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Kim Dong-Hoon - - 2010
Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducing body fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reduced body weight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation ...
Salgado-Delgado Roberto - - 2010
Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in ...
Appelhans Bradley M - - 2010
Prior studies have demonstrated influences of leptin on hunger and satiety, the processing of food reward, and taste and palatability perception. This pilot study tested whether leptin accounts for variability in stress-induced changes in snack intake, and explored potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Thirty-four normal weight and class I obese ...
Pierce W D - - 2010
The adaptive hypothesis that an obese-prone genotype confers a fitness advantage when challenged with food restriction and food-related locomotion was tested using a rat model. Juvenile (35-40 days) and adolescent (45-50 days) JCR:LA-cp rats, obese prone (cp/cp) and lean prone (+/?), were exposed to 1.5 h daily meals and 22.5 ...
Fetissov Sergue? O - - 2010
AIM: To determine if central serotonin (5-HT)-induced satiety is altered in obesity. METHODS: Obese and lean Zucker rats received infusion of 5-HT (5 microg/0.5 microl/h) or saline into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) for 2 weeks. RESULTS: In lean rats, 5-HT decreased body weight (7%) and total food ...
Ford Paula B - - 2010
Socioecological theory and a growing body of research suggests that geographic, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of obesity are linked to disparities in the availability of food retail outlets that provide healthy food options. We examined the availability of food stores for low-income women in Kansas and ...
Black Jennifer L - - 2010
Recent studies reveal disparities in neighborhood access to food and fitness facilities, particularly in US cities; but few studies assess the effects of multiple neighborhood factors on obesity. This study measured the multilevel relations between neighborhood food availability, opportunities and barriers for physical activity, income and racial composition with obesity ...
Price Tulin O TO Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, John Cochran Division, 915 N. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63106, - - 2010
Leptin is a peptide hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue that acts as a major regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis. Impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to leptin resistance, which is a cause of obesity. Leptin as a candidate for the treatment of this ...
Niki Mayu - - 2010
Sweet taste perception is important for animals to detect carbohydrate source of calories and has a critical role in the nutritional status of animals. Recent studies demonstrated that sweet taste responses can be modulated by leptin and endocannabinoids [anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol]. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces ...
Wong Oi Ling - - 2010
This study aimed to examine the relational meaning of food, based on the results of a qualitative study of eight obese children (six male and two female) and their families in a Chinese society in Hong Kong. The children range in age from 7 to 13. Findings reveal the important ...
Moran James P - - 2010
The Healthy Kids Act (H.R. 4053) legislation does three things: (1) establishes an office of Childhood Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment within the Department of Health and Human Services to provide information and promote action on healthy eating, (2) institutes a three-tier system for labeling foods, and (3) enables ...
Sealy Yvette M - - 2010
Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the United States, with children experiencing chronic adult diseases and poor health outcomes. Focus groups were held with parents of children between 6-12 years of age in three different communities in Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York, to explore their attitudes and practices regarding ...
Li Ming - - 2010
This study explored the association between dietary habits and overweight and obesity in adolescents from Xi'an City, China. A cross-sectional sample of 1804 adolescents was recruited in 2004 from 30 junior high schools in six districts of Xi'an City, northwest China. Weight and height was measured and eating habits assessed ...
Andrews Kyle R - - 2010
Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their ...
Al Qauhiz Norah M - - 2010
Background: The remarkable economic growth in Saudi Arabia has affected the population life style negatively. The increasing problem of obesity has been reported from different regions in the kingdom. The rate of overweight and obesity reached 65.4% in the eastern region among females aged 18-74 years old. Although there is ...
Harris Ruth B S - - 2010
Leptin acts centrally to inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the neuropeptides that may contribute to leptin-induced hypophagia and thermogenesis. Acute leptin administration increases CRH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and CRH receptor type 2 (CRHR2) expression in the ...
Michimi Akihiko - - 2010
Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet ...
Cottrell Elizabeth C EC Institute of Metabolic Science, Metabolic Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United - - 2010
The hormone, leptin, plays a key role in the regulation of energy balance and neuroendocrine function, as well as modulating a range of other physiological systems from immunity to cognition. In the adult brain, leptin regulates food intake and energy expenditure primarily via the hypothalamus. In addition to these well-defined ...
Das Undurti N - - 2010
Obesity, which is assuming alarming proportions, has been attributed to genetic factors, hypothalamic dysfunction, and intestinal gut bacteria and an increase in the consumption of energy-dense food. Obesity predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Recent studies have shown ...
Goris Janny M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of television (TV) food advertising to the prevalence of obesity among 6-11-year-old children in Australia, Great Britain (England and Scotland only), Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden and the United States. DESIGN: Data from contemporary representative studies on the prevalence of childhood obesity and on TV food ...
Pietiläinen K H - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To study whether eating or physical-activity (PA) habits differ between obese and non-obese monozygotic (MZ) co-twins independent of genetic effects. METHODS: Rare MZ pairs discordant for obesity (n=14, body mass index difference 5.2+/-1.8 kg m(-2)) and weight-concordant control pairs (n=10, 1.0+/-0.7 kg m(-2)), identified through a population-based registry of ...
Bond D S - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, ...
Pigeyre M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Neuromedin B (NMB) is a bombesin-like peptide, which inhibits food intake and modulates stress-related behaviour. An NMB gene polymorphism (P73T) has been earlier associated with obesity and abnormal eating behaviour in adults. METHODS: The association between four NMB polymorphisms and obesity-related phenotypes was investigated in the Healthy Lifestyle in ...
Waynforth David - - 2010
In recent decades obesity has become an increasing concern for governments and health organisations around the world. Changes in diet in modern conditions have led to our food environment being labelled "toxic" and "obesogenic", and are portrayed in marked contrast to the types of food environment in which humans evolved ...
Van den Bergh An - - 2009
Weight reduction programmes in morbidly obese, diabetic, and hyperlipidaemic subjects usually improve cardiac load and subsequently reverse hypertrophy. However, their effect on contractile dysfunction and impaired cardiac functional reserve is unknown. The effect of food-restriction-induced weight loss on in vivo cardiac contractility before and during beta-adrenergic stimulation was assessed using ...
Field Benjamin C T - - 2009
Our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has expanded enormously in recent years. Food intake and body weight are tightly regulated by the hypothalamus, brainstem and reward circuits, on the basis both of cognitive inputs and of diverse humoral and neuronal signals of nutritional status. Several gut hormones, ...
Wolnerhanssen Bettina - - 2010
A great deal of research interest is directed toward understanding the control of appetite and regulation of metabolism. It seems as if an epidemic of obesity is sweeping the world, and type II diabetes (T2DM) is following in its wake. The regulation of energy homeostasis is an area that straddles ...
Blevins James E - - 2010
It is now axiomatic that neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus have a primary role in responding to changes in circulating levels of leptin and transmitting signals to downstream circuits that influence eating and energy expenditure. Signals generated from the gastrointestinal tract during meals reach the brainstem, via the vagus ...
Van Vugt Dean A - - 2010
BACKGROUND Obesity affects many aspects of health, including reproduction. Despite unrelenting warnings about the health consequences of obesity, its prevalence continues to rise. Beginning with the discovery of leptin in 1994, the endocrinology of energy homeostasis has been significantly advanced. More recently, brain imaging studies have been providing novel insights ...
Tews D - - 2010
Fat mass and obesity associated gene ( FTO) is the most relevant polygene for obesity to date. It has been identified by genome wide association studies concerning body weight regulation. However, its functional relevance for the pathogenesis of obesity remains elusive. Studies in rodents provide data pointing to a central ...
Dallman Mary F - - 2010
Stress and emotional brain networks foster eating behaviors that can lead to obesity. The neural networks underlying the complex interactions among stressors, body, brain and food intake are now better understood. Stressors, by activating a neural stress-response network, bias cognition toward increased emotional activity and degraded executive function. This causes ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2010
Starting from an addiction model of obesity, the present study examined differences in attention for food-related stimuli and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight women under conditions of hunger and satiety. Twenty-six overweight/obese (BMI: 30.00+/-4.62) and 40 normal-weight (BMI: 20.63+/-1.14) females were randomly assigned to a condition of hunger or ...
Apovian Caroline M - - 2010
Obesity is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence in the United States and worldwide and is often accompanied by multiple comorbidities that lead to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In April 2009, the American Society for Nutrition hosted the symposium "An Integrative View of Obesity" at Experimental ...
Robert L - - 2010
In this introductory article, a rapid overview is presented of the recent increase of life expectancy and its limitations mainly by unhealthy living habits: overeating, fast food, lack of exercise. The strong increase of obesity worldwide with its metabolic consequences might well limit or even decrease human life expectancy. The ...
Begriche K - - 2009
Obesity, insulin resistance and increased propensity for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease result from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The cloning of genes involved in energy homeostasis produced a simple feedback model for the homeostatic regulation of adipose mass. Serum leptin secreted from adipocytes signals nutrient sufficiency, ...
McAllister Emily J EJ Department of Infections and Obesity, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. - - 2009
The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. ...
Li Guan-Gui - - 2010
Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) leptins were characterized. Recombinant grass carp leptin ...
Barthomeuf Laétitia - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the eating desire would be lower in the presence of facial expression of an obese than of a normal-weight eater in participants who were or not themselves obese. Normal-weight and obese participants assessed their desire to eat liked and disliked foods. ...
González-Zapata Laura Inés - - 2010
Obesity implies costs not only for the individual but also for society. The authors explore the opinions of stakeholders on the potential of taxes or subsidies, as measures for tackling obesity in Europe. Structured interviews were conducted using Multicriteria Mapping, a computer-based, decision-support tool, with 189 interviewees drawn from 21 ...
P?rez-Cueto Federico J A - - 2010
This paper's objective is to investigate the associations between obesity and Food-Related Lifestyles (FRL) in five European countries. A cross-sectional web-based survey was carried out in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland, January 2008, with quota samples on gender (male, female), age categories (20-44 and 45-70 years), and locality of ...
Davids S - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Food cues yield different patterns of brain activation in obese compared with normal-weight adults in prefrontal and limbic/paralimbic areas. For children, no mapping studies comparing representation sites for food and other stimuli between obese and normal-weight subjects are available. DESIGN: We used a cross-sectional design of two age-matched subject ...
Sturm Roland R RAND in Santa Monica, California, USA. - - 2009
A regulation banning new fast-food establishments for one year in Los Angeles, California, was passed unanimously by the city council in July 2008. It was motivated by health concerns and excessive obesity rates in South Los Angeles. However, it might not have had the impact that was intended. This paper ...
Miyata Mitsuyoshi - - 2009
Tororokombu is a traditional Japanese food made from edible kelp. The way to make tororokombu is characterized by shaving kelp very thinly. It was found that tororokombu decreased the serum triglyceride level induced by oil administration to rats and had an anti-obesity effect on obese mice induced by a high-fat ...
Xanthakos Stavra A SA Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 2010, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. - - 2009
The presence of nutritional deficiencies in overweight and obesity may seem paradoxical in light of excess caloric intake, but several micronutrient deficiencies appear to be higher in prevalence in overweight and obese adults and children. Causes are multifactorial and include decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, increased intake of high-calorie, ...
Novotny Rachel R University of Hawaii, Agricultural Sciences, 1955 EastWest Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. - - 2009
Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and ...
Cannon Barbara - - 2009
According to the adipostat hypothesis for body-weight control, alterations in body weight should always be compensated by adequate alterations in food intake and thermogenesis. Thus, increased thermogenesis should not be able to counteract obesity because food intake would be increased. However evidence is presented here that thermogenesis in different forms ...
Plum Leona L Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York, - - 2009
Reduced food intake brings about an adaptive decrease in energy expenditure that contributes to the recidivism of obesity after weight loss. Insulin and leptin inhibit food intake through actions in the central nervous system that are partly mediated by the transcription factor FoxO1. We show that FoxO1 ablation in pro-opiomelanocortin ...
Zick Cathleen D CD University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. - - 2009
We expand the search for modifiable features of neighborhood environments that alter obesity risk in two ways. First, we examine residents' access to neighborhood retail food options in combination with neighborhood features that facilitate physical activity. Second, we evaluate neighborhood features for both low income and non-low income neighborhoods (bottom ...
Bienertov?-Vask? Julie - - 2010
Personal food preferences can either enhance or suppress the development of obesity and the selection and proportion of macronutrients in the diet seem to have a heritable component. In the present study, we therefore focused on dietary composition as a specific trait related to obesity and we determined whether genetic ...
Williams Diana L DL Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA. - - 2009
Leptin is thought to reduce food intake, in part, by increasing sensitivity to satiation signals, including CCK. Leptin action in both forebrain and hindbrain reduces food intake, and forebrain leptin action augments both the anorexic and neuronal activation responses to CCK. Here, we asked whether leptin signaling in hindbrain also ...
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