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Shea Steven A SA Medical Chronobiology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Sleep Disorders Research Program at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2005
Leptin and adiponectin play important physiological roles in regulating appetite, food intake, and energy balance and have pathophysiological roles in obesity and anorexia nervosa. To assess the relative contributions of day/night patterns in behaviors (sleep/wake cycle and food intake) and of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on observed day/night patterns of ...
DelParigi Angelo - - 2005
The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion ...
Mathur R K - - 2005
Hyperosmolality of ingested food causes excessive thermogenesis in humans. And when this heat does not find a way to dissipate or expelled from body it causes the blood circulatory system to build an insulator wall by depositing fat in aorta resulting in atherosclerosis. The mechanism of excessive thermogenesis is presently ...
Pagotto Uberto - - 2005
The endocannabinoids are endogenous lipids capable of binding to both cannabinoid receptors (CB) CB1 and CB2. These receptors belong to the G protein-coupled family receptors and they were discovered while investigating the mode of action of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a component of Cannabis sativa, to which they bind with high affinity. Among ...
Smith Steven R - - 2005
Body weight is determined by the interaction of the genetic makeup of an individual and the environment in which that person is living. The control systems that regulate body weight are numerous and include signals from fat that travel to the hypothalamus where cognitive and internal signals are integrated. The ...
Brantley Phillip J - - 2005
Obesity is an end result of the intricate interactions of biology, behavior, and environment. Recent hypotheses in the scientific community suggest the current obesity epidemic is being driven largely by environmental factors (e.g., high energy/high fat foods, fast food consumption, television watching, "super-sized" portions, etc.) rather than biological ones. Individuals ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2005
The aim of the study was to investigate the circannual rhythms of leptin and ghrelin in the blue fox, a variant of the endangered arctic fox, in relation to its seasonal cycles of body mass, adiposity and food intake. The effects of long-term fasting and exogenous melatonin treatment on these ...
Al-Arabi Ateegh - - 2005
We have studied the effects of chronic peripheral infusion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and norepinephrine (NE) alone and together. Do these hormones additively affect energy balance and body weight similarly in obese animals? 20 obese (fa/fa) Zucker strain rats were studied. Food intake, body weight and resting metabolic rate ...
Kelly Ben - - 2005
The global hegemony of the United States in the production and marketing of food, while a marvel of economic success, has contributed to the epidemic of obesity that is particularly afflicting children. So far the U.S. government has declined to regulate the aggressive ways in which food producers market high-energy, ...
Maccarrone M - - 2005
Marijuana and cannabinoids have been shown to exert profound effects on hypothalamic regulatory functions and reproduction in both experimental animals and humans. Here we review the role of (endo)cannabinoids in the regulation of appetite and food intake. There is converging evidence that the hypothalamic endocannabinoid system changes after leptin treatment. ...
Marceau Picard - - 2005
Convinced that morbid obesity was not due to food excess but rather to a metabolic disorder, we searched in the literature for data in favor of a metabolic disorder. We have found evidence in support of the thesis that the cause of morbid obesity is the inability to burn excessive ...
Strader April D - - 2005
Despite dramatic fluctuations in calorie intake, animals maintain a very stable body weight. The reason is that energy intake and expenditure are precisely matched. Long-term regulation of energy balance is dependent on the coordination and interpretation of signals such as those given by insulin and leptin indicating sufficient long-term energy ...
Felipe Francisco - - 2005
Retinoic acid (RA) administration and chronic vitamin A supplementation were reported to inhibit adipose tissue leptin expression in rodents, but the impact of this effect on food intake and its relationship with changes of body adiposity was not analyzed. Here, we have studied the effects of RA administration at three ...
Fulton Stephanie - - 2004
The rewarding effect produced by electrically stimulating certain sites in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) can be potentiated by food restriction and body weight loss in lean rats. Central leptin and insulin administration can suppress the rewarding impact of the stimulation. To determine whether there are additional peripheral signals that mediate ...
Unger Jennifer B - - 2004
Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2004
The new lifestyle in the modern world is causing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated health problems. Increased availability of palatable and energy dense foods, combined with a lack of physical activity overpower a homeostatic regulatory system that evolved to survive periods of famine rather than ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2004
The increased incidence of obesity makes it imperative to understand the regulation of food intake and body weight. We review the signals that interact with the brain to control energy homeostasis, i.e. energy intake and expenditure. Three broad categories can be distinguished. Signals generated in the gastrointestinal tract during meals ...
Mistry Anahita M - - 2004
Leptin inhibits food intake and lowers plasma insulin concentrations. This study was designed to determine whether leptin acts independent of food-intake regulation to affect meal-induced increases in plasma insulin concentrations. Leptin-deficient, Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice were administered 1 microg leptin intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or intraperitoneally. Food intake and plasma insulin concentrations of mice ...
Dhillo W S - - 2004
Obesity has been described as the greatest current threat to human health. In order to design drugs to target obesity, it is essential to understand its physiology and pathophysiology. Several peptides synthesised in the gastrointestinal tract which affect food intake have been identified including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) ...
Caroli M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of television as tool for childhood obesity prevention. METHOD: Review of the available literature about the relationship between television and childhood obesity, eating habits and body shape perception. RESULTS: The reviewed studies showed the following: television watching replaces more vigorous activities; there is a positive ...
Maddock Jay - - 2004
PURPOSE: Obesity accounts for approximately 300,000 deaths a year in the United States, and prevalence rates have been increasing over the past decade. The nutrition environment may be contributing to this epidemic. This study examined the relationship between fast food restaurants and obesity on a state-wide basis. DESIGN: A one-time ...
Stubbs Christina O - - 2004
Recent data from Australia, the United States and Europe show increased self-reported energy intake associated with obesity, in contrast to earlier suggestions that the obesity epidemic has occurred despite minimal or no increase in per capita energy intake from food. The effect of increased energy intake is compounded by sedentary ...
Buchholz Andrea C - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a common secondary complication of chronic spinal cord injury and is associated with adverse metabolic sequelae. Because positive energy balance is the fundamental cause of obesity, we herein review the current knowledge pertaining to total daily energy expenditure, including resting metabolic rate, the thermic effect ...
Small Caroline J - - 2004
Many peptides are synthesised and released from the gastrointestinal tract. Whilst their roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function have been known for some time, it is now evident that they also influence eating behaviour and thus potential anti obesity targets. Peptide YY (PYY) is released post prandially from the gastrointestinal ...
Sea Mandy Man-Mei - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Food variety is reported to be closely associated with body fatness in Caucasians. The association has not been examined in a Chinese population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between food variety and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese adults. DESIGN: One hundred and twenty Hong Kong Chinese adults (aged ...
Snoek Harriëtte M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat foods. DESIGN: Sensory-specific satiety was measured in 21 ...
Elliott Joanne C - - 2004
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates feeding and increases body weight in rodents. We studied the role of the system in energy homeostasis and its regulation by the satiety signals, leptin and insulin. We used real-time PCR to measure the hypothalamic expression of MCH and its receptor ...
Duff E - - 2004
Recent findings show that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leptin have similar effects on food intake and body weight, suggesting possible overlapping mechanisms. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of leptin results in adipose tissue apoptosis. To determine if CNTF has similar activity, male Sprague Dawley rats implanted with lateral cerebroventricular cannulas were ...
Chapman Ian McPhee - - 2004
Appetite and food intake decrease with normal ageing, predisposing to the development of under-nutrition. Under-nutrition is common in older people and has been implicated in the development and progression of chronic diseases commonly affecting the elderly, as well as in increasing mortality. An understanding of the factors that contribute to ...
Kowalski Timothy J - - 2004
The compelling genetic and pharmacological evidence implicating melanin-concentrating hormone-1 receptor (MCH-1R) signalling in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure has generated a great deal of interest by pharmaceutical companies for the discovery of MCH-1R antagonists, evidenced by the increased number of patents describing MCH-1R antagonists for the treatment ...
McDuffie Jennifer R - - 2004
To examine leptin's role in human appetite regulation, we studied recombinant methionyl human leptin's effects on satiation and satiety in a model of leptin insufficiency, lipodystrophy. Eight females with hypoleptinemia and lipodystrophy were given sc injections of A-100 (maximal dose, 200% of that predicted to normalize serum leptin) for 4 ...
Varma Amit - - 2004
We investigated the effect of daily intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin administration (neonatal age 2-7 days) on hypothalamic neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) that regulate food intake, body weight (BW) gain, and the metabolic/hormonal profile in suckling (8 and 21 days) and adult rat (35, 60, 90, and 120 days). ICV leptin ...
Speakman John R - - 2004
Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. It develops because of a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure that results from behavior (feeding behavior and time spent active) and physiology (resting metabolism and expenditure when active). Both of these traits ...
Bray George A - - 2004
The epidemic of obesity is worldwide. It will be followed by an epidemic of diabetes. Although there is a genetic basis for obesity and diabetes, the current epidemic reflects the failure of our ancient genes to cope with a modern toxic environment. To put it another way, the genetic background ...
Gutzwiller Jean-Pierre - - 2004
New information regarding gastrointestinal mechanisms that participate in the control of food intake has extended our understanding of appetite control. Although each new signaling pathway discovered in the gut is a potential target for drug development in the treatment of obesity, the growing number of such signaling molecules indicates that ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2004
The traditional view of palatability was that it reflected some underlying nutritional deficit and was part of a homeostatically driven motivational system. However, this idea does not fit with the common observation that palatability can lead to short-term overconsumption. Here, we attempt to re-evaluate the basis of palatability, first by ...
Small Caroline J - - 2004
Obesity is the main cause of premature death in the UK. Worldwide its prevalence is accelerating. It has been hypothesized that a gut nutriment sensor signals to appetite centres in the brain to reduce food intake after meals. Gut hormones have been identified as an important mechanism for this. Ghrelin ...
Tschöp M - - 2004
Batterham et al. report that the gut peptide hormone PYY3-36 decreases food intake and body-weight gain in rodents, a discovery that has been heralded as potentially offering a new therapy for obesity. However, we have been unable to replicate their results. Although the reasons for this discrepancy remain undetermined, an ...
Cassy S - - 2004
The acute effect of leptin on the regulation of food intake was investigated in layer and broiler chickens. In an initial study, we observed that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant chicken leptin (1 mg/kg BW) dramatically reduced (38%) food intake in 56-day-old layer chickens, more moderately reduced (15%) food ...
Bray George A - - 2004
Obesity results when the energy intake exceeds expenditure for a long period. The first law of thermodynamics, which describes this relationship, does not provide insight into the failures to couple energy intake and expenditure. Research over the past two decades has provided an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about the physiological ...
Davey R C - - 2004
Traditional treatment strategies and public health interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of obesity are proving inadequate at controlling the global epidemic of this condition. The main focus of any intervention should be on preventing small excesses of weight, which lead to large weight gain over time, as once a ...
Chou Shin-Yi - - 2004
This paper examines the factors that may be responsible for the 50% increase in the number of obese adults in the US since the late 1970s. We employ the 1984-1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, augmented with state level measures pertaining to the per capita number of fast-food and full-service ...
Piccione Giuseppe - - 2004
The hormone leptin is secreted by white adipocytes and regulates food intake and energy expenditure in rodents and humans. The goal of the present study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm of serum leptin in horses and its dependence on fasting and physical exercise. A robust daily ...
Sánchez Juana - - 2004
We investigated diurnal changes in leptin and ghrelin levels in the stomach and in the systemic circulation and their relation to food intake rhythms in Wistar rats housed at 22 degrees C with a 12-h light/dark cycle and free access to food and water. Animals were sacrificed every 3 h ...
Bouret Sebastien G - - 2004
In adult mammals, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts on the brain to reduce food intake by regulating the activity of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we report that neural projection pathways from the ARH are permanently disrupted in leptin-deficient (Lepob/Lepob) mice and leptin treatment in ...
Halford Jason C G - - 2004
The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non-food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, ...
Bray George A - - 2004
Obesity is a major epidemic, but its causes are still unclear. In this article, we investigate the relation between the intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and the development of obesity. We analyzed food consumption patterns by using US Department of Agriculture food consumption tables from 1967 to 2000. The ...
Martínez-Merlos M T - - 2004
Digestive and metabolic processes are entrained by restricted feeding (RFS) schedules and are thought to be potential elements of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). Due to the close relationship of leptin with metabolic regulation and because leptin is a relevant communication signal of the individual's peripheral metabolic condition with the central ...
Wang Gene-Jack - - 2004
The increased incidence of obesity most likely reflects changes in the environment that had made food more available and palatable. Here we assess the response of the human brain to the presentation of appetitive food stimuli during food presentation using PET and FDG. Metabolic changes in response to food presentation ...
Druce Maralyn R - - 2004
The gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas release hormones regulating satiety and body weight. Ghrelin stimulates appetite, and glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and pancreatic polypeptide inhibit appetite. These gut hormones act to markedly alter food intake in humans and rodents. Obesity is the current major cause of premature death ...
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