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Galal Osman M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To describe changing food consumption patterns in Egypt over the last several decades, current levels of overweight and obesity, and current data on obesity-related morbidity. DESIGN: Secondary analysis and synthesis of existing data from national-level food consumption surveys, large recent surveys of hypertension and diabetes, and documentation of historical ...
Young Lisa R - - 2002
Because larger food portions could be contributing to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, this study was designed to weigh samples of marketplace foods, identify historical changes in the sizes of those foods, and compare current portions with federal standards. We obtained information about current portions from manufacturers or ...
Smith G D - - 2002
Leptin, a 16-KD protein secreted primarily by adipose tissue, was first discovered in the search for a satiety signal. When administered into the brain, leptin depresses appetite. Interestingly, hyperphagic, obese, transgenic mice with leptin deficiency were noted to be reproductively incompetent, and administration of leptin restored their fertility. These pivotal ...
Bairlein Franz - - 2002
Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency ...
Kunesová Marie - - 2002
Fourteen pairs of obese female monozygotic twins were recruited for a study of genetic influences on serum and adipose fatty acid (FA) composition. Following 1 wk of inpatient stabilization, fasting serum and adipose tissue obtained by surgical excision were analyzed by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Intrapair resemblances (IPR) for individual ...
Grill Harvey J - - 2002
Three experiments were performed to investigate the hypothesis that leptin action within the caudal brain stem (CBS) contributes to its intake inhibitory effects. The first experiment evaluated the anatomical distribution of leptin receptor mRNA in rat CBS using a sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization method with a riboprobe specific for ...
Bjørbaek Christian - - 2002
The regulation of body weight in humans is coordinated by the interplay between food intake and energy expenditure. The identification of the adipocyte-secreted hormone leptin as a key regulator on both of these processes has shed new light on the pathways involved in their regulation. Indeed, mutations in the gene's ...
Brudnak M A - - 2002
Obesity is a major cause of health complaints in western developed countries. Problems ranging from apnea to joint pain have been associated with excess weight. Many factors have been attributed to the epidemic of obesity including sedentary lifestyle, high-fat diets and consumption of large amounts of processed foods. Pharmacies and ...
Yaksh Tony L - - 2002
Intracranial leptin alters food consumption and body weight. To systematically characterize the effects of extended continuous spinal intrathecal delivery on such regulation, female rats received continuous lumbar spinal infusion (14 days) through catheters connected to osmotic minipumps of a vehicle or one of several doses of recombinant murine leptin (0.03-10 ...
Ingvartsen K L - - 2001
The biology of leptin has been studied most extensively in rodents and in humans. Leptin is involved in the regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis and immunity. Leptin is primarily produced in white adipose tissue and acts via a family of membrane bound receptors, including an isoform with a long ...
Gröschl M - - 2001
Leptin is produced predominantly in adipose tissue but has recently also been found in gastric mucosa. It has been shown that the oral application of leptin induces neuronal activity in the brain stem of rodents. The objective of the present study was to identify this hormone in human saliva and ...
Nasser J - - 2001
Research in human eating behaviour prior to 1990 has shown that taste impacts the palatability and selection of food for intake; sensory-specific satiety; satiation; and thermic effect of food. Research in the last decade has added information to these areas; expanded the field to comparisons of the impact of 'wanting' ...
Scarpace P J - - 2001
Leptin contributes to the regulation of both food intake and energy expenditure. Serum leptin is elevated in most obese humans, and that obesity persists in spite of the elevated leptin, suggesting leptin resistance. The F-344xBN rat strain, similar to humans, demonstrates a steady increase in body fat and serum leptin ...
Rios M - - 2001
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been associated previously with the regulation of food intake. To help elucidate the role of this neurotrophin in weight regulation, we have generated conditional mutants in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been eliminated from the brain after birth through the use of the cre-loxP recombination system. ...
van Dijk G - - 2001
Since its discovery, leptin (a 167-amino acid product of the OB gene) has quickly moved to the forefront as an important hormone for regulation of energy balance. It closes a feedback loop from adipose tissue to hypothalamic neuropeptide-containing neural circuitry involved in regulation of food intake and neuroendocrine/autonomic outflow. While ...
Barkeling B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study the intake of sweet foods in obese and normal-weight women, while also taking menstrual cycle effects on eating behaviour into consideration. An objective test of the intake of sugar-containing foods was introduced by measuring salivary counts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparison of the ...
Considine R V - - 2001
Fat mass is the primary determinant of serum leptin in humans with energy intake and gender also having significant effects. Gender influences leptin production through the reproductive hormones. Glucose metabolism links food intake to leptin production and hexosamine biosynthesis appears to play a significant role in this process. Catecholamines inhibit ...
Westerterp-Plantenga M S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Results of leptin administration in mice, rats, and humans provide a rationale for therapeutic augmentation of circulating leptin (OB protein) concentrations in obese humans; this may reduce food intake, increase metabolic rate, and lower body mass. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of weekly subcutaneous pegylated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-OB protein ...
Furness J B - - 2001
Truncal vagotomy can cause reduced food intake and weight loss in humans and laboratory animals. In order to investigate some of the factors that might contribute to this effect, we studied changes in ingestive behaviour, whole body and organ weights, serum leptin and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in rats with bilateral ...
Frühbeck G - - 2001
Parabiosis studies with obese rodents demonstrated that circulating factors are involved in the long-term control of food intake and energy balance. More than 40 years ago it was hypothesized that rats made obese by hypothalamic or dietary means, as well as genetically obese fa/fa rats and db/db mice, produce a ...
Mackintosh R M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Body fatness is partly under hypothalamic control with effector limbs that include the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In previous studies of both obese and never-obese subjects, we have shown that weight increase leads to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity, whereas weight decrease leads to ...
Frühbeck G - - 2001
Leptin is significantly broadening our understanding of the mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine function. Initially, based on a rather static view of the hormone, most investigations focused on the effects of leptin on food intake control and body-weight homeostasis, with attention primarily focused on the implications of leptin as a lipostatic factor ...
McArthur L L Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA. - - 2001
To examine the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the obesity knowledge of adolescents in six Latin American cities. Data were collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic questions and a 25-item multiple-choice obesity knowledge test. Test items were clustered under five topics: the fat and calorie content ...
Marie M - - 2001
Circulating concentrations of leptin in sheep correlate with body fatness and are affected by level of food intake and photoperiod. The present objective was to elucidate the short-term dynamics of leptin secretion. Frequent blood samples were taken over 48 h from 12 Soay rams after 16 weeks in short-day photoperiod ...
Drazen D L - - 2001
Many adaptations have evolved in small mammals to maximize survival during winter. One such coping tactic in many species is an alteration of immune function in advance of the stressful conditions of winter. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue, and in addition to its central role in energy ...
Wardle J J Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. - - 2001
Children of obese parents have a substantially higher risk of adult obesity than children of lean parents. Adoption and twin studies have shown that this risk is largely genetic but the proximal mechanisms of the genetic risk are not known. Comparisons of energy intake or expenditure in children of obese ...
Clarke I J - - 2001
Whilst there have been many studies in various species examining the effects of leptin on food intake, there is a paucity of data comparing responsiveness in the two sexes. We have, therefore, addressed this issue in sheep. Because this species shows seasonal variation in voluntary food intake (VFI), we also ...
Grueso E - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: For adipostatic control, increases in food intake are followed by increased leptin levels that in turn reduce food intake. However, progesterone administration increases both food intake and body weight. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the white adipose tissue-leptin system in rats with enhanced plasma ...
Zasloff M M Magainin Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania 19462, USA. - - 2001
We describe the pharmacological properties of a novel spermine-cholesterol adduct, MSI 1436 (3beta-N-1(spermine)-7alpha, 24R-dihydroxy-5alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate), which causes reversible suppression of food and fluid intake in mammals resulting in profound weight loss, not associated with other signs or symptoms of illness, and which exhibits antidiabetic properties in genetically obese mice. Wild-type ...
Di Marzo V - - 2001
Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y. Genetic defects in anorexigenic signalling, such as mutations in the ...
Uauy R - - 2001
Latin America is undergoing a rapid demographic and nutritional transition. A recent WHO/PAHO survey on obesity in the region revealed an increasing trend in obesity as countries emerge from poverty, especially in urban areas. In contrast, in middle income countries, obesity tends to decline as income increases; this is especially ...
Matsumoto T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this ...
Simion, Oana-Maria.
The etiology of obesity involves imbalanced energy intake and utilization. ASP is an adipose tissue hormone that facilitates adipocyte uptake of serum fatty acids and their storage. Mice lacking ASP have less adipose tissue mass, despite increased food intake, than wild-type littermates. We hypothesize that the unstored fuels are oxidized ...
Clarke I J - - 2001
1. Leptin is secreted by fat and acts on the brain. 2. Central infusion of leptin reduces food intake but does not alter endocrine secretions in normally fed sheep. 3. Leptin treatment can correct for altered hormonal secretion in fasted animals. 4. Alterations in bodyweight (leptin status) affect the expression ...
Pretolesi F - - 2001
We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural ...
Konturek P C - - 2001
Leptin, a 16 kDa protein encoded by the ob gene, is known mainly for its role in the regulation of food intake, body composition and energy expenditure through a central feedback mechanism. Initially leptin was considered as an ob gene product of adipocytes but recently the presence of leptin and ...
Baskin D G - - 2001
The brain plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, balancing food intake and energy expenditure to maintain adipose tissue mass. A widely accepted model proposes that energy homeostasis is modulated by hormones that circulate in the blood in proportion to adipose tissue mass. A major candidate 'adiposity ...
Bowles L - - 2001
A major advance in the understanding of the control of appetite, food intake, and energy expenditure came with the discovery of leptin. Leptin concentrations correlate with adipose tissue mass, and leptin acts via the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure. A variety of different ...
Bartness T J - - 2001
The annual meeting of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity was held in Long Beach, CA, USA with approximately 1500 attendees, including basic and clinical obesity/food intake researchers and local and regional physicians. The meeting highlighted a clear trend toward pharmacological approaches directed at the brain control ...
Johnstone L E - - 2001
Successful reproduction requires the accumulation of energy reserves. Although acute and chronic food deprivation disrupts reproduction, surprisingly, an over-abundance of energy reserves can also result in infertility. The infertility of obese, ob/ob mice can be reversed by the reintroduction of leptin, the protein product of the ob gene. In rats, ...
Martin R L - - 2000
It is well known that leptin plays a predominant role in body weight regulation. Leptin receptors are especially abundant in the hypothalamus, where the majority of leptin's biologic activity occurs. In instances where leptin has no or limited activity, it is easy to implicate leptin resistance and speculate as to ...
Balbo S L - - 2000
In order to study the role of vagus nerve activity at the onset of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG), 30-day-old MSG-rats were vagotomized or sham operated. Body weight and food intake were recorded until animals were 90 days old and then sacrificed. Naso-anal length was recorded for all animals. ...
Schuld A - - 2000
Recently, hypocretins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized particularly by the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypocretins, which stimulate food intake, have been reported to be absent in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the majority of patients suffering from narcolepsy. Because these ...
Woods S C - - 2000
Recent technologic innovations have enabled probing the workings of individual cells and even molecules. As a result, our knowledge of the biological controls over eating and the regulation of body adiposity is increasing at a rapid pace. We review the evidence that food intake is controlled by separate but interacting ...
Laferrère B - - 2000
We have previously shown that morning administration of dexamethasone in combination with food induces a doubling of serum leptin levels starting at 7 hours after dexamethasone administration, with a maximum effect at 10 hours, the latest time point that we have studied. However, dexamethasone given in the absence of food ...
Maffeis C - - 2000
The epidemic diffusion of obesity in industrialised countries has promoted research on the aetiopathogenesis of this disorder. The purpose of this review is to focus mainly on the contribution that European research has made to this field. Available evidence suggests that obesity results from multiple interactions between genes and environment. ...
Magni P - - 2000
Several regulatory substances participate in the regulation of both food intake/energy metabolism and reproduction in mammals. Most of these neuropeptides originate and act in the central nervous system, mainly at specific hypothalamic areas. Leptin represents a signal integrating all these functions, but originating from the periphery (adipose tissue) and carrying ...
Dhillon H - - 2000
We investigated the long-term effects of physiological levels of leptin produced by gene therapy on body weight (BW) and expression of genes that encode orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV), a non-pathogenic and non-immunogenic vector, encoding leptin (betaOb) was generated and administered iv to ...
Seoane L M - - 2000
Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates food intake and energy expenditure. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis is markedly influenced by the metabolic status, being suppressed during food deprivation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether leptin can act as a ...
Unger R H - - 2000
It is widely believed that the primary physiologic role of leptin is to prevent obesity by regulating food intake and thermogenesis through actions on hypothalamic centers. Here we sugest that the first premise, the anti-obesity role, is untenable, and present evidence for an alternative physiologic role, namely antisteatotic activity in ...
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