 2009
Nesfatin/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei and brainstem nuclei. Nesfatin/NUCB2 expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was modulated by starvation and refeeding. Intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1 dose-dependently inhibited food intake for 6 hours in male Wistar and leptin resistant, Zucker fatty rats. Intraperitoneal administration ...
Ahmed Haitham M - - 2009
Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fast food manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. ...
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