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Vucetic Zivjena Z Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2010
Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the ...
Shin A C AC Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and clinical studies suggest that RYGB patients change food preferences and the desire to eat. To examine hedonic reactions to palatable foods and food choice behavior in an established rat model of RYGB. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) ...
Kim Hyun-Kyong - - 2010
The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4)/fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf) is known as a regulator of peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the physiological role of Angptl4 in central regulation of body weight homeostasis. Hypothalamic Angptl4 expression levels were measured using immunoblot assay during feeding manipulation or ...
Mukaida Kumiko - - 2010
The influence of food avoidance due to allergic symptoms in infancy on the growth of children at school age has not been well evaluated. To determine the growth of schoolchildren who avoided eggs, milk, or wheat due to immediate allergic symptoms in infancy (food avoiders in infancy) (FAI), a questionnaire ...
Maccarrone Mauro - - 2010
Endocannabinoids bind to cannabinoid, vanilloid, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The biological actions of these polyunsaturated lipids are controlled by key agents responsible for their synthesis, transport and degradation, which together form an endocannabinoid system (ECS). In the past few years, evidence has been accumulated for a role of the ECS ...
Gambardella Chiara - - 2010
Leptin is a hormone involved in food intake. Although leptin is evolutionarily conserved, no studies have investigated its presence in cartilaginous fish. Here, we report the presence of leptin-like immunoreactivity in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver of the cartilaginous fish Scyliorhinus canicula using western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. A leptin-like ...
Finger Beate C BC School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Food for Health Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2010
The progressive ratio schedule of operant responding is a well utilised task for assessing the rewarding aspects of abused drugs and natural rewards including food. Interestingly, progressive ratio paradigms have mainly been neglected in the field of animal research in obesity. Among the most widely studied mouse models of obesity ...
Jilcott Stephanie B - - 2010
The prevalence of obesity is higher in rural than in urban areas of the United States, for reasons that are not well understood. We examined correlations between percentage of rural residents, commute times, food retail gap per capita, and body mass index (BMI) among North Carolina residents. We used 2000 ...
Yazbek Soha N - - 2010
Current treatments have largely failed to slow the rapidly increasing world-wide prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities. Despite a strong genetic contribution to obesity (40-70%), only a small percentage of heritability is explained with current knowledge of monogenic abnormalities, common sequence variants and conventional modes of inheritance. Epigenetic effects are ...
McAllister C J CJ Cambridge Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2011
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of ...
Suzuki Yoshihiro - - 2010
This study was conducted to examine the contributions of central and peripheral leptin to hyperphagia in lactation. Lactating rats were mated at 7-8 weeks of age and housed singly with their litters. In experiment 1, food intakes were significantly (P<0.01) greater (350% on average) in lactation than in non-lactation throughout ...
Fraser Lorna K - - 2010
To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2010
The primary objective of the present study was to investigate differences in the attentional processing of food-related words in a Stroop task, as assessed by means of behavioral (reaction times) and electrophysiological (P200 and P300 amplitudes) indices, between obese and normal-weight individuals. Results revealed a P200 bias to food-related words ...
Beck Bernard - - 2010
The aim of this study was to ascertain the roles of neuropeptide W (NPW) and obestatin in feeding and endocrine regulations and their interactions with leptin, corticosterone, and insulin, three key hormones involved in metabolic homeostasis. Plasma variations were measured in obese hyperphagic Zucker rats either following a one-day fast, ...
Cammisotto Philippe G - - 2010
The understanding of the regulation of food intake has become increasingly complex. More than 20 hormones, both orexigenic and anorexigenic, have been identified. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, they reach their main site of action located in several hypothalamic areas and interact to balance satiety and hunger. One of the ...
Blumenthal Daniel M - - 2010
To review recent work on disorders related to food use, including food addiction, and to highlight the similarities and differences between food and drugs of abuse. Recent work on food use disorders has demonstrated that the same neurobiological pathways that are implicated in drug abuse also modulate food consumption, and ...
Sallander Marie - - 2010
Our main objective was to obtain baseline data on daily metabolisable energy (ME) intake, activity, and risk factors for obesity in a population of 460 privately owned Swedish dogs in 1999. A previously validated mail-and-telephone questionnaire was used (Sallander et al., 2001a). The dogs were of 124 breeds, 1-3 years ...
Gibson C D - - 2010
Two major biological players in the regulation of body weight are the gut and the brain. Peptides released from the gut convey information about energy needs to areas of the brain involved in homeostatic control of food intake. There is emerging evidence that human food intake is also under the ...
Liu Y-L YL Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2010
To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing body weight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were ...
Nishiura Chihiro - - 2010
To investigate whether dietary patterns explain the possible association between short sleep duration and obesity. Longitudinal study. Annual health checkup at a Japanese workplace over a 4-year period from 1994-1995 (baseline) to 1998-1999 (follow-up). Nonobese Japanese male workers aged 40 to 59 years (n = 2632). Trained health professionals conducted ...
Liu Yijun Y Division of Global Tobacco, Alcohol, Obesity & Health Research, University of Florida, Department of Psychiatry and McKnight Brain Institute, PO Box 100256, Gainesville, FL 32610-0256, USA. - - 2010
Obesity has become a major health problem and epidemic. However, much of the current debate has been fractious and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior or fast food, personality issues, depression, addiction, or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for epidemic obesity is food addiction, which ...
Charansonney Olivier L - - 2010
Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are ...
Batterink Laura - - 2010
Self-report and behavioral data suggest that impulsivity may contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity. Neuroimaging studies implicate a widespread neural network in inhibitory control and suggest that impulsive individuals show hypoactivity in these regions during tasks requiring response inhibition. Yet, research has not directly tested whether body mass ...
Garaulet Marta - - 2010
The present review starts from the classical physiological and nutritional studies related with food intake control, digestion, transport and absorption of nutrients. It continues with studies related with the metabolism of adipose tissue, and finish with modern experiments in genetics and molecular biology - all from a fresh, chronobiological point ...
Keller Simone K - - 2011
In the light of increasing childhood obesity, the role of food advertisements relayed on television (TV) is of high interest. There is evidence of food commercials having an impact on children's food preferences, choices, consumption and obesity. We describe the product categories advertised during kids programmes, the type of food ...
Chung Shih-Chi - - 2010
Studies in Western countries have suggested that there are relationships among sex hormones, the neuropeptide leptin, women's food intake, and body weight changes across the menstrual cycle. However, data on this question are needed from other cultural groups. To compare total food and macronutrient intake and serum estrogen, progesterone, and ...
Bruce A S - - 2010
To investigate the neural mechanisms of food motivation in children and adolescents, and examine brain activation differences between healthy weight (HW) and obese participants. Ten HW children (ages 11-16; BMI < 85%ile) and 10 obese children (ages 10-17; BMI >95%ile) matched for age, gender and years of education. Functional magnetic ...
Fraser Lorna K - - 2010
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed ...
Mellor Jennifer M - - 2011
Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fast food and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. ...
Opland Darren M DM Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
Nutritional status modulates many forms of reward-seeking behavior, with caloric restriction increasing the drive for drugs of abuse as well as for food. Understanding the interactions between the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system (which mediates the incentive salience of natural and artificial rewards) and the neural and hormonal systems that sense ...
White Christy L CL Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2010
After a period of forced overfeeding, many individuals actively compensate for this weight gain by reducing food intake and maintaining this state of hypophagia well into the post-overfeeding period. Our central goal is to define the mechanism underlying this adaptive reduction in food intake. When male Long Evans rats were ...
Atalayer Deniz - - 2010
Mice with homozygous genetic disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R-/-) are known to be hyperphagic and become obese, while those with disruption of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R-/-) do not become markedly obese. The contribution of MC3R signaling in energy homeostasis remains little studied. In the present work, we ...
Loff Bebe - - 2010
Because of the complex aetiology of modern obesity patterns, isolated therapeutic or public health measures will not solve the obesity problem. Consumers must be made aware of the ways in which the food industry influences their food purchases. Government needs to prioritise health ahead of industrial productivity and increased consumption. ...
Pantaleão Thiago U - - 2010
We evaluated the interplay among estrogen, leptin and thyroid function in the regulation of body mass in female rats. Adult female rats were divided into four groups: control (C, sham-operated), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized treated with estradiol benzoate (Eb) 0.7 or 14microg/100gbw per day, during 21 days. OVX led to an ...
Shariat-Madar B - - 2010
Recently, we serendipitously discovered that mice with the deficiency of the enzyme prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) have elevated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) levels which lead to decreased food intake and weight loss. This suggests that PRCP is an endogenous inactivator of alpha-MSH and an appetite stimulant. Since a modest weight loss can have ...
Speakman John R - - 2010
An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs9939609) close to the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first SNP to be discovered with common variants linked to body mass index; at least seven studies in humans have implicated this SNP with variations in food intake and satiety, and ...
Johnson Paul M PM Laboratory of Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute-Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida, - - 2010
We found that development of obesity was coupled with emergence of a progressively worsening deficit in neural reward responses. Similar changes in reward homeostasis induced by cocaine or heroin are considered to be crucial in triggering the transition from casual to compulsive drug-taking. Accordingly, we detected compulsive-like feeding behavior in ...
Bragulat Veronique V Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2010
Food aromas can be powerful appetitive cues in the natural environment. Although several studies have examined the cerebral responses to food images, none have used naturalistic food aromas to study obesity. Ten individuals (five normal-weight and five obese) were recruited to undergo 24 h of food deprivation. Subjects were then ...
Finkelstein Eric A - - 2010
The rise in obesity rates, both nationally and internationally, is a result of changes in the environment that have simultaneously lowered the cost of food production, lowered the time and monetary cost of food consumption, increased the real cost of being physically active at work and at home, and decreased ...
Bayol Stéphanie A - - 2010
With rising obesity rates, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is predicted to become the main cause of chronic liver disease in the next decades. Rising obesity prevalence is attributed to changes in dietary habits with increased consumption of palatable junk foods, but maternal malnutrition also contributes to obesity in progeny. This ...
Kimbro Rachel Tolbert - - 2010
Amid growing concern about childhood obesity, the United States spends billions of dollars on food assistance: providing meals and subsidizing food purchases. We examine the relationship between food assistance and body mass index (BMI) for young, low-income children, who are a primary target population for federal food programs and for ...
Bor Jonathan - - 2010
As scientists currently understand the phenomenon, widespread obesity represents an interaction of genes and the environment. Throughout human history, the ability to gain weight enabled humans to survive food shortages by tapping energy reserves stored in body fat. Today, an overabundance of calorie-rich foods enables calorie intakes that can overwhelm ...
Yarkony Lisa - - 2010
First Lady Michelle Obama has taken on the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States. And who could be a more perfect candidate to confront a leading contributor to our country's soaring medical costs? Obama is an athletic woman with real curves and a member of a minority group ...
Wallner-Liebmann Sandra - - 2010
Responsiveness to food cues, especially those associated with high-calorie nutrients may be a factor underlying obesity. An increased motivational potency of foods appears to be mediated in part by the hippocampus. To clarify this, we investigated by means of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the activation of the hippocampus and ...
Schroeder Mariana - - 2010
The alarming increase in childhood, adolescent and adult obesity has exposed the need for understanding early factors affecting obesity and for treatments that may help prevent or moderate its development. In the present study, we used the OLETF rat model of early-onset hyperphagia induced obesity, which become obese as a ...
Makarova E N - - 2010
The aim of the present work was to assess the expression of agouti-like protein and neuropeptide Y in pregnant and lactating mice and to compare this with the leptin level and food consumption. Food consumption, blood leptin levels, and agouti-like protein and neuropeptide Y mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of ...
Spruyt Karen - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary and physical activity patterns and morning circulating blood levels of the orexigenic hormones ghrelin and visfatin in children with either obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), or both conditions. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional design, 5- to 9-year-old participants (n = 245) from the community were identified. ...
Roth Christian L - - 2010
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease, in addition to psychological disorders. Interventions such as bariatric surgery are highly invasive and lifestyle modifications are often unsuccessful because of disturbed perceptions of satiety. New signaling peptides discovered in ...
Kim Dong-Hoon - - 2010
Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducing body fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reduced body weight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation ...
Salgado-Delgado Roberto - - 2010
Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in ...
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