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Results 551 - 600 of 956
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Davey R C - - 2004
Traditional treatment strategies and public health interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of obesity are proving inadequate at controlling the global epidemic of this condition. The main focus of any intervention should be on preventing small excesses of weight, which lead to large weight gain over time, as once a ...
Chou Shin-Yi - - 2004
This paper examines the factors that may be responsible for the 50% increase in the number of obese adults in the US since the late 1970s. We employ the 1984-1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, augmented with state level measures pertaining to the per capita number of fast-food and full-service ...
Piccione Giuseppe - - 2004
The hormone leptin is secreted by white adipocytes and regulates food intake and energy expenditure in rodents and humans. The goal of the present study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm of serum leptin in horses and its dependence on fasting and physical exercise. A robust daily ...
Sánchez Juana - - 2004
We investigated diurnal changes in leptin and ghrelin levels in the stomach and in the systemic circulation and their relation to food intake rhythms in Wistar rats housed at 22 degrees C with a 12-h light/dark cycle and free access to food and water. Animals were sacrificed every 3 h ...
Bouret Sebastien G - - 2004
In adult mammals, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts on the brain to reduce food intake by regulating the activity of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we report that neural projection pathways from the ARH are permanently disrupted in leptin-deficient (Lepob/Lepob) mice and leptin treatment in ...
Halford Jason C G - - 2004
The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non-food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, ...
Bray George A - - 2004
Obesity is a major epidemic, but its causes are still unclear. In this article, we investigate the relation between the intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and the development of obesity. We analyzed food consumption patterns by using US Department of Agriculture food consumption tables from 1967 to 2000. The ...
Martínez-Merlos M T - - 2004
Digestive and metabolic processes are entrained by restricted feeding (RFS) schedules and are thought to be potential elements of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). Due to the close relationship of leptin with metabolic regulation and because leptin is a relevant communication signal of the individual's peripheral metabolic condition with the central ...
Wang Gene-Jack GJ Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. - - 2004
The increased incidence of obesity most likely reflects changes in the environment that had made food more available and palatable. Here we assess the response of the human brain to the presentation of appetitive food stimuli during food presentation using PET and FDG. Metabolic changes in response to food presentation ...
Druce Maralyn R - - 2004
The gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas release hormones regulating satiety and body weight. Ghrelin stimulates appetite, and glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and pancreatic polypeptide inhibit appetite. These gut hormones act to markedly alter food intake in humans and rodents. Obesity is the current major cause of premature death ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2004
Obesity shortens life expectancy. The peripheral administration of peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) inhibits food intake in mice and rats. The effects of PYY3-36 on food intake have been assessed in obese and lean subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. In fasting obese and lean subjects, infusion of PYY3-36 reduced the ...
Haque Wasim A - - 2004
Adipose tissue actively participates in regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, fuel metabolism, and a variety of other physiologic processes through its endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine secretory products (Table 4). Abnormal synthesis of these secretory products may be related to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and its complications in patients ...
Panagiotaropoulos Theofanis - - 2004
Neonatal handling is an experimental paradigm for early experiences. It affects the programming of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, known to be sexually dimorphic. Recently leptin, a hormone related to energy balance and secreted mainly by adipocytes, has been implicated in the stress response. We thus determined the effect of neonatal ...
Laraia Barbara A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A causal relationship between hunger and obesity has been postulated. Two cross-sectional studies have found evidence to suggest an association between obesity and food insecurity among adult women, and a third study suggests an association between underweight and food insecurity among men. The purpose of this study was to ...
Swinburn B A - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the diet and nutrition causes of obesity and to recommend strategies to reduce obesity prevalence. DESIGN: The evidence for potential aetiological factors and strategies to reduce obesity prevalence was reviewed, and recommendations for public health action, population nutrition goals and further research were made. ...
Kirkham Tim C - - 2004
Obesity has been described as a global epidemic. Its increasing prevalence is matched by growing costs, not only to the health of the individual, but also to the medical services required to treat a range of obesity-related diseases. In most instances, obesity is a product of progressively less energetic lifestyles ...
Aguilera Abelardo - - 2004
Eating and appetite disorders are frequent complications of the uremic syndrome which contribute to malnutrition in dialysis patients. The data suggest that uremic anorexia may occur with or without abdominal and visceral fat accumulation despite a lower food intake. This form of obesity (i.e., with low food intake and malnutrition) ...
Abizaid Alfonso - - 2004
Leptin administration has been shown to prevent the disruptive effects of acute food deprivation on reproductive function in cycling females and lactating females. We examined the ability of intracerebroventricular leptin administration to ameliorate the effects of food restriction for the first 2 wk postpartum on length of lactational infertility. Leptin ...
Morrill Allison C - - 2004
We describe the epidemic of obesity in the United States: escalating rates of obesity in both adults and children, and why these qualify as an epidemic; disparities in overweight and obesity by race/ethnicity and sex, and the staggering health and economic consequences of obesity. Physical activity contributes to the epidemic ...
Mason Caleb E - - 2004
Lawsuits brought by obese plaintiffs against fast-food chains have been the subject of some derision in the late-night talk shows and popular press, and have not succeeded so far. But the common law tort theories on which such lawsuits should be grounded are straightforward, unremarkable, and mainstream. This article first ...
St-Onge Marie-Pierre - - 2003
Childhood obesity is currently at its highest: recent statistics show that 16% of children between the ages of 6 and 11 y are overweight [> or =95th percentile of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) for age] and that an additional 14.3% are at risk of becoming overweight (> or ...
Gillis Linda J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To identify if particular foods or food groups may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents and to determine if consuming food away from home (FAFH) has an effect on the nutritional quality of their diets. DESIGN: One-year cross-sectional study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: The obese subjects (n = 91) were ...
Bessesen Daniel H - - 2003
Obesity is the result of a long-standing imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, aided by a complex biologic system that regulates appetite and favors intake. New knowledge about substances that stimulate or inhibit appetite offers hope that drug-based solutions will be found for the current high prevalence of obesity ...
Wlodek Danuta - - 2003
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and has become one of the major health problems in developed countries. Current theories consider obesity a result of overeating and sedentary life style and most efforts to treat or prevent weight gain concentrate on exercise and food intake. This approach does not improve the ...
Jiang Jingjing - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to many common diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Leptin and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), two members of the cytokine family, play important roles in controlling food intake and body weight in rodents. Here, we used the hydrodynamics-based gene delivery technique ...
Florêncio T T - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the food pattern of stunted and nonstunted, obese and nonobese individuals in a very-low-income population. DESIGN: A household survey. SETTING: Slum set up by the 'Homeless Movement', city of Maceió (Alagoas), Brazil. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 532 adults classified by sex, stature (Z</= and Z ...
Richards Robert J - - 2003
Shortly after leptin was first discovered, it was hailed as the key to understanding obesity. However, it didn't take long for investigators to realize that the hormone was more than a feedback signal to inhibit further food intake. Since those early days, leptin has been well characterized in rodents. It ...
French Stephen - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the global rates of obesity and the potential link to dietary fat intake, understanding the role of fat in the regulation of food intake is critical. Some short-term, laboratory-based studies demonstrate poor compensation for manipulation of fat content, leading to passive overconsumption, while others demonstrate compensation ...
Ghizzoni Lucia - - 2003
Leptin is the product of the ob gene located in humans on chromosome 7q31.3. It is a 16-kDa protein named after the Greek "leptos," meaning lean, to indicate the function that this adipocyte-secreted protein was thought to have. Since its discovery, in fact, most of the research focused on the ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity continues to increase around the globe, and creates a major health problem because of its comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Considering that the major cause of most human obesities is the modern lifestyle in a rapidly changing environment, this suggests that the battle is ...
Tsofliou F F Human Nutrition at Glasgow, Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, - - 2003
To investigate whether moderate physical activity or snack intake influence appetite sensations and subsequent food intake in obese women. Associations between serum leptin and appetite ratings were also investigated. In all, 10 obese women (mean age+/-s.d.: 50.0+/-8.5 y; mean body mass index (BMI)+/-s.d.: 37.2+/-6.5 kg m(-2)) were submitted in random ...
La Cava Antonio - - 2004
Initially described as an antiobesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown also to influence hematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and immune homeostasis. Leptin links nutritional status and proinflammatory T helper 1 immune responses, and the decrease in leptin plasma concentration during food deprivation leads to impaired immune function. This review focuses ...
Picó Catalina - - 2003
The discovery of the production of leptin by the stomach, in addition to its production by adipose tissue, has initiated new investigation into the possible role of this protein in the digestive physiology, in particular in the short-term control of energy balance. Leptin has been identified in the lower half ...
Lowe Michael R - - 2003
The prevalence of obesity in developed countries has been steadily increasing. Comprehensive lifestyle change programs for the treatment of obesity have garnered considerable empirical support, but most weight lost in lifestyle interventions is regained within several years. The outcome of obesity prevention programs has also been disappointing. One reason for ...
Harrold Joanne A JA Neuroendocrine and Obesity Biology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Clinical Departments, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. - - 2003
Knowledge of the cannabinoid system and its components has expanded greatly over the past decade. There is increasing evidence for its role in the regulation of food intake and appetite. Cannabinoid system activity in the hypothalamus is thought to contribute to the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, under the control ...
Dallman Mary F - - 2003
The effects of adrenal corticosteroids on subsequent adrenocorticotropin secretion are complex. Acutely (within hours), glucocorticoids (GCs) directly inhibit further activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but the chronic actions (across days) of these steroids on brain are directly excitatory. Chronically high concentrations of GCs act in three ways that are functionally ...
- - 2003
Obesity is epidemic among all segments of the U.S. population and in all regions of the country, and persons who are obese are at higher risk for several chronic diseases. Previous studies have suggested a possible relation between obesity and food insecurity (i.e., not having access at all times to ...
Batterham Rachel L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The gut hormone fragment peptide YY3-36 (PYY) reduces appetite and food intake when infused into subjects of normal weight. In common with the adipocyte hormone leptin, PYY reduces food intake by modulating appetite circuits in the hypothalamus. However, in obesity there is a marked resistance to the action of ...
Zigman Jeffrey M - - 2003
Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the molecular and neural mechanisms that control food intake and body weight. Yet eating disorders and cachexia are still common, and obesity cases are rising at alarming rates. Thus, despite recent progress, an increased understanding of ...
Austin Maureen E - - 2003
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the ...
Gamaro G D - - 2003
Exposure to stress may cause either an increase or a decrease in food intake. Behavioral and physiological responses to stress, including alterations in feeding behavior, are sexually dimorphic. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between estradiol levels and chronic variate stress on the intake of sweet food and on ...
Telles Mônica Marques - - 2003
Both hypothalamic serotonin and leptin reduce energy intake and stimulate expenditure. There are evidence that increased serotonin metabolism may be involved in leptin actions. Using microdialysis, we directly assessed the effect of an intracerebroventricular leptin injection on 5-HT release in the lateral hypothalamus of normal rats. When LH microdialysates were ...
Gullicksen P S - - 2003
Great strides have been made in understanding the genetics of body weight regulation, in part due to the study of rodent models of obesity that are characterized by mutations affecting leptin or its receptors. Leptin, produced in adipose tissue, acts both centrally and peripherally to orchestrate complex metabolic and behavioral ...
Killgore William D S - - 2003
Despite the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and weight-related health problems in modernized cultures, the neural systems regulating human feeding remain poorly understood. Therefore, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the cerebral responses of 13 healthy normal-weight adult women as they viewed color photographs of food. ...
Hansen Karl R - - 2003
The effects of leptin upon body weight (BW) cannot be explained by its anorectic actions alone. Part of the metabolic changes elicited by leptin includes sympathetic nervous system activation leading to increased energy expenditure. Galanin-like peptide (GALP), a recently described hypothalamic neuropeptide, is up-regulated by leptin and has anorectic effects ...
Shih Cheng-Dean - - 2003
Leptin plays an important role in the central regulation of body weight and arterial pressure via activation of leptin receptors (Ob-Rs) in the hypothalamic area, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study was undertaken to investigate whether endogenous leptin in the PVN plays a dual role in the ...
Druce Maralyn - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a major public health problem and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The population is becoming increasingly obese, yet for individuals weight is regulated within a narrow range. This regulation depends on the balance between energy ...
Henry B A - - 2003
The hypothalamus is integral to the regulation of energy homeostasis and the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. Consequently, hypothalamic systems may have a dual purpose in regulating both neuroendocrine function and appetite. To date, most studies investigating the interface between appetite and hormone secretion have been performed in ...
Ross Michael G - - 2003
Fetal swallowing has important roles in fetal gastrointestinal development, and perhaps fetal somatic growth and maturation. Ingestive behavioral responses must develop in utero to provide for acquisition of water and food intake during the neonatal period. At birth, the rat, ovine and human fetus have developed mechanisms to acquire food ...
Sato T - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic serotonin, the synthesis of which parallels plasma free tryptophan, contributes to satiety. Plasma free tryptophan, insulin and leptin, all of which can also decrease food intake partly via the hypothalamic serotonergic system, are modulated by cytokines, which decrease food intake. The mechanisms of anorexia induced by cytokines, as ...
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